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Cryptocurrency economics

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The rate at which the cryptocurrency industry is growing is earth-shattering and this can be confirmed by early adopters that became rich overnight and found opportunities to grow financially. Bitcoin, the most famous of these cryptocurrencies, has already permitted many people and companies to develop and flourish, while many also rely on trading as their source of income.

The economy is slowly shifting to adapt to these needs and cryptocurrencies have a great potential in satisfying them. More than a third of the world population does not have access to basic banking services that can help them out in case of a personal financial crisis - loans, checking accounts and the list can go on. These people that in most cases are already financially disadvantaged typically resort to doubtful and dangerous lending practices.

The interest rate of these practices is anything but fair, which consequently leads to more instability among the people who requested the loan. This is where cryptocurrencies come in with their high volatility and ease-of-use. There are now many apps and programs that facilitate the use of cryptocurrencies and bring them closer to the wider audience.

The use of technology will facilitate a financial revolution that will leave everyone more financially connected, empowered and enabled. There is no need for employee wages, utility bills or rent to be paid, so these savings naturally morph into low transaction fees. This in turn encourages more and more people to trust these new financial tools and start transactioning, allowing for the global economy to be more closely intertwined. And depending on the broker you choose, you can even trade with no minimum deposit requirements - as offered by CryptoRocket , for example.

Since all blockchain and cryptocurrencies transactions are automated and digitized, they are all tracked in a distributed ledger. The best part about it is that it cannot be manipulated by either people or companies, which greatly diminishes the risk of fraud and corruption. This means that underdeveloped countries also have a greater chance of entering the financial transactions game and boost their own economy and social prospects.

BitPesa is one such company that helps business owners in Africa make financial transactions with European, American and Asian companies. The aim is to help small and medium business everywhere get better financial coverage and a liberated financial connection with the rest of the world.

The speed at which cryptocurrencies are taking over is a clear indicator that traditional financial institutions can no longer hold the fort so well and that other financial needs are arising and need to be addressed. Similarly, the world is facing a growing need to tear down borders, in search of a complete social and financial inclusion - this blockchain technology has everything it needs to address such issues.

It will only be a matter of time until these cryptocurrencies definitively find a way into our lives, shaping them for the better, with economic growth and inclusion in mind. Millions of people will now have the opportunity to invest, send money across borders, save money and start a business thanks to the amazing possibilities that cryptocurrencies bring to the table. Carlo R. De Meijer. Blog article. News in your inbox For Finextra's free daily newsletter, breaking news and flashes and weekly job board.

Classification of bitcoin by the United States government is to date unclear with multiple conflicting rulings. In Judge Amos L. Espinoza in money-laundering charges he faced involving his use of bitcoin. Judge Pooler stated "Bitcoin may have some attributes in common with what we commonly refer to as money, but differ in many important aspects, they are certainly not tangible wealth and cannot be hidden under a mattress like cash and gold bars. They therefore function as pecuniary resources and are used as a medium of exchange and a means of payment.

Treasury categorizes bitcoin as a decentralized virtual currency. The South African Revenue Service , [17] the legislation of Canada, [18] the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic [19] and several others classify bitcoin as an intangible asset.

The Bundesbank says that bitcoin is not a virtual currency or digital money. It recommends using the term "crypto token. The People's Bank of China has stated that bitcoin "is fundamentally not a currency but an investment target". Journalists and academics also debate what to call bitcoin. Some media outlets do make a distinction between "real" money and bitcoins, [22] while others call bitcoin real money. In addition to the above, bitcoin is also characterized as a payment system. According to research produced by Cambridge University in , there are between 2.

The number of active users has grown significantly since there were 0. Bitcoins can be bought and sold both on- and offline. Participants in online exchanges offer bitcoin buy and sell bids. Bitcoin kiosks are machines connected to the Internet, allowing the insertion of cash in exchange for bitcoins. According to Mark T. Attempting to explain the high volatility, a group of Japanese scholars stated that there is no stabilization mechanism. There are uses where volatility does not matter, such as online gambling, tipping, and international remittances.

The price of bitcoins has gone through various cycles of appreciation and depreciation referred to by some as bubbles and busts. In particular, bitcoin mining companies, which are essential to the currency's underlying technology, are flashing warning signs. Economic theory suggests that the volatility of the price of bitcoin will drop when business and consumer usage of bitcoin increases.

This is a form of Metcalfe's law and suggests that the network was demonstrating network effects proportional to its level of user adoption. The investors Warren Buffett and George Soros have respectively characterized it as a "mirage" [60] and a "bubble"; [61] while the business executive Jack Ma has called it a "bubble".

In , Nobel laureate Robert J. Shiller stated that bitcoin "exhibited many of the characteristics of a speculative bubble"; [63] in , Shiller wrote that bitcoin was the best current example of a speculative bubble. Economist John Quiggin in said "bitcoins are the most demonstrably valueless financial asset ever created". Nobel laureate Paul Krugman wrote in that bitcoin is "a bubble wrapped in techno-mysticism inside a cocoon of libertarian ideology".

He criticized it as a very slow and expensive means of payment, used mostly to buy blackmarket goods, without a "tether to reality". Nobel laureate Richard Thaler emphasizes the irrationality in the bitcoin market that has led to the bubble, demonstrating the irrationality with the example of firms that have added the word blockchain to their names which have then had large increases in their stock price.

The extremely high volatility in bitcoin's price also is due to irrationality according to Thaler. Hart cited Christopher Sims 's work showing no intrinsic value to bitcoin. Heckman compared bitcoin to the tulip bubble. Deaton pointed to bitcoin's use by criminals. Professor Nouriel Roubini of New York University has called bitcoin the "mother of all bubbles", [71] [72] writing that the underlying blockchain technology has "massive obstacles standing in its way", including a lack of "common and universal protocols" of the kind that enabled the early Internet.

Early claims that bitcoin was a bubble focused on the lack of any intrinsic value of bitcoin. He stated "You really have to stretch your imagination to infer what the intrinsic value of Bitcoin is. I haven't been able to do it. In Greenspan compared bitcoin to the Continental dollar , which ultimately collapsed.

He said "Humans buy all sorts of things that aren't worth anything. People gamble in casinos when the odds are against them. It has never stopped anybody. Former Fed Chair Ben Bernanke in and outgoing Fed Chair Janet Yellen in have both expressed concerns about the stability of bitcoin's price and its lack of use as a medium of transactions.

Louis , stated, "Is bitcoin a bubble? Yes, if bubble is defined as a liquidity premium. American investor Warren Buffett warned investors about bitcoin in , "Stay away from it. It's a mirage, basically. He believes that bitcoin is a non-productive asset. Buffett's close associate Charlie Munger is even more direct in his disdain. Trading cryptocurrencies is "just dementia" according to Munger.

Bitcoin is "worthless" and a "turd". Did I make myself clear? There is nothing to support bitcoin except the hope that you will sell it to someone for more than you paid for it. George Soros , answering an audience question after a speech in Davos, Switzerland in , said that cryptocurrencies are not a store of value but are an economic bubble. Nevertheless, they may not crash due to the rising influence of dictators trying to "build a nest egg abroad".

James Chanos , known as the "dean of the short sellers", believes that bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are a mania and useful only for tax avoidance or otherwise hiding income from the government. Bitcoin "is simply a security speculation game masquerading as a technological breakthrough in monetary policy". Two lead software developers of bitcoin, Gavin Andresen [87] and Mike Hearn, [88] have warned that bubbles may occur.

On 13 September , Jamie Dimon referred to bitcoin to as a "fraud", [89] comparing it to pyramid schemes , and stated that JPMorgan Chase would fire employees trading while the company released a report critical of the cryptocurrency. Some journalists, [94] economists, [95] [96] and the central bank of Estonia [97] have voiced concerns that bitcoin is a Ponzi scheme.

In , Eric Posner , a law professor at the University of Chicago, stated that "a real Ponzi scheme takes fraud; bitcoin, by contrast, seems more like a collective delusion. In billionaire Howard Marks investor referred to bitcoin as a pyramid scheme. Zero Hedge claimed that the same day Dimon made his statement, JP Morgan also purchased a large amount of bitcoins for its clients.

Financial journalists and analysts, economists, and investors have attempted to predict the possible future value of bitcoin. In April , economist John Quiggin stated, "bitcoins will attain their true value of zero sooner or later, but it is impossible to say when". In December , finance professor Mark T. The "death" of bitcoin has been proclaimed numerous times. Forbes magazine declared bitcoin "dead" in June , [] followed by Gizmodo Australia in August Peter Greenhill, Director of E-Business Development for the Isle of Man, commenting on the obituaries paraphrased Mark Twain saying "reports of bitcoin's death have been greatly exaggerated".

Some economists have responded positively to bitcoin while others have expressed skepticism. Velde, Senior Economist at the Chicago Fed , described it as "an elegant solution to the problem of creating a digital currency". Louis , stated that bitcoin is a threat to the establishment, which he argues is a good thing for the Federal Reserve System and other central banks , because it prompts these institutions to operate sound policies.

Free software movement activist Richard Stallman has criticized the lack of anonymity and called for reformed development. Marcus calls bitcoin a "great place to put assets" but claims it will not be a currency until price volatility is reduced. In November , three US government officials testified at senate hearings that "Bitcoin has legitimate uses". According to the Washington Post , "Most of the other witnesses echoed those sentiments.

Most bitcoin transactions take place on a cryptocurrency exchange , rather than being used in transactions with merchants. Prices are not usually quoted in units of bitcoin and many trades involve one, or sometimes two, conversions into conventional currencies. In and bitcoin's acceptance among major online retailers included only three of the top U. Bitcoin is "not actually usable" for retail transactions because of high costs and the inability to process chargebacks , according to Nicholas Weaver, a researcher quoted by Bloomberg.

High price volatility and transaction fees make paying for small retail purchases with bitcoin impractical, according to economist Kim Grauer. Bitcoin started to be accepted also for real estate payments in late The first recorded sale of a house in exchange for bitcoin happened in September , when Texas based Kuper Sotheby's International Realty brokered the deal using bitpay.

Two months later, a first recorded sale of apartment in the world and first real estate property in Europe was sold for bitcoin in November in the Czech republic. The Czech real estate agency HOME Hunters brokered a deal of a 3-room apartment for a Russian buyer without using a payment service providers at all.

Some U. Merchants accepting bitcoin, such as Dish Network, use the services of bitcoin payment service providers such as BitPay or Coinbase. When a customer pays in bitcoin, the payment service provider accepts the bitcoin on behalf of the merchant, directly converts it, and sends the obtained amount to merchant's bank account, charging a fee of less than 1 percent for the service.

Due to the design of bitcoin, all retail figures are only estimates. Bitcoin companies have had difficulty opening traditional bank accounts because lenders have been leery of bitcoin's links to illicit activity. The request was motivated by oil company's goal to pay its suppliers. Some Argentinians have bought bitcoins to protect their savings against high inflation or the possibility that governments could confiscate savings accounts.

Other methods of investment are bitcoin funds. The first regulated bitcoin fund was established in Jersey in July and approved by the Jersey Financial Services Commission. Forbes named bitcoin the best investment of To improve access to price information and increase transparency, on 30 April Bloomberg LP announced plans to list prices from bitcoin companies Kraken and Coinbase on its , subscription financial data terminals.

The number of bitcoin millionaires is uncertain as people can have more than one wallet. Bitcoin is useful for crowdfunding. He was shown by local TV company with a broadsheet "Hi mom, send bitcoins". The decentralization of money offered by virtual currencies like bitcoin has its theoretical roots in the Austrian school of economics , [] especially with Friedrich von Hayek in his book Denationalisation of Money: The Argument Refined , in which he advocates a complete free market in the production, distribution and management of money to end the monopoly of central banks.

Bitcoin appeals to tech-savvy libertarians , because it so far exists outside the institutional banking system and the control of governments. Bitcoin's appeal reaches from left wing critics, "who perceive the state and banking sector as representing the same elite interests, [ From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For broader coverage of this topic, see Bitcoin. This article's lead section may not adequately summarize its contents.

To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines , please consider modifying the lead to provide an accessible overview of the article's key points in such a way that it can stand on its own as a concise version of the article.

September Further information: cryptocurrency crash. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Price of bitcoin, [b] logarithmic scale. Annual volatility of bitcoin [38]. Further information: Cryptocurrency bubble. In securities , the analogical form has been described as book entry , paperless , digital , electronic , uncertificated or dematerialized.

Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 28 April The Economist. The Economist Newspaper Limited. Retrieved 21 October Mercatus Center. George Mason University. Retrieved 22 October The New York Times. Retrieved 6 May A type of digital cash, bitcoins were invented in and can be sent directly to anyone, anywhere in the world.

Daily Tech. Archived from the original on 20 January Retrieved 30 September The New Yorker. Retrieved 22 December Standards vary, but there seems to be a consensus forming around Bitcoin, capitalized, for the system, the software, and the network it runs on, and bitcoin, lowercase, for the currency itself. The Guardian. Retrieved 8 July USA Today.

Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 13 January Money from nothing. Chronic deflation may keep Bitcoin from displacing its rivals". Retrieved 25 March Retrieved 3 January Bloomberg L. Retrieved 31 December Retrieved 8 August Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. Retrieved 1 June Sars is coming for you". Business Insider. Retrieved 22 May Library of Congress. June Retrieved 14 August Retrieved 11 April The central bank will keep watching risks from Bitcoin, which is fundamentally not a currency but an investment target, Sheng Songcheng, head of the monetary authority's statistics department, told reporters in Beijing on Jan.

Bloomberg View. Bloomberg LP. A principal knock on bitcoins has been the claim that they are inherently insecure. The principal defense has been that they are as secure as "real" currency. The Wall Street Journal.

Retrieved 27 January February Retrieved 3 June Retrieved 28 August Cambridge University. Retrieved 14 April Business Wire. Retrieved 5 November Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 31 October Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. August Retrieved 10 July Bitcoin Magazine. Retrieved 15 December Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 24 October Retrieved 13 October Boston University.

Retrieved 11 November Social Science Research Network. There is no price stabilization mechanism. Retrieved 7 January Retrieved 15 November Casey 30 April

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In addition, skeptics assert that cryptocurrencies are currently overvalued and under-regulated. The invention and proliferation of cryptocurrencies present numerous risks and related policy issues. Cryptocurrencies, because they are pseudonymous and decentralized, could facilitate money laundering and other crimes, raising the issue of whether existing regulations appropriately guard against this possibility.

Many consumers may lack familiarity with cryptocurrencies and how they work and derive value. In addition, although cryptocurrency ledgers appear safe from manipulation, individuals and exchanges have been hacked or targeted in scams involving cryptocurrencies. Accordingly, critics of cryptocurrencies have raised concerns that existing laws and regulations do not adequately protect consumers dealing in cryptocurrencies.

At the same time, proponents of cryptocurrencies warn against over-regulating what they argue is a technology that will yield large benefits. Finally, if cryptocurrency becomes a widely used form of money, it could affect the ability of the Federal Reserve and other central banks to implement and transmit monetary policy, leading some observers to argue that central banks should develop their own digital currencies as opposed to a cryptocurrency ; others oppose this idea.

The th Congress has shown significant interest in these and other issues relating to cryptocurrencies. For example, the House has passed several bills H. How well cryptocurrencies can serve those functions relative to existing money and payment systems likely will play a large part in determining cryptocurrencies' future value and importance.

In , an unknown computer programmer or group of programmers using the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto created a computer platform that would allow users to make valid transfers of digital representations of value. A cryptocurrency is digital money in an electronic payment system in which payments are validated by a decentralized network of system users and cryptographic protocols instead of by a centralized intermediary such as a bank.

Since , cryptocurrencies have gone from little-known, niche technological curiosities to rapidly proliferating financial instruments that are the subject of intense public interest. For example, cryptocurrencies have been sold to investors to raise funding through initial coin offerings ICOs , 4 and the terms of certain derivatives are now based on cryptocurrencies.

When analyzing the public policy implications posed by cryptocurrencies, it is important to keep in mind what these currencies are expressly designed and intended to be—alternative electronic payment systems. The purpose of this report is to assess how and how well cryptocurrencies perform this function, and in so doing to identify possible benefits, challenges, risks, and policy issues surrounding cryptocurrencies.

It then describes the features and characteristics of cryptocurrencies and examines the potential benefits they offer and the challenges they face regarding their use as money. The report also examines certain risks posed by cryptocurrencies when they are used as money and related policy issues, focusing in particular on two issues: cryptocurrencies' potential role in facilitating criminal activity and concerns about protections for consumers who use these currencies.

Finally, the report analyzes cryptocurrencies' impact on monetary policy and the possibility that central banks could issue their own, government-backed digital currencies. Where this report examines the regulation of cryptocurrencies, it generally focuses on how they are regulated in the United States.

Money exists because it serves a useful economic purpose: it facilitates the exchange of goods and services. Without it, people would have to engage in a barter economy , wherein people trade goods and services for other goods and services. In a barter system, every exchange requires a double coincidence of wants —each party must possess the exact good or be offering the exact service that the other party wants.

In turn, the rancher, tailor, and dentist would have to make the same search and negotiation with each other to satisfy their wants. Wants are satisfied more efficiently if all members of a society agree they will accept money —a mutually recognized representation of value—for payment, be that ounces of gold, a government-endorsed slip of paper called a dollar, or a digital entry in an electronic ledger.

How well something serves as money depends on how well it serves as 1 a medium of exchange, 2 a unit of account, and 3 a store of value. To function as a medium of exchange , the thing must be tradable and agreed to have value.

To function as unit of account , the thing must act as a good measurement system. To function as a store of value , the thing must be able to purchase approximately the same value of goods and services at some future date as it can purchase now. Returning to the example above, could society decide potatoes are money? Conceivably, yes. A potato has intrinsic value this report will examine value in more detail in the following section, " Traditional Money " , as it provides nourishment.

However, a potato's tradability is limited: many people would find it impractical to carry around sacks of potatoes for daily transactions or to buy a car for many thousands of pounds of potatoes. A measurement system based on potatoes is also problematic.

Each potato has a different size and degree of freshness, so to say something is worth "one potato" is imprecise and variable. In addition, a potato cannot be divided without changing its value. Two halves of a potato are worth less than a whole potato—the exposed flesh will soon turn brown and rot—so people would be unlikely to agree to prices in fractions of potato.

The issue of freshness also limits potatoes' ability to be a store of value; a potato eventually sprouts eyes and spoils, and so must be spent quickly or it will lose value. In contrast, an ounce of gold and a dollar bill can be carried easily in a pocket and thus are tradeable. Each unit is identical and can be divided into fractions of an ounce or cents, respectively, making both gold and dollars effective units of account.

Gold is an inert metal and a dollar bill, when well cared for, will not degrade substantively for years, meaning can both function as a store of value. Likewise, with the use of digital technology, electronic messages to change entries in a ledger can be sent easily by swiping a card or pushing a button and can be denominated in identical and divisible units.

Those units could have a stable value, as their number stays unchanging in an account on a ledger. The question becomes how does a lump of metal, a thing called a dollar, and the numbers on a ledger come to be deemed valuable by society, as has been accomplished in traditional monetary systems. Money has been in existence throughout history.

However, how that money came to have value, how it was exchanged, and what roles government and intermediaries such as banks have played have changed over time. This section examines three different monetary systems with varying degrees of government and bank involvement. Early forms of money were often things that had intrinsic value, such as precious metals e. Part of their value was derived from the fact that they could be worked into aesthetically pleasing objects.

More importantly, other physical characteristics of these metals made them well suited to perform the three functions of money and so created the economic efficiency societies needed: 11 these metals are elemental and thus an amount of the pure material is identical to a different sample of the same amount; they are malleable and thus easy divisible; and they are chemically inert and thus do not degrade. In addition, they are scarce and difficult to extract from the earth, which is vital to them having and maintaining value.

Sand also could perform the functions of money and can be worked into aesthetically pleasing glass. However, if sand were money, then people would quickly gather vast quantities of it and soon even low-cost goods would be priced at huge amounts of sand. Even when forms of money had intrinsic value, governments played a role in assigning value to money.

For example, government mints would make coins of precious metals with a government symbol, which validated that these particular samples were of some verified amount and purity. In contrast to money with intrinsic value, fiat m oney has no intrinsic value but instead derives its value by government decree. If a government is sufficiently powerful and credible, it can declare that some thing—a dollar, a euro, a yen, for example—shall be money.

In practice, these decrees can take a number of forms, but generally they involve a mandate that the money be used for some economic activity, such as paying taxes or settling debts. Thus, if members of society want to participate in the relevant economic activities, it behooves them to accept the money as payment in their dealings. In addition to such decrees, the government generally controls the supply of the money to ensure it is sufficiently scarce to retain value yet in ample-enough supply to facilitate economic activity.

Modern monies are generally fiat money, including the U. The dollar is legal tender in the United States, meaning parties are obligated to accept the dollar to settle debts, and U. In the United States, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System maintains the value of the dollar by setting monetary policy. In addition, the Federal Reserve operates key electronic payment systems, including those involving interbank transfers. Banks have played a role in another evolution of money: providing an alternative to the physical exchange of tangible currency between two parties.

Verifying the valid exchange of physical currency is relatively easy. The payer shows the payee he or she is in fact in possession of the money, and the transfer is valid the moment the money passes into the payee's possession.

This system is not without problems, though. Physically possessing money subjects it to theft, misplacement, or destruction through accident. From early in history, banks have offered services to accomplish valid transfers of value between parties who are not in physical proximity and do not necessarily trust each other.

Customers give banks their money for, among other reasons, secure safekeeping and the ability to send payment to a payee located somewhere else originally using paper checks or bills of exchange. Historically and today, maintaining accurate ledgers of accounts is a vital tool for providing these services. It allows people to hold money as numerical data stored in a ledger instead of as a physical thing that can be lost or stolen.

In the simplest form, a payment system works by a bank recording how much money an individual has access to and, upon instruction, making appropriate additions and reductions to that amount. The mechanics of the modern payment system, in which instructions are sent and records are stored electronically, are covered in more detail in the following section, " The Electronic Exchange of Money. Otherwise, an individual's money could be lost or stolen if a bank records the payer's account as having an inaccurately low amount or transfers value without permission.

A number of mechanisms can create trust in banks. For example, a bank has a market incentive to be accurate, because a bank that does not have a good reputation for protecting customers' money and processing transactions accurately will lose customers. In addition, governments typically subject banks to laws and regulations designed in part to ensure that banks are run well and that people's money is safe in them.

Today, money is widely exchanged electronically, but electronic payments systems can be subject to certain difficulties related to lack of scarcity a digital file can be copied many times over, retaining the exact information as its predecessor and lack of trust between parties. Electronic transfers of money are subject to what observers refer to as the double spending problem. In an electronic transfer of money, a payer may wish to send a digital file directly to a payee in the hopes that the file will act as a transfer of value.

However, if the payee cannot confirm that the payer has not sent the same file to multiple other payees, the transfer is problematic. Because money in such a system could be double or any number of times spent, the money would not retain its value. As described in the preceding section, this problem traditionally has been resolved by involving at least one centralized, trusted intermediary—such as a private bank, government central bank, or other financial institution—in electronic transfers of money.

The trusted intermediaries maintain private ledgers of accounts recording how much money each participant holds. To make a payment, an electronic message or messages is sent to an intermediary or to and between various intermediaries, instructing each to make the necessary changes to its ledgers. The intermediary or intermediaries validate the transaction, ensure the payer has sufficient funds for the payment, deduct the appropriate amount from the payer's account, and add that amount to the payee's account.

Those banks then make the appropriate changes to their account ledgers possibly using the Federal Reserve's payment system reflecting that value has been transferred from the purchaser's account to the seller's account. Significant costs and physical infrastructure underlie systems for electronic money transfers to ensure the systems' integrity, performance, and availability.

For example, payment system providers operate and maintain vast electronic networks to connect retail locations with banks, and the Federal Reserve operates and maintains networks to connect banks to itself and each other. In general, these intermediaries are highly regulated to ensure safety, profitability, consumer protection, and financial stability. Intermediaries recoup the costs associated with these systems and earn profits by charging fees directly when the system is used such as the fees a merchant pays to have a card reading machine and on each transaction or by charging fees for related services such as checking account fees.

In addition, intermediaries generally are required to provide certain protections to consumers involved in electronic transactions. Notably, certain individuals may lack access to electronic payment systems.

To use an electronic payment system, a consumer or merchant generally must have access to a bank account or some retail payment service, which some may find cost prohibitive or geographically inconvenient, resulting in underbanked or unbanked populations i. The use of electronic payment services generates a huge amount of data about an individual's financial transactions. This information could be accessed by the bank, law enforcement provided proper procedures are followed , 32 or nefarious actors provided they are capable of circumventing the intermediaries' security measures.

Cryptocurrencies—such as Bitcoin, Ether, and Litecoin—provide an alternative to this traditional electronic payment system. As noted above, cryptocurrency acts as money in an electronic payment system in which a network of computers, rather than a single third-party intermediary, validates transactions. In general, these electronic payment systems use public ledgers that allow individuals to establish an account with a pseudonymous name known to the entire network—or an address corresponding to a public key—and a passcode or private key that is paired to the public key and known only to the account holder.

The buying party will unlock the cryptocurrency they will use as payment with their private key, allowing the selling party to lock it with their private key. In addition, certain companies offer applications or interfaces that users can download onto a device to make transacting in cryptocurrencies more user-friendly. Cryptocurrency platforms often use blockchain technology to validate changes to the ledgers.

Specifically, before any transaction is entered into the ledger and the ledger is irreversibly changed, some member of the network must validate the transaction. In certain cryptocurrency platforms, validation requires the member to solve an extremely difficult computational decryption.

Once the transaction is validated, it is entered into the ledger. These protocols secure each transaction by using digital signatures to validate the identity of the two parties involved and to validate that the entire ledger is secure so that any changes in the ledger are visible to all parties. In this system, parties that otherwise do not know each other can exchange something of value i. Cryptocurrency platforms often incentivize users to perform the functions necessary for validation by awarding them newly created units of the currency for successful computations often the first person to solve the problem is given the new units , although in some cases the payer or payee also is charged a fee that goes to the validating member.

In general, the rate at which new units are created—and therefore the total amount of currency in the system—is limited by the platform protocols designed by the creators of the cryptocurrency. Because users of the cryptocurrency platform must perform work to extract the scarce unit of value from the platform, much as people do with precious metals, it is said that these users mine the cryptocurrencies.

Alternatively, people can acquire cryptocurrency on certain exchanges that allow individuals to purchase cryptocurrency using official government-backed currencies or other cryptocurrencies. Cryptographers and computer scientists generally agree that cryptocurrency ledgers that use blockchain technology are mathematically secure and that it would be exceedingly difficult—approaching impossible—to manipulate them. However, hackers have exploited vulnerabilities in certain exchanges and individuals' devices to steal cryptocurrency from the exchange or individual.

Analyzing data about certain characteristics and the use of cryptocurrency would be helpful in measuring how well cryptocurrency functions as an alternative source of payment and thus its future prospects for functioning as money. However, conducting such an analysis currently presents challenges.

The decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies makes identifying authoritative sources of industry data difficult. In addition, the recent proliferation of cryptocurrency adds additional challenges to performing industry-wide analysis. Because of these challenges, an exhaustive quantitative analysis of the entire cryptocurrency industry is beyond the scope of this report. Instead, the report uses Bitcoin—the first and most well-known cryptocurrency, the total value of which accounts for almost two-thirds of the industry as a whole 42 —as an illustrative example.

Examining recent trends in Bitcoin prices, value in circulation, and number of transactions may shed some light on how well cryptocurrencies in general have been performing as an alternative payment system. The rapid appreciation in cryptocurrencies' value in likely contributed to the recent increase in public interest in these currencies. Since that time, the price of a Bitcoin remained volatile. Other major cryptocurrencies, such as Ether and Litecoin, have had similar price movements.

Figure 1. Cryptocurrency Values. Although these statistics drive interest in and are central to the analysis of cryptocurrencies as investments , they reveal little about the prevalence of cryptocurrencies' use as money. Recent volatility in the price of cryptocurrencies suggests they function poorly as a unit of account and a store of value two of the three functions of money discussed in " The Functions of Money ," above , an issue covered in the " Potential Challenges to Widespread Adoption " section of this report.

Nevertheless, the price or the exchange rate of a currency in dollars at any point in time rather than over time does not have a substantive influence on how well the currency serves the functions of money. The number of Bitcoin transactions, by contrast, can serve as an indicator—though a flawed one 46 —of the prevalence of the use of Bitcoin as money.

This number indicates how many times a day Bitcoins are transferred between accounts. One industry data source indicates that the number of Bitcoin transactions averaged about , per day globally in For example, the Automated Clearing House—an electronic payments network operated by the Federal Reserve Bank and the private company Electronic Payments Network—processed more than 69 million transactions per day on average in the fourth quarter of The previous section illustrates that the use of cryptocurrencies as money in a payment system is still quite limited compared with traditional systems.

However, the invention and growth in awareness of cryptocurrencies occurred only recently. Some observers assert that cryptocurrencies' potential benefits will be realized in the coming years or decades, which will lead to their widespread adoption. Later sections—" Potential Challenges to Widespread Adoption " and " Potential Risks Posed by Cryptocurrencies "—discuss certain potential challenges to widespread adoption of cryptocurrencies and some potential risks cryptocurrencies pose.

As discussed in the " The Electronic Exchange of Money " section, traditional monetary and electronic payment systems involve a number of intermediaries, such as government central banks and private financial institutions. To carry out transactions, these institutions operate and maintain extensive electronic networks and other infrastructure, employ workers, and require time to finalize transactions. To meet costs and earn profits, these institutions charge various fees to users of their systems.

Advocates of cryptocurrencies hope that a decentralized payment system operated through the internet will be less costly than the tradition al payment systems and existing infrastructures. Cryptocurrency proponents assert that cryptocurrency may provide an especially pronounced cost advantage over traditional payment systems for international money transfers and payments.

Sending money internationally generally involves further intermediation than domestic transfers, typically requiring transfers between banks and other money transmitters in different countries and possibly exchanges of one national currency for another. Proponents assert that cryptocurrencies could avoid these particular costs because cryptocurrency transactions take place over the internet—which is already global—and are not backed by government-fiat currencies.

Nevertheless, it is difficult to quantify how much traditional payment systems cost and what portion of those costs is passed on to consumers. Performing such a quantitative analysis is beyond the scope of this report. As discussed in the " Traditional Money " section, traditional payment systems require that government and financial institutions be credible and have people's trust.

Even if general trust in those institutions is sufficient to make them credible in a society, certain individuals may nevertheless mistrust them. For people who do not find various institutions sufficiently trustworthy, cryptocurrencies could provide a desirable alternative. In countries with advanced economies, such as the United States, mistrust may not be as prevalent although not wholly absent as in other countries.

Typically, developed economies are relatively stable and have relatively low inflation; often, they also have carefully regulated financial institutions and strong government institutions. Not all economies share these features. Thus, cryptocurrencies may experience more widespread adoption in countries with a higher degree of mistrust of existing systems than in countries where there is generally a high degree of trust in existing systems.

A person may mistrust traditional private financial institutions for a number of reasons. An individual may be concerned that an institution will go bankrupt or otherwise lose his or her money without adequately apprising him or her of such a risk or while actively misleading him or her about it. Financial institutions store this information and information about the transactions linked to this identity. Under certain circumstances, they may analyze or share this information, such as with a credit-reporting agency.

In some instances hackers have stolen personal information from financial institutions, causing concerns over how well these institutions can protect sensitive data. Certain individuals also may mistrust a government's willingness or ability to maintain a stable value of a fiat currency. Because fiat currency does not have intrinsic value and, historically, incidents of hyperinflation in certain countries have seen government-backed currencies lose most or nearly all of their value, some individuals may judge the probability of their fiat money losing a significant portion of its value to be undesirably high in some circumstances.

These individuals may place greater trust in a decentralized network using cryptographic protocols that limit the creation of new money than in government institutions. The appropriate policy approach to cryptocurrencies likely depends, in part, on how prevalent these currencies become. For cryptocurrencies to deliver the potential benefits mentioned above, people must use them as money to some substantive degree. After all, as money, cryptocurrencies would do little good if few people and businesses accept them as payment.

For this reason, currencies are subject to network effects , wherein their value and usefulness depends in part on how many people are willing to use them. Recall that how well cryptocurrency serves as money depends on how well it serves as 1 a medium of exchange, 2 a unit of account, and 3 a store of value. Several characteristics of cryptocurrency undermine its ability to serve these three interrelated functions in the United States and elsewhere. Currently, a relatively small number of businesses or individuals use or accept cryptocurrency for payment.

As discussed in the " The Price and Usage of Cryptocurrency " section, there were , transactions involving Bitcoin per day globally out of the billions of financial transactions that take place in , and a portion of those transactions involved people buying Bitcoins for the purposes of holding them as an investment rather than as payment for goods and services.

Unlike the dollar and most other government-backed currencies, cryptocurrencies are not legal tender, meaning creditors are not legally required to accept them to settle debts. As previously mentioned, the recent high volatility in the price of many cryptocurrencies undermines their ability to serve as a unit of account and a store of value. Cryptocurrencies can have significant value fluctuations within short periods of time; as a result, pricing goods and services in units of cryptocurrency would require frequent repricing and likely would cause confusion among buyers and sellers.

In comparison, the annualized inflation of prices in the U. Whether cryptocurrency systems are scalable —meaning their capacity can be increased in a cost-effective way without loss of functionality—is uncertain. As discussed in the " The Price and Usage of Cryptocurrency " section, the platform of the largest by a wide margin cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, processes a small fraction of the overall financial transactions parties engage in per day.

The overwhelming majority of such transactions are processed through established payment systems. As well, Bitcoin's processing speed is still comparatively slow relative to the nearly instant transaction speed many electronic payment methods, such as credit and debit cards, achieve.

For example, blocks of transactions are published to the Bitcoin ledger every 10 minutes, but because a limited number of transactions can be added in a block, it may take over an hour before an individual transaction is posted. Part of the reason for the relatively slow processing speed of certain cryptocurrency transactions is the large computational resources involved with mining—or validating—transactions.

When prices for cryptocurrencies were increasing rapidly, many miners were incentivized to participate in validating transactions, seeking to win the rights to publish the next block and collect any reward or fees attached to that block. This incentive led to an increasing number of miners and to additional investment in faster computers by new and existing miners.

The combination of more miners and more energy required to power their computers led to ballooning electricity requirements. However, as the prices of cryptocurrencies have deflated, validating cryptocurrency transactions has become a less rewarding investment for miners; consequently, fewer individuals participate in mining operations. The energy consumption required to run and cool the computers involved in cryptocurrency mining is substantial.

Some estimates indicate the daily energy needs of the Bitcoin network are comparable to the needs of a small country, such as Ireland. In general, when a buyer of a good or a service provided remotely sends a cryptocurrency to another account, that transaction is irreversible and made to a pseudonymous identity. Although a cryptocurrency platform validates that the currency has been transferred, the platform generally does not validate that a good or service has been delivered.

Unless a transfer is done face-to-face, it will involve some degree of trust between one party and the other or a trusted intermediary. If the buyer transfers the Bitcoin before she has received the item, she takes on the risk that the seller will never ship the item to her; if that happened, the buyer would have little, if any, recourse.

Conversely, if the seller ships the item before the buyer has transferred the Bitcoin, he assumes the risk that the buyer never will transfer the Bitcoin. These risks could act as a disincentive to parties considering using cryptocurrencies in certain transactions and thus could hinder cryptocurrencies' ability to act as a medium of exchange.

As mentioned in the " Banks: Transferring Value Through Intermediaries " section, sending cash to someone in another location presents a similar problem, which historically has been solved by using a trusted intermediary. In response to this problem, several companies offer cryptocurrency escrow services.

Typically, the escrow company holds the buyer's cryptocurrency until delivery is confirmed. Only then will the escrow company pass the cryptocurrency onto the seller. Although an escrow service may enable parties who otherwise do not trust each other to exchange cryptocurrency for goods and services, the use of such services reintroduces the need for a trusted third-party intermediary in cryptocurrency transactions.

As with the use of intermediaries in traditional electronic transactions discussed above, both a buyer and a seller in a cryptocurrency transaction would have to trust that the escrow company will not abscond with their cryptocurrency and is adequately protected against hacking. For cryptocurrencies to gain widespread acceptance as payment systems and displace existing traditional intermediaries, new procedures and intermediaries such as those described in this section may first need to achieve a sufficient level of trustworthiness and efficiency among the public.

If cryptocurrencies ultimately require their own system of intermediaries to function as money, questions may arise about whether this requirement defeats their original purpose. Policymakers developed most financial laws and regulations before the invention and subsequent growth of cryptocurrencies, which raises questions about whether existing laws and regulations appropriately and efficiently address the risks posed by cryptocurrency.

Some of the more commonly cited risks include the potential that cryptocurrencies will be used to facilitate criminal activity and the lack of consumer protections applicable to parties buying or using cryptocurrency. Each of these risks is discussed below. Criminals and terrorists are more likely to conduct business in cash and to hold cash as an asset than to use financial intermediaries such as banks, in part because cash is anonymous and allows them to avoid establishing relationships with and records at financial institutions that may be subject to anti-money laundering reporting and compliance requirements.

This marketplace and Bitcoin escrow service facilitated more than , illegal drug sales from approximately January to October , at which time the government shut down the website and arrested the individuals running the site. Criminal use of cryptocurrency does not necessarily mean the technology is a net negative for society, because the benefits it provides could exceed the societal costs of the additional crime facilitated by cryptocurrency.

In addition, law enforcement has existing authorities and abilities to mitigate the use of cryptocurrencies for the purposes of evading law enforcement. Recall that cryptocurrency platforms generally function as an immutable, public ledger of accounts and transactions. Thus, every transaction ever made by a member of the network is relatively easy to observe, and this characteristic can be helpful to law enforcement in tracking criminal finances.

Although the accounts may be identified with a pseudonym on the cryptocurrency platform, law enforcement can exercise methods involving analysis of transaction patterns to link those pseudonyms to real-life identities. For example, it may be possible to link a cryptocurrency public key with a cryptocurrency exchange customer.

In addition to law enforcement's abilities to investigate crime, the government has authorities to subject cryptocurrency exchanges to regulation related to reporting suspicious activity. The Department of the Treasury's Financial Crimes Enforcement Network FinCEN has issued guidance explaining how its regulations apply to the use of virtual currencies —a term that refers to a broader class of electronic money that includes cryptocurrencies. So far this standard has escalated, but many in the area are worried about mining pool attention.

Lately, the ghash. There is no evidence that the pool used its place to double invest, but many observers were alerted that it had been able to occur. Concentrated mining pools have advantages in addition to dangers. Within minutes of this realisation that there was a fork, the center programmers gathered in a chat room and determined that the system must revert to the 0.

Over the next few hours, they could confer with the significant mining pool operators and persuade them to switch back into 0. The fact that mining pools are relatively concentrated meant that it had been relatively easy to organize in the crisis. In about seven hours, the 0. Although it remains unclear if mt. Some Bitcoin websites temporarily suspended withdrawals while the problems were addressed from the core development group, which upgraded the Bitcoin software and helped teach the community regarding transaction malleability, which, when correctly understood, is a characteristic of Bitcoin, not an insect.

Read more about character of Bitcoin market here. Provide have made it some criticism from economists concerned about macroeconomic stabilization. Countercyclical inflationary stimulus is impossible. However, this criticism may be lost. Bitcoin is typically used as a medium of exchange without functioning as a unit of account; that is, transactions will be denominated in dollars or another currency, but payment will be produced using bitcoins.

Unless costs, wages and contracts come to be denominated in Bitcoin, we would expect use of Bitcoin to possess small cyclical effect. Cryptocurrencies have a number of properties which make them particularly useful as media of exchange, if not as units of account. Unlike paper money, they may be transacted online as well as in person, if an Internet connection exists.

Unlike credit cards, the system fee to get a simple cryptocurrency trade is voluntary and low; it is used to plagiarize fast processing of trades by the miners. Credit card networks typically cost a swipe fee about 3 percent of the value of the trade. On the Bitcoin network, trade fees are at most a few bucks. Some retailers utilize merchant services to take Bitcoin-denominated payments and have the identical amount of dollars deposited directly in their bank accounts.

Another feature that could entice merchants is that customers who disavow a buy cannot reverse most Bitcoin transactions, as they can credit card transactions. While cryptocurrency remains a niche payment mechanism and present monetary institutions remain dominant, experimentation In the borders of our current monetary system together with Bitcoin and other new. Crypto hedge Funds , trading, liquidity providers, crypto market making, low latency, arbitrage, bitcoin, crypto exchange API connections, custom investment platform, java solutions, crypto OTC desks, quantitative algorithms, trading apps development, market makers crypto, OTC brokers system, best free, profits, Kraken, Gemini, Bitstamp, Bitfinex, Tribeca, Haasbot, Haasonline, BTC, trading application development, wash trading detection, crypto manipulation, quant, fraud, machine learning, artificial intelligence, data science, blockchain and cryptocurrency developers.

We focus our discussion on two separate but interrelated techniques cryptocurrencies can be stated to be governed. Algorithmic governance Rules for what are considered valid cryptocurrency transactions are embedded in the peer-to-peer software that cryptocurrency miners and users run. Versus unit of account Provide have made it some criticism from economists concerned about macroeconomic stabilization.

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Susan Athey: The Economics of Bitcoin \u0026 Virtual Currency

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