This enables a mathematical analysis to be applied to the cases of single and double emitting layers in the OLED stack as well as to pattern measurements in air or inside the substrate. From the results, guidelines for optimum emitter - cathode separation and for selecting the best experimental approach are obtained. Limits for the maximum spatial resolution can be derived. We describe a new high-accuracy finite element scheme with simplex elements for solving the elliptic boundary-value problems and show its efficiency on benchmark solutions of the Helmholtz equation for the triangle membrane and hypercube.
This Innovative Technology Evaluation Report documents the results of a demonstration of the high -energy electron injection E-Beam technology in application to groundwater contaminated with methyl t-butyl ether Mt BE and with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes BTEX. The E-beam technology destroys organic contaminants in groundwater through irradiation with a beam of high -energy electrons.
High accuracy autonomous navigation using the global positioning system GPS. Truong, Son H. The application of global positioning system GPS technology to the improvement of the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation, is reported. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are currently being qualified in conjunction with the GPS attitude determination flyer GADFLY experiment for the small satellite technology initiative Lewis spacecraft. Preflight performance assessments indicated that these algorithms are able to provide a real time total position accuracy of better than 10 m and a velocity accuracy of better than 0.
It is expected that the position accuracy will be increased to 2 m if corrections are provided by the GPS wide area augmentation system. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra- high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a state Kalman filter and smoother.
Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra- high accuracy inertial measurement units IMUs using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.
The construction of high-accuracy schemes for acoustic equations. An accuracy analysis of various high order schemes is performed from an interpolation point of view. The analysis indicates that classical high order finite difference schemes, which use polynomial interpolation, hold high accuracy only at nodes and are therefore not suitable for time-dependent problems.
Thus, some schemes improve their numerical accuracy within grid cells by the near-minimax approximation method, but their practical significance is degraded by maintaining the same stencil as classical schemes. One-step methods in space discretization, which use piecewise polynomial interpolation and involve data at only two points, can generate a uniform accuracy over the whole grid cell and avoid spurious roots.
As a result, they are more accurate and efficient than multistep methods. Development and expansion of high -quality control region databases to improve forensic mt DNA evidence interpretation. In an effort to increase the quantity, breadth and availability of mt DNA databases suitable for forensic comparisons, we have developed a high -throughput process to generate approximately control region sequences per year from regional US populations, global populations from which the current US population is derived and global populations currently under-represented in available forensic databases.
The system utilizes robotic instrumentation for all laboratory steps from pre-extraction through sequence detection, and a rigorous eight-step, multi-laboratory data review process with entirely electronic data transfer. Over the past 3 years, nearly 10, control region sequences have been generated using this approach. These data are being made publicly available and should further address the need for consistent, high -quality mt DNA databases for forensic testing.
Elements of the algorithm include fast distance estimation using kmer counting, progressive alignment using a new profile function we call the log-expectation score, and refinement using tree-dependent restricted partitioning.
Without refinement, MUSCLE achieves average accuracy statistically indistinguishable from T-Coffee and MAFFT, and is the fastest of the tested methods for large numbers of sequences, aligning sequences of average length in 7 min on a current desktop computer. Inattention blindness to motion in area MT.
Subjects naturally form and use expectations to solve familiar tasks, but the accuracy of these expectations, and the neuronal mechanisms by which these expectations enhance behavior, are unclear. We trained animals Macaca mulatta in a challenging perceptual task in which the likelihood of a very brief pulse of motion was consistently modulated over time and space.
Pulse likelihood had dramatic effects on behavior: unexpected pulses were nearly invisible to the animals. To examine the neuronal basis of such inattention blindness, we recorded from single neurons in the middle temporal MT area, an area related to motion perception. Fluctuations in how reliably MT neurons both signaled stimulus events and predicted behavioral choices were highly correlated with changes in performance over the course of individual trials.
A simple neuronal pooling model reveals the dramatic behavioral effects of attention in this task can be completely explained by changes in the reliability of a small number of MT neurons. Everest center - with strong sense of three dimension because of reduced amount of snow - and neighboring peaks of the Himalayas.
Clouds cover lower slopes in India. Design and synthesis of N- 3,3-diphenylpropenyl alkanamides as a novel class of high -affinity MT 2-selective melatonin receptor ligands. A novel series of melatonin receptor ligands was discovered by opening the cyclic scaffolds of known classes of high affinity melatonin receptor antagonists, while retaining the pharmacophore elements postulated by previously described 3D-QSAR and receptor models.
Compounds belonging to the classes of 2,3- and [3,3-diphenylprop en yl]alkanamides and of o- or [ m-benzyl phenyl]ethyl-alkanamides were synthesized and tested on MT 1 and MT 2 receptors. The class of 3,3-diphenyl-propenyl-alkanamides was the most interesting one, with compounds having MT 2 receptor affinity similar to that of MLT, remarkable MT 2 selectivity, and partial agonist or antagonist behavior. In particular, the E -m-methoxy cyclobutanecarboxamido derivative 18f and the di- m-methoxy acetamido one, 18g, have sub-nM affinity for the MT 2 subtype, with more than fold selectivity over MT 1 , 18f being an antagonist and 18g a partial agonist on GTPgammaS test.
Docking of 18g into a previously developed MT 2 receptor model showed a binding scheme consistent with that of other antagonists. The new model is 5 orders faster than stream DISORT with very high accuracy for cloudy sky radiative transfer simulation. It is suitable for hyperspectral remote data assimilation and cloudy sky retrievals.
This paper reports the development of a new microbolometer readout integrated circuit MT BA designed for high -resistance detector arrays. MT BA has 2 analog video outputs and 1 analog reference output for pseudo-differential operation, and the ROIC can be programmed to operate in the 1 or 2-output modes.
A unique feature of MT BA is that it performs snapshot readout operation; therefore, the image quality will only be limited by the thermal time constant of the detector pixels, but not by the scanning speed of the ROIC, as commonly found in the conventional microbolometer ROICs performing line-by-line rolling-line readout operation.
The signal integration is performed at the pixel level in parallel for the whole array, and signal integration time can be programmed from 0. The detector bias voltage can be programmed on-chip over a 2 V range with a resolution of 1 mV. High accuracy wavelength calibration for a scanning visible spectrometer.
An automated calibration, which is stable over time and environmental conditions without the need to recalibrate after each grating movement, was developed for a scanning spectrometer to achieve high wavelength accuracy over the visible spectrum. This method fits all relevant spectrometer parameters using multiple calibration spectra.
With the addition of a high resolution 0. This level of precision requires monitoring of atmospheric temperature and pressure and of grating bulk temperature to correct for changes in the refractive index of air and the groove density, respectively. To measure temperatures with a greater degree of accuracy than is possible with thermocouples, RTDs Resistive Temperature Detectors are typically used. Calibration standards use specialized high precision RTD probes with accuracies approaching 0.
These are extremely delicate devices, and far too costly to be used in test facility instrumentation. Less costly sensors which are designed for aeronautical wind tunnel testing are available and can be readily adapted to probes, rakes, and test rigs. With proper signal conditioning of the sensor, temperature accuracies of 0. For reasons that will be explored in this paper, the Anderson current loop is the preferred method used for signal conditioning.
Qomolangma everest , Central High Himalayas Since Under the background of global environmental change, the Mt. Qomolangma Everest region becomes the ideal place for the research of earth-atmosphere system, water and energy change, ecosystem patterns and processes change due to its sensitive and fragile natural environment.
Land change science has emerged as a fundamental component of global environmental change and sustainability research. In this paper, geography, spatial information, climate science and other related theories and methods were applied, with the help of remote sensing, GIS, GPS, combining with a large number of RS data, field survey data and meteorological observation data to build 3 periods , and of land cover, 30 periods of major lakes data and long time-series NDVI change data from to in the Mt.
Qomolangma region. The main results are as follows: 1. The land cover types in Mt. Qomolangma region are rich and with distinctive alpine features. The distribution of the main cover types are of obvious vertical zonallity. The altitude distribution of forest, shrubland and grassland in north and south slope are generally consistent.
The range of. Certified ion implantation fluence by high accuracy RBS. We demonstrate that accurate RBS is a definitive method to determine quantity of material. It is therefore useful for certifying high quality reference standards, and is also extensible to other kinds of samples such as thin self-supporting films of pure elements. Gradient approximation methods commonly used in unstructured-grid finite-volume schemes intended for solutions of high Reynolds number flow equations are studied comprehensively.
The accuracy of gradients within cells and within faces is evaluated systematically for both node-centered and cell-centered formulations. Computational and analytical evaluations are made on a series of high -aspect-ratio grids with different primal elements, including quadrilateral, triangular, and mixed element grids, with and without random perturbations to the mesh.
Both rectangular and cylindrical geometries are considered; the latter serves to study the effects of geometric curvature. The study shows that the accuracy of gradient reconstruction on high -aspect-ratio grids is determined by a combination of the grid and the solution. The contributors to the error are identified and approaches to reduce errors are given, including the addition of higher-order terms in the direction of larger mesh spacing.
A parameter GAMMA characterizing accuracy on curved high -aspect-ratio grids is discussed and an approximate-mapped-least-square method using a commonly-available distance function is presented; the method provides accurate gradient reconstruction on general grids. The study is intended to be a reference guide accompanying the construction of accurate and efficient methods for high Reynolds number applications.
Coordinate measuring techniques rely on computer processing of coordinate values of points gathered from physical surfaces using contact or non-contact methods. Contact measurements are characterized by low density and high accuracy. On the other hand optical methods gather high density data of the whole object in a short time but with accuracy at least one order of magnitude lower than for contact measurements.
Thus the drawback of contact methods is low density of data, while for non-contact methods it is low accuracy. In this paper a method for fusion of data from two measurements of fundamentally different nature: high density low accuracy HDLA and low density high accuracy LDHA is presented to overcome the limitations of both measuring methods.
In the proposed method the concept of virtual markers is used to find a representation of pairs of corresponding characteristic points in both sets of data. In each pair the coordinates of the point from contact measurements is treated as a reference for the corresponding point from non-contact measurement. Transformation enabling displacement of characteristic points from optical measurement to their match from contact measurements is determined and applied to the whole point cloud.
The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was evaluated by comparison with data from a coordinate measuring machine CMM. Three surfaces were used for this evaluation: plane, turbine blade and engine cover. Similar results were obtained for the turbine blade but for the engine cover the improvement was smaller. For both freeform surfaces the improvement was higher for raw data than for data after creation of mesh of triangles.
In both military and civilian applications, the inertial navigation system INS and the global positioning system GPS are two complementary technologies that can be integrated to provide reliable positioning and navigation information for land vehicles. Wavelet de-noising of INS sensors has had limited success in removing the long-term low-frequency inertial sensor errors. A high resolution spectral analysis technique called the fast orthogonal search FOS algorithm is used to accurately model the low frequency range of the spectrum, which includes the vehicle motion dynamics and inertial sensor errors.
FOS models the spectral components with the most energy first and uses an adaptive threshold to stop adding frequency terms when fitting a term does not reduce the mean squared error more than fitting white noise. The proposed method was developed, tested and validated through road test experiments involving both low-end tactical grade and low cost MEMS-based inertial systems.
The results demonstrate that in most cases the position accuracy during GPS outages using FOS de-noised data is superior to the position accuracy using wavelet de-noising. Spreading and slope instability at the continental margin offshore Mt Etna, imaged by high -resolution 2D seismic data.
Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe. Its volcano edifice is located on top of continental crust close to the Ionian shore in east Sicily. Instability of the eastern flank of the volcano edifice is well documented onshore. The continental margin is supposed to deform as well.
Little, however, is known about the offshore extension of the eastern volcano flank and its adjacent continental margin, which is a serious shortcoming in stability models. In order to better constrain the active tectonics of the continental margin offshore the eastern flank of the volcano, we acquired and processed a new marine high -resolution seismic and hydro-acoustic dataset.
The data provide new detailed insights into the heterogeneous geology and tectonics of shallow continental margin structures offshore Mt Etna. In a similiar manner as observed onshore, the submarine realm is characterized by different blocks, which are controlled by local- and regional tectonics. We image a compressional regime at the toe of the continental margin, which is bound to an asymmetric basin system confining the eastward movement of the flank.
In addition, we constrain the proposed southern boundary of the moving flank, which is identified as a right lateral oblique fault movement north of Catania Canyon. From our findings, we consider a major coupled volcano edifice instability and continental margin gravitational collapse and spreading to be present at Mt Etna, as we see a clear link between on- and offshore tectonic structures across the entire eastern flank.
The new findings will help to evaluate hazards and risks accompanied by Mt Etna's slope- and continental margin instability and will be used as a base for future investigations in this region. We present a real-time monocular visual odometry system that achieves high accuracy in real-world autonomous driving applications. First, we demonstrate robust monocular SFM that exploits multithreading to handle driving scenes with large motions and rapidly changing imagery.
To correct for scale drift, we use known height of the camera from the ground plane. Our second contribution is a novel data-driven mechanism for cue combination that allows highly accurate ground plane estimation by adapting observation covariances of multiple cues, such as sparse feature matching and dense inter-frame stereo, based on their relative confidences inferred from visual data on a per-frame basis.
Finally, we demonstrate extensive benchmark performance and comparisons on the challenging KITTI dataset, achieving accuracy comparable to stereo and exceeding prior monocular systems. Our SFM system is optimized to output pose within 50 ms in the worst case, while average case operation is over 30 fps. Our framework also significantly boosts the accuracy of applications like object localization that rely on the ground plane.
The success of numerous upcoming NASA infrared IR missions will rely critically on accurate knowledge of the IR refractive indices of their constituent optical components at design operating temperatures. This versatile, one-of-a-kind facility can also measure refractive index over a wide range of wavelengths, from 0. We first summarize the technical challenges we faced and engineering solutions we developed during the construction of CHARMS.
Next we present our "first light," index of refraction data for fused silica and compare our data to previously published results. We present a simple and highly accurate computational method for operon prediction, based on intergenic distances and functional relationships between the protein products of contiguous genes, as defined by STRING database Jensen,L.
Nucleic Acids Res. These two parameters were used to train a neural network on a subset of experimentally characterized Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis operons. Our predictive model was successfully tested on the set of experimentally defined operons in E.
As far as we know, these are the highest accuracies ever obtained for predicting bacterial operons. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the predictable accuracy of our model when using an organism's data set for the training procedure, and a different organism's data set for testing, we repeated the E. Even for these cases, the accuracies reached with our method were outstandingly high , These results show the potential use of our method for accurately predicting the operons of any other organism.
Two high accuracy digital integrators for Rogowski current transducers. The Rogowski current transducers have been widely used in AC current measurement, but their accuracy is mainly subject to the analog integrators, which have typical problems such as poor long-term stability and being susceptible to environmental conditions.
The digital integrators can be another choice, but they cannot obtain a stable and accurate output for the reason that the DC component in original signal can be accumulated, which will lead to output DC drift. Unknown initial conditions can also result in integral output DC offset.
This paper proposes two improved digital integrators used in Rogowski current transducers instead of traditional analog integrators for high measuring accuracy. A proportional-integral-derivative PID feedback controller and an attenuation coefficient have been applied in improving the Al-Alaoui integrator to change its DC response and get an ideal frequency response. For the special design in the field of digital signal processing, the improved digital integrators have better performance than analog integrators.
Simulation models are built for the purpose of verification and comparison. The experiments prove that the designed integrators can achieve higher accuracy than analog integrators in steady-state response, transient-state response, and temperature changing condition.
High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies. Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: i the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.
Background Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports e. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior studies reported bias in blood glucose measurements using different BGMs at high altitude.
We hypothesized that glucose-oxidase based BGMs are more influenced by the lower atmospheric oxygen pressure at altitude than glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs. Venous blood samples of four different glucose levels were used. Moreover, two glucose oxidase and two glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs were evaluated at different altitudes on Mount Kilimanjaro. Accuracy criteria were set at a bias 6. Conclusion At simulated high altitude all tested BGMs, including glucose oxidase based BGMs, did not show influence of low atmospheric oxygen pressure.
The Earth rotation reflects the coupling process among the solid Earth, atmosphere, oceans, mantle, and core of the Earth on multiple spatial and temporal scales. The EOP is crucial in the transformation between the terrestrial and celestial reference systems, and has important applications in many areas such as the deep space exploration, satellite precise orbit determination, and astrogeodynamics. However, the EOP products obtained by the space geodetic technologies generally delay by several days to two weeks.
The growing demands for modern space navigation make high-accuracy EOP prediction be a worthy topic. This thesis is composed of the following three aspects, for the purpose of improving the EOP forecast accuracy. The results show that the high precision forecast of EOP can be realized by appropriate selection of the basic data series length according to the required time span of EOP prediction: for short-term prediction, the basic data series should be shorter, while for the long-term prediction, the series should be longer.
The equations of observation and state are established using the EOP series and the autoregressive coefficients. They are effectively removed by additional parameters. Moreover, due to the narrow FOV of the HRSI, position and altitude are highly correlated making it almost impossible to separate and remove their systematic effects without extending the geometric model Self-Calib.
The systematic effects gets evident on the increase of accuracy in terms of RMSE at GCPs for looser and relaxed ground control at the expense of large and strong block deformation with large residuals at check points.
Systematic errors are most freely distributed and their effects propagated all over the block. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator. A read-only volume holographic correlator VHC is proposed.
After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high -power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure.
Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator.
The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed. The Jones-Wilkins-Lee-Baker JWLB equation of state EOS was developed to more accurately describe overdriven detonation while maintaining an accurate description of high explosive products expansion work output.
The increased mathematical complexity of the JWLB high explosive equations of state provides increased accuracy for practical problems of interest. Increased numbers of parameters are often justified based on improved physics descriptions but can also mean increased calibration complexity.
A generalized extent of aluminum reaction Jones-Wilkins-Lee JWL -based EOS was developed in order to more accurately describe the observed behavior of aluminized explosives detonation products expansion. A calibration method was developed to describe the unreacted, partially reacted, and completely reacted explosive using nonlinear optimization.
A reasonable calibration of a generalized extent of aluminum reaction JWLB EOS as a function of aluminum reaction fraction has not yet been achieved due to the increased mathematical complexity of the JWLB form. Remote sensing and the Mississippi high accuracy reference network.
CRSP's mission is to maximize U. Observation, geolocation, and communications technologies are converging and their integration is critical to realize the economic potential for spatial informational needs. Global positioning system GPS technology enables a virtual revolution in geopositionally accurate remote sensing of the earth.
A HARN can be defined for a variety of local applications and tied to aerial or satellite observations to provide an important contribution to geographic information systems GIS. This paper details CRSP's experience in the design and implementation of a HARN in Mississippi and the design and support of future applications of integrated earth observations, geolocation, and communications technology. Estimation and filtering techniques for high-accuracy GPS applications.
Techniques for determination of very precise orbits for satellites of the Global Positioning System GPS are currently being studied and demonstrated. These techniques can be used to make cm-accurate measurements of station locations relative to the geocenter, monitor earth orientation over timescales of hours, and provide tropospheric and clock delay calibrations during observations made with deep space radio antennas at sites where the GPS receivers have been collocated.
For high -earth orbiters, meter-level knowledge of position will be available from GPS, while at low altitudes, sub-decimeter accuracy will be possible. Estimation of satellite orbits and other parameters such as ground station positions is carried out with a multi-satellite batch sequential pseudo-epoch state process noise filter.
Both square-root information filtering SRIF and UD-factorized covariance filtering formulations are implemented in the software. The system of high accuracy UV spectral radiation system. UV spectral radiation detecting and visible observation telescope is designed by the coaxial optical. In order to decrease due to the incident light polarization effect, and improve the detection precision, polarizer need to be used in the light path.
Four pieces of quartz of high Precision UV radiation depolarizer retarder stack together is placed in front of Seya namioka dispersion unit. The coherent detection principle of modulation of light signal and the reference signal multiplied processing, increase the phase sensitive detector can be adjustment function, ensure the UV spectral radiation detection stability.
A lock-in amplifier is used in the electrical system to advance the accuracy of measurement. To ensure the precision measurement detected, the phase-sensitive detector function can be adjustable. A sensor system for the characterization of infrared laser radar scene projectors has been developed. Available sensor systems do not provide sufficient range resolution to evaluate the high precision LADAR projector systems developed by the U. With timing precision capability to a fraction of a nanosecond, it can confirm the accuracy of simulated return pulses from a nominal range of up to 6.
Increased range can be achieved through firmware reconfiguration. Two independent amplitude triggers measure both rise and fall time providing a judgment of pulse shape and allowing estimation of the contained energy. Each return channel can measure up to 32 returns per trigger characterizing each return pulse independently.
Currently efforts include extending the capability to 8 channels. This paper outlines the development, testing, capabilities and limitations of this new sensor system. Genealogy of the nuclear beta-fibrinogen locus in a highly structured lizard species: comparison with mt DNA and evidence for intragenic recombination in the hybrid zone. The study of nuclear genealogies in natural populations of nonmodel organisms is expected to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history of populations, especially when developed in the framework of well-established mt DNA phylogeographical scenarios.
In the Iberian Peninsula, the endemic Schreiber's green lizard Lacerta schreiberi exhibits two highly divergent and allopatric mt DNA lineages that started to split during the late Pliocene. In this work, we performed a fine-scale analysis of the putative mt DNA contact zone together with a global analysis of the patterns of variation observed at the nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 beta-fibint7. Using a combination of DNA sequencing with single-strand conformational polymorphism SSCP analysis, we show that the observed genealogy at the beta-fibint7 locus reveals extensive admixture between two formerly isolated lizard populations while the two mt DNA lineages remain essentially allopatric.
In addition, a private beta-fibint7 haplotype detected in the single population where both mt DNA lineages were found in sympatry is probably the result of intragenic recombination between the two more common and divergent beta-fibint7 haplotypes. Our results suggest that the progressive incorporation of nuclear genealogies in investigating the ancient demography and admixture dynamics of divergent genomes will be necessary to obtain a more comprehensive picture of the evolutionary history of organisms.
Monitoring techniques for high accuracy interference fit assembly processes. In the automotive industry, there are many assembly processes that require a high geometric accuracy , in the micrometer range; generally open-loop controllers cannot meet these requirements.
This results in an increased defect rate and high production costs. This paper presents an experimental study of interference fit process, aimed to evaluate the aspects which have the most impact on the uncertainty in the final positioning. The press-fitting process considered, consists in a press machine operating with a piezoelectric actuator to press a plug into a sleeve. Plug and sleeve are designed and machined to obtain a known interference fit. Differential displacement and velocity measurements of the plug with respect to the sleeve are measured by a fiber optic differential laser Doppler vibrometer.
Different driving signals of the piezo actuator allow to have an insight into the differences between a linear and a pulsating press action. The paper highlights how the press-fit assembly process is characterized by two main phases: the first is an elastic deformation of the plug and sleeve, which produces a reversible displacement, the second is a sliding of the plug with respect to the sleeve, which results in an irreversible displacement and finally realizes the assembly.
The simultaneous measurements of the displacement and the force have permitted to define characteristic features in the signal useful to identify the start of the irreversible movement. These indicators could be used to develop a control logic in a press assembly process. High -fat diet enhances mammary tumorigenesis and pulmonary metastasis and alters inflammatory and angiogenic profiles in MMTV-Py MT mice. The objective of the present study was to determine whether an obesogenic, high -fat diet enhances primary tumorigenesis and pulmonary metastasis in female MMTV Forest change in high -elevation forests of Mt.
Mitchell, North Carolina: re-census and analysis of data collected over 40 years. The Black Mountain range of western North Carolina supports some of the most extensive but threatened high -elevation forests in the southern Appalachians.
Of particular note, the insect pathogen, balsam woolly adelgid Adelges piceae Ratzeburg , has been present on Mt. Mitchell for more than 50 years. In anticipation of potential changes in forest Size distributions of air showers accompanied with high energy gamma ray bundles observed at Mt. Matano, T. Air showers initiated by particles with a large cross section of interaction may develop from narrow region of the atmosphere near the top.
Starting levels of air showers by particles with smaller cross section fluctuate in wider region of the atmosphere. Air showers of extremely small size accompanied with bundle of gamma rays may be ones initiated by protons at lower level after penetrating deep atmosphere without interaction.
It is determined that the relative size distribution according to the total energy of bundle of gamma rays and the total burst size observed under 15 cm lead absorber. AS November An Apollo 12 high -oblique view of the lunar nearside looking northeast toward the crater Copernicus in center near horizon , as photographed from lunar orbit. The shaded crater in the foreground is Reinhold. Reinhold B is the crater next to Reinhold which as the small crater in the center of it.
Also, visible is the keyhole-shaped crater Fauth near the crater Copernicus. Accuracy assessment of high -rate GPS measurements for seismology. Analysis of GPS measurements with a controlled laboratory system, built to simulate the ground motions caused by tectonic earthquakes and other transient geophysical signals such as glacial earthquakes, enables us to assess the technique of high -rate GPS.
The root-mean-square rms position error of this system when undergoing realistic simulated seismic motions is 0. We have acquired an extensive set of high -rate GPS measurements while inducing seismic motions on a GPS antenna mounted on this system with a temporal spectrum similar to real seismic events.
We found that, for a particular min-long test event, the rms error of the 1-Hz GPS position estimates was 2. For example, we have determined that the rms error can increase by a factor of as the GPS constellation changes throughout the day, with an average value of 3.
We will present an assessment of the accuracy of high -rate GPS based on these measurements, discuss the implications of this study for seismology, and describe new applications in glaciology. Calibration of GPS based high accuracy speed meter for vehicles. It is increasingly used as reference equipment in the field of traffic speed measurement, but acknowledged standard calibration methods are still lacking.
To solve this problem, this paper presents the set-ups of simulated calibration, field test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical sensor based non-contact speed meter. The calibration results justify the effectiveness of the two methods. The results of this research can provide technical basis for the establishment of internationally standard calibration methods of GPS speed meters, and thus ensures the legal status of GPS speed meters as reference equipment in the field of traffic speed metrology.
Hyperglycemia is a representative hallmark and risk factor for diabetes mellitus DM and is closely linked to DM-associated neuronal cell death. Previous investigators reported on a genome-wide association study and showed relationships between DM and melatonin receptor MT , highlighting the role of MT signaling by assessing melatonin in DM. However, the role of MT signaling in DM pathogenesis is unclear.
Therefore, we investigated the role of mitophagy regulators in high glucose-induced neuronal cell death and the effect of melatonin against high glucose-induced mitophagy regulators in neuronal cells. Silencing of PINK1 induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species ROS accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential impairment, increased expressions of cleaved caspases, and increased the number of annexin V-positive cells.
Silencing of PINK1 expression abolished melatonin-regulated mitochondrial ROS production, cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9 expressions, and the number of annexin V-positive cells. Journal of Pineal Research. High -throughput sequencing of complete human mt DNA genomes from the Caucasus and West Asia: high diversity and demographic inferences.
To investigate the demographic history of human populations from the Caucasus and surrounding regions, we used high -throughput sequencing to generate complete mt DNA genome sequences from random samples of individuals from three groups from the Caucasus Armenians, Azeri and Georgians , and one group each from Iran and Turkey.
Overall diversity is very high , with different sequences that fall into 97 different haplogroups found among the individuals. The BSP for Turkey differs the most from the others, with an increase from 35 to 50 kya followed by a prolonged period of constant population size, and no indication of a second period of growth.
These results illustrate the value of random sampling of complete mt DNA genome sequences that can be obtained with high -throughput sequencing platforms. Modified sine bar device measures small angles with high accuracy. Modified sine bar device measures small angles with enough accuracy to calibrate precision optical autocollimators. The sine bar is a massive bar of steel supported by two cylindrical rods at one end and one at the other.
Mt , St. Helens, Mt. Adams, and Mt. This view of Mt. Helens Many fir trees have grown to heights of 20 ft. Adams, an extinct volcano is just to the west and Mt. Rainier is to the north. Checkerboard logging can be seen throughout. Liu, Jiabei; Clough, Shannon J. Melatonin, or 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is synthesized and released by the pineal gland and locally in the retina following a circadian rhythm, with low levels during the day and elevated levels at night.
Melatonin activates two high -affinity G protein—coupled receptors, termed MT 1 and MT 2, to exert beneficial actions in sleep and circadian abnormality, mood disorders, learning and memory, neuroprotection, drug abuse, and cancer. Progress in understanding the role of melatonin receptors in the modulation of sleep and circadian rhythms has led to the discovery of a novel class of melatonin agonists for treating insomnia, circadian rhythms, mood disorders, and cancer. This review describes the pharmacological properties of a slow-release melatonin preparation i.
Discovery of selective ligands targeting the MT 1 or the MT 2 melatonin receptors may promote the development of novel and more efficacious therapeutic agents. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.
Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera.
The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M 2 factor is less than 0. The parallel reaction monitoring PRM assay has emerged as an alternative method of targeted quantification. The PRM assay is performed in a high resolution and high mass accuracy mode on a mass spectrometer.
This review presents the features that make PRM a highly specific and selective method for targeted quantification using quadrupole-Orbitrap hybrid instruments. In addition, this review discusses the label-based and label-free methods of quantification that can be performed with the targeted approach.
High-accuracy user identification using EEG biometrics. We analyze brain waves acquired through a consumer-grade EEG device to investigate its capabilities for user identification and authentication. First, we show the statistical significance of the P component in event-related potential ERP data from channel EEGs across 25 subjects.
We then apply a variety of machine learning techniques, comparing the user identification performance of various different combinations of a dimensionality reduction technique followed by a classification algorithm. In addition, we demonstrate that the user identification accuracy can be significantly improved to more than The accurate measurement of the orientation of optical parts and systems is a pressing problem for upcoming space missions, such as stellar interferometers, requiring the knowledge and maintenance of positions to the sub-arcsecond level.
Theodolites, the devices commonly used to make these measurements, cannot provide the needed level of accuracy. This paper describes the design, construction, and testing of an interferometer system to fill the widening gap between future requirements and current capabilities. A Twyman-Green interferometer mounted on a 2 degree of freedom rotation stage is able to obtain sub-arcsecond, gravity-referenced tilt measurements of a sample alignment cube.
Dubbed a 'theoferometer,' this device offers greater ease-of-use, accuracy , and repeatability than conventional methods, making it a suitable 21st-century replacement for the theodolite. A new, interferometer based system for measuring thermal expansion to an absolute accuracy of 20 ppb or better at cryogenic temperatures has been developed. Approximately 20 samples of each material, tested from room temperature to below 30 K are compared as a function of billet location.
High-accuracy fiber-optic shape sensing. Duncan, Roger G. We describe the results of a study of the performance characteristics of a monolithic fiber-optic shape sensor array. Distributed strain measurements in a multi-core optical fiber interrogated with the optical frequency domain reflectometry technique are used to deduce the shape of the optical fiber; referencing to a coordinate system yields position information.
Two sensing techniques are discussed herein: the first employing fiber Bragg gratings and the second employing the intrinsic Rayleigh backscatter of the optical fiber. We have measured shape and position under a variety of circumstances and report the accuracy and precision of these measurements. A discussion of error sources is included.
A new, interferometer-based system for measuring thermal expansion to an absolute accuracy of 20 ppb or better at cryogenic temperatures has been developed. High accuracy fuel flowmeter. Phase 2C and 3: The mass flowrate calibration of high accuracy fuel flowmeters. It is believed to be the most accurate test facility available for the calibration of jet engine fuel density measurement.
The product of the volumetric flow rate measurement and the density measurement, results in a true mass flow rate determination. A dual-turbine flowmeter was designed during this program. The dual-turbine flowmeter was calibrated on the TACS to show the characteristics of this type of flowmeter.
An angular momentum flowmeter was also calibrated on the TACS to demonstrate the accuracy of a true mass flowmeter having a 'state-of-the-art' design accuracy. Spectral reflectance inversion with high accuracy on green target. Using Landsat-7 ETM remote sensing data, the inversion of spectral reflectance of green wheat in visible and near infrared waveband in Yingke, China is studied. In order to solve the problem of lower inversion accuracy , custom atmospheric conditions method based on moderate resolution transmission model MODTRAN is put forward.
Real atmospheric parameters are considered when adopting this method. The atmospheric radiative transfer theory to calculate atmospheric parameters is introduced first and then the inversion process of spectral reflectance is illustrated in detail. At last the inversion result is compared with simulated atmospheric conditions method which was a widely used method by previous researchers.
The comparison shows that the inversion accuracy of this paper's method is higher in all inversion bands; the inversed spectral reflectance curve by this paper's method is more similar to the measured reflectance curve of wheat and better reflects the spectral reflectance characteristics of green plant which is very different from green artificial target. Thus, whether a green target is a plant or artificial target can be judged by reflectance inversion based on remote sensing image.
This paper's research is helpful for the judgment of green artificial target hidden in the greenery, which has a great significance on the precise strike of green camouflaged weapons in military field. Cowlyn, J. Pyroclastic density currents PDCs are a destructive volcanic hazard. Quantifying the types, frequency and magnitudes of PDC events in the geological record is essential for effective risk management.
However small-medium volume valley-confined PDC deposits have low preservation potential, especially when emplaced in active drainages or onto snow or ice. Where PDC deposits are preserved they can be difficult to distinguish from other surficial deposits and are frequently misinterpreted or overlooked.
This is the case at Mt. Through systematic field observations we identified several young proximal-medial andesitic PDC deposits exposed on Ruapehu's eastern flanks. Finally, a variably welded, bedded deposit containing clasts of welded spatter is interpreted to represent multiple failures of near-vent North Ruapehu accumulations of erupted material.
Here, PDC initiation appears to have been controlled by the topographic gradient and deposition rate, without requiring a collapsing eruption column. Lateral and vertical flow stratification means the resulting deposits may not then represent the bulk flow. Additionally, deposit textures, distributions, and associations with moraines indicate that many of Ruapehu's PDCs encountered glacial ice during transport.
Gene interference-based therapeutics represents a fascinating challenge and shows enormous potential for cancer treatment, in which microRNA is used to correct abnormal gene. Based on the above, we introduced microRNA to bind to 3' untranslated region of mt EF4, resulting in the downregulation of its messenger RNA and protein to trigger cancer cells apoptosis through mitochondria-related pathway.
To achieve better therapeutic effect, a mesoporous silica nanoparticles-based controlled nanoplatform had been developed. By feat of surface functionalization and tumor-specific conjugation to nanoparticles, our drug delivery system could promote intracellular accumulation of drugs via the active transport at tumor site. More importantly, microRNA not only directly targeted to mt EF4 to promote cells death, but had synergistic effects when used in combination with doxorubicin, and achieved excellent superadditive effects.
As such, our research might provide new insights towards detecting high mt EF4 cancer and exploiting highly effective anticancer drugs. The primers usually span fragment sizes of bp each region, which may result in weak or failed amplification in highly degraded samples. Here we introduce an improved and more stable approach using shortened amplicons in the fragment range between and bp. Ten such amplicons were required to produce overlapping fragments that cover the entire human mt DNA control region.
These were co-amplified in two multiplex polymerase chain reactions and sequenced with the individual amplification primers. The primers were carefully selected to minimize binding on homoplasic and haplogroup-specific sites that would otherwise result in loss of amplification due to mis-priming. The multiplexes have successfully been applied to ancient and forensic samples such as bones and teeth that showed a high degree of degradation. At present, in the inspection and acceptance of high spatial resolution remotly sensed orthophoto image, the horizontal accuracy detection is testing and evaluating the accuracy of images, which mostly based on a set of testing points with the same accuracy and reliability.
However, it is difficult to get a set of testing points with the same accuracy and reliability in the areas where the field measurement is difficult and the reference data with high accuracy is not enough. So it is difficult to test and evaluate the horizontal accuracy of the orthophoto image. The uncertainty of the horizontal accuracy has become a bottleneck for the application of satellite borne high -resolution remote sensing image and the scope of service expansion.
Therefore, this paper proposes a new method to test the horizontal accuracy of orthophoto image. This method using the testing points with different accuracy and reliability. These points' source is high accuracy reference data and field measurement. The new method solves the horizontal accuracy detection of the orthophoto image in the difficult areas and provides the basis for providing reliable orthophoto images to the users.
Height accuracy of around 1 pixel in cooperative terrain. RMSE values of 1. As expected, with Quickbird more details are visible. Comparisons between the results obtained with the projection method and the results obtained by mechanical devices that operate with contact probes are presented. The limits of seaward spreading and slope instability at the continental margin offshore Mt Etna, imaged by high -resolution 2D seismic data.
Instability of its eastern flank is well documented onshore, and continuously monitored by geodetic and InSAR measurements. Little is known, however, about the offshore extension of the eastern volcano flank, defining a serious shortcoming in stability models. In order to better constrain the active tectonics of the continental margin offshore the eastern flank of the volcano, we acquired a new high -resolution 2D reflection seismic dataset.
The data provide new insights into the heterogeneous geology and tectonics at the continental margin offshore Mt Etna. The submarine realm is characterized by different blocks, which are controlled by local- and regional tectonics. A compressional regime is found at the toe of the continental margin, which is bound to a complex basin system.
Both, the clear link between on- and offshore tectonic structures as well as the compressional regime at the easternmost flank edge, indicate a continental margin gravitational collapse as well as spreading to be present at Mt Etna. Moreover, we find evidence for the offshore southern boundary of the moving flank, which is identified as a right lateral oblique fault north of Catania Canyon. Edge technique lidar for high accuracy , high spatial resolution wind measurement in the Planetary Boundary Layer.
The objective of this work is to develop and evaluate a high vertical resolution lidar experiment using the edge technique for high accuracy measurement of the atmospheric wind field to meet the ARO requirements. This experiment allows the powerful capabilities of the edge technique to be quantitatively evaluated. In the edge technique, a laser is located on the steep slope of a high resolution spectral filter.
This produces large changes in measured signal for small Doppler shifts. A differential frequency technique renders the Doppler shift measurement insensitive to both laser and filter frequency jitter and drift. The measurement is also relatively insensitive to the laser spectral width for widths less than the width of the edge filter. Thus, the goal is to develop a system which will yield a substantial improvement in the state of the art of wind profile measurement in terms of both vertical resolution and accuracy and which will provide a unique capability for atmospheric wind studies.
Theoretical studies of spectroscopy and reaction dynamics including the necessary development of potential energy surfaces rely on accurate thermochemical information. The network provides rigorous uncertainties, and since the values don't rely on a single measurement or calculation, the provenance of each quantity is also obtained.
Here we present and benchmark an approach based on explicitly-correlated coupled-cluster theory and vibrational perturbation theory VPT2. Questa elevata protezione contro gli effetti della temperatura riduce il consumo di energia consentendo al tempo stesso una riduzione dei costi. Ad esempio, le dodici guide per carico multipiano, cadauna parete, e i loro portapallet consentono un carico fino a 33EP Europallet.
Questa paratia, fatta di singoli profili a V in allu-. Oltre a una coppia di rulli in acciaio, sono montate due file di paracolpi in gomma sul pannello chiusura telaio e una protezione in gomma a sinistra e a destra del telaio portale. Ha inoltre acquisito una posizione di leadership di mercato in. Belgio e Lussemburgo 19,4 per cento e in Bulgaria 23,6 per cento. Inoltre, Daf ha venduto 7. In Sud Africa le vendite sono. Daf ha inoltre venduto quasi 3mila motori Paccar ai principali produttori di autobus, pullman e veicoli speciali in tutto il mondo.
Sempre nel la rete Daf di oltre. Krone, produttore tedesco leader di. Investimento ragionato, quello del management Krone, il cui. Naturalmente ci siamo riorganizzati con lavoro a distanza e part time. Mercedes-Benz e Bosch cooperano in Brasile ercedes-Benz e Bosch hanno unito le loro forze in Brasile per dare vita a un modernissimo centro di test per veicoli.
Oggetto di attenzione non saranno solo truck e bus dal momento che successivamente potranno essere testati anche autovetture, veicoli commerciali e motocicli. Insieme, Mercedes-Benz e Bosch investiranno 70 milioni di di Real brasiliani circa 15 milioni di euro. Per questo motivo negli ultimi periodi Fassi Gru ha messo a disposizione il suo know-how e una gamma di prodotti dedicati a quelle aziende che operano nelle infrastrutture ferroviarie.
SVI - che ha chiu-. Una commessa importante di. Nella sua configurazione attuale il gruppo nasce negli Anni Duemila quando il Presidente Gerald Cavalier decide di esportare la competenza tecnica maturata. Propone come servizio di prova la verifica periodica degli strumenti del frigorista, la mappatura in temperatura di celle frigorifere e vetrine e la taratura dei registratori di temperatura presso il cliente con accreditamento EN Sulla base di questa competenza, oltre dieci anni fa.
Tutte normative riconosciute. La certificazione riguarda non solo il gruppo frigorifero,. Gran parte dei gruppi frigoriferi della gamma Carrier sono stati provati in condizioni estreme, sin dalle fasi di sviluppo, per superare i test Cemafroid. Una volta installati. Operativa da febbraio , la sede di Fontevivo occupa una superficie coperta di 1. Oggi il core business di Coldpoint deriva dalla gestione dei contratti di manu-.
Coldpoint commercializza gruppi frigo Carrier, sui quali gestisce la garanzia, ed effettua assistenza su gruppi frigo di ogni brand. Tra i player che hanno messo a disposizione la propria competenza. Nata come start-up da una squadra di giovani ingegneri di Alessandria, specializzati nel settore della connessione dati attraverso internet che, supportati da partner strategici, lungo la loro strada hanno incrociato il mondo del trasporto, Fiway nasce.
Quinto complesso portuale del Nord Europa, il nome che richiama quello del nostro continente denomina una joint-venture tra i porti francesi di Le Havre, Rouen e Parigi. E che nei dodici. Sono cresciuti inoltre i segmenti di biocarburanti e biomasse, che beneficiano di favorevoli prospettive di crescita, in linea con le sfide della transizione energetica. Questa cifra mostra il dinamismo del nostro porto e conferma la sua continua crescita.
Il roll-on, roll-off il traffico su navi-tra-. Per quanto riguarda la movimentazione dei passeggeri i risultati sono in linea con le aspettative Per il il mercato si sta aprendo e le navi in costruzione che stanno uscendo dai cantieri consentono di guardare al futuro in modo ragionevole. E questo grazie soprattutto al settore delle costruzioni impegnato nei cantieri della Grande Parigi e alle esportazioni di grano.
Palletway ys: trasportia amo i tuoi pallet anche in Eu Eur uropa. La trasmissione completamente elettrica eroga da a kW. Oltre al suo impiego come pullman turistico di lusso, Skyliner sta conquistando consensi tra le aziende di trasporto come veicolo per i viaggi interurbani. La ricarica viene effettuata tramite wallbox a CA da 7,2 kW e richiede circa cinque ore e mezzo. I National Transport Awards decretano nel panorama del trasporto sul mercato spagnolo il miglior veicolo per ciascuna delle nove categorie previste.
Mentre continueremo a commercializzare i nostri autobus e a espanderci a livello globale, riteniamo che questo ac-. Otokar offre soluzioni su misura per le esigenze dei clienti utilizzando tecnologie, design e applicazioni proprie. Gli autobus con marchio Otokar trasportano attualmente milioni di passeggeri in oltre 50 paesi in tutto il mondo.
In ambienti urbani, con kWh e in condizioni climatiche standard, garantisce autonomia approssimativa di km, ovvero circa 17 ore di funzionamento. Nel nuovo Irizar ie bus troviamo fino a cinque posizioni di punti di ricarica lenta interoperabile. Elaborato anche il design interno che include in opzione alcune caratteristiche dei tram Irizar tra cui vetri bassi, illuminazione laterale o schermi. Inoltre, essendo modulare, facilita la configurazione interna per il cliente. Oltre a rispettare la normativa antiribaltamento.
Oggi con Toscandia portiamo su strada veicoli dal costo giusto, con ottime caratteristiche di comfort di bordo ma soprattutto che non temono confronti nei consumi: siamo tra i 4,5 e i 5 km al litro rispetto a una media che non va oltre i 3,5, che vuol dire per cento in meno. Per noi rappresenta un elemento fondamentale. I sei Touring entreranno in servizio principalmente a Roma come mezzi sostituivi per Busitalia, incaricata dalle Ferrovie dello Stato di sostituire con trasporto su gomma le tratte su rotaia a.
A questo scopo Continental porta sul mercato la famiglia Conti CoachRegio, una nuova gamma di pneumatici per autobus per applicazioni regionali. La gamma Conti CoachRegio include, oltre a uno pneumatico per tutti gli assi, anche uno pneumatico per asse trattivo. Con Conti CoachRegio introduciamo sul. ContiSeal sigilla in modo affidabile le forature con un diametro fino a cinque millimetri, senza perdita di pressione degli pneumatici.
La tecnologia risolve i tipi. Continental sta studiando come utilizzare la tecnologia ContiSeal nei suoi pneumatici invernali anche per i furgoni. Primo pneumatico. Con una robusta fascia antiabrasione sul fianco, riduce gli effetti del contatto con i cordoli, mentre gli espulsori di pietre alla base del battistrada e un disegno partico-. Con mescola migliorata alla silice e superficie di contatto piatta, questo pneumatico offre elevato chilometraggio anche in condizioni operative difficili.
Massimiliano Campanella da pagina IV. Il van compatto di Volkswagen Veicoli Commerciali arriva alla quinta generazione completamente rinnovato fuori e dentro. Servizio da pagina XX. Il van compatto di Volkswagen Veicoli Commerciali arriva alla quinta generazione completamente rinnovato fuo ri e dentro. Un grande cambiamento per il mondo Caddy che grazie al pianale modulare trasversale introduce nuove tecnologie: innovativi sistemi di assistenza per sicurezza e comfort, sistemi di infotainment collegati in rete e comandi digitalizzati.
Gli altri mercati principali in-. Nessuna linea, nes sun componente sono rimasti uguali a prima. I designer hanno conferito al veicolo multiuso una. Con i suoi 1. Nella zona del tetto si distingue una doppia linea, grazie alla quale il baricentro del veicolo si abbassa. Nella vista da dietro appare chiaro quanto siano pronunciati i parafanghi posteriori. A caratterizzare il nuovo design del posteriore sono i gruppi. Al centro del posteriore si pre senta con orgoglio il grande e nuovo logo Caddy.
Negli interni la quinta generazione del veicolo multiuso con vince con nuove soluzioni high-tech e uno spazio notevolmente maggiore. Presenti a. Innovative al pari dei sistemi di assistenza sono le nuove motorizzazioni 4 cilindri del Caddy: si tratta di. Ad eccezione dei fari - quadrati in Nord America, circolari in Europa le versioni dei due continenti non presentavano differenze. Poco prima, nel , la produzione del Caddy era iniziata anche a Uitenhage, in Sudafrica.
Per poter utilizzare il Caddy per il trasporto di merci in tutta sicurezza era disponibile, a richiesta, anche un hardtop in vetroresina per la superficie di carico. In questo modo il pick-up si trasformava in un. In tutto il mondo sono stati costruiti mila e sem plari della prima generazione del Caddy.
Anche Skoda propose una sua versione. Il Volkswagen Caddy venne offerto in versione praticamente identica alla Seat Inca; i due modelli vennero costruiti lungo la stessa linea di produzione nello stabilimento spagnolo di Martorell. Diversamente dalla prima generazione, il Caddy di seconda generazione venne proposto inizialmente solo in ver-.
Volkswagen propose il Caddy di seconda generazione esclusivamente con porte a battente. Nel fu la volta del Caddy Family, un precursore delle successive monovolume compatte. Fino al termine della produzione del Caddy 2 , circa mila automobilisti avevano scelto un modello di questa generazione, oppure uno. La terza generazione del Cad dy venne lanciata sul mercato da Volkswagen Veicoli Commerciali nel una vera rivoluzione. Nella versione Kombi a tetto alto Caddy era un modello con un vano di carico che aveva raggiunto i 3,2 mc.
Per la prima volta Caddy era disponibile, a scelta, con porte a battente oppure con portellone di grandi dimensioni. Il Caddy della terza generazione, in grado di ospitare fino a sette persone, divenne rapidamente nel le versioni Furgone e Kom bi - uno dei veicoli da trasporto compatti di maggior successo degli anni Nel fu la volta del primo camper compatto della gamma: il geniale Caddy Tramper.
Altrettanto efficienti ed ecocompatibili sono il motore turbo benzina 1. Tra il e il , con oltre mila esemplari venduti, il Caddy di terza generazione raggiunse volumi di vendita mai registrati prima. Nel il Caddy venne sottoposto a un consistente restyling. Le versioni Furgone, Kombi e monovolume compatta, ottimizzate sia esteticamente sia tecnologicamente, erano ora equipaggiate con controllo elettronico della stabilizzazione ESP di serie.
Il nuovo Caddy inoltre fu uno dei primi veicoli del suo segmento a essere disponibile non solo con trazione anteriore ma anche con trazione integrale 4Mo tion a richiesta. Nel marzo Volkswagen Veicoli Commerciali ha superato quota 2 milioni dei soli esemplari prodotti nello stabilimento polacco di Pozna?
Di questi, fino a fine , circa mila erano costituiti dal Caddy 4, sul mercato dal Come nasce questa collaborazione e su quali valori comuni si fonda? Quali sono i punti di forza della partnership? In alter-. La versione extra-long raggiunge, invece, una lunghezza complessiva di 5. Sono stati anche esaminati il comportamento di marcia e del carico alle basse temperature, oltre alla resistenza al freddo dei componenti del gruppo propulsore e del software.
Mercedes-Benz eVito regge il confronto dei costi con i tradizionali modelli con motore a combustione. La scelta tra il motore elettrico a batterie o il tradizionale motore a combustione interna dipende, quindi, esclusivamente dalla presenza di presupposti ottimali per una determinata applicazione.
Dopo aver fatto il punto della situazione, si passa allo sviluppo condiviso delle soluzioni per risolvere il problema caso per caso, in stretta collaborazione con il rispettivo. I progetti pilota, realizzati in collaborazione con le due aziende di soluzioni logistiche Hermes e Amazon Logistics, rappresentano due esempi di come il punto di vi sta del cliente incida profondamente sullo sviluppo di soluzioni di sistema globali. Inoltre, Mercedes-Benz Vans propone, per la prima volta, un nuovo servizio per la gestione intelligente dello stato di carica, che consente anche di tenere sotto controllo il livello di carica di ciascun veicolo.
Prossimamente, Mercedes-. Anche se, in questo caso, lo si riuscirebbe ad apprezzare anche senza sapere nulla di numeri e strategie di mercato. Spazioso, confortevole,. Per la nostra prova dal mazzo abbiamo pescato una carta molto interessante, la versione doppia cabina spinta dal 2. Oltre alla nostra variante, adatta al trasporto di un numero massimo di sei passeggeri e di tanti oggetti ingombranti nel cassone, esiste la versione furgone, quella con pianale cabinato e la combi.
Insomma la gamma Vivaro offre. Davvero impagabile. Tutti accorgimenti che costituiscono fattori importantissimi anche nel mercato delle flotte, quando evitare gli incidenti significa ridurre i costi operativi. Stesso discorso per i lunghi intervalli di servizio assicurati dal veicolo, fino a Motore: 2.
Carburante: gasolio. Cilindrata: 1. Livello ecologico: Euro 6. Cambio: automatico a 8 marce. Dimensioni mm : lunghezza 5. Massa a vuoto: 1. Sito produttivo: stabilimento di Luton, Regno Unito. OM Ebbene, la Casa tedesca inserisce nel programma di sviluppo del Vito un interessante upgrade che apre un nuovo capitolo nella storia del van della Stella.
Con eVito nel ed eSprinter nel , Mercedes-Benz Vans ha precorso i tempi nel segmento premium per un trasporto merci commerciale a zero emissioni locali in aree urbane. La catena cinematica elettrica eATS aziona le ruote anteriori con una potenza di picco massima di kW cv.
La presa di carica CCS, situata sul lato sinistro del paraurti anteriore, permette anche la ricarica in corrente continua CC. La batteria, con. Grazie alla strategia di funzionamento intelligente, la batteria di eVito Tourer si ricarica anche durante la marcia. In fase di rilascio o di frenata, il movimento rotatorio meccanico viene trasformato in energia elettrica utilizzata per ricaricare la batteria ad alto voltaggio recupero di energia.
Finora la nuova generazione di motori era disponibile solo per Vito Tourer. I clienti possono scegliere tra svariati pacchetti di equipaggiamento. Brake Assist attivo, Distronic sistema di assistenza attivo alla regolazione della distanza e specchietto retrovisore interno digitale portano da 10 a 13 i sistemi di assistenza e di sicurezza disponibili per il nuovo Vito.
I designer hanno modificato il caratteristico look dinamico di Vito. Ora il van si riconosce dalla griglia del radiatore riconfigurata. Il motore diesel quattro cilindri OM risulta particolarmente efficiente nei consumi e con emissioni bassissime. Con la nuova generazione di Marco Polo Activity, il numero dei sistemi di sicurezza e assistenza a bordo aumenta, passando dagli attuali 10 a Se il conducente reagisce, il sistema di assistenza genera una pressione frenante adeguata alla specifica situazione; se, al contrario, il guidatore non reagisce, il sistema resta attivo per supportare eventuali manovre improvvise finalizzate a evitare un impatto o le frenate.
Una telecamera HDR nel lunotto trasmette quanto accade dietro il veicolo al display dello specchietto. Tramite il consueto interruttore a bilico antiabbaglia-. Disponibile dal , la famiglia Marco Polo comprende tre modelli, distribuiti in oltre Per quanto riguarda la dotazione di sedili, si va dai cinque posti di serie ai sette. Tutto quello che serve per vivere le emozioni del leisure time.
Il fatturato ha avuto un andamento positivo, arrivando a quota 14,8 miliardi di euro. Abbiamo inoltre preso deci-. Boost Transformation si concentra invece nel cambiamento culturale. FBAC a Fu zhou. Citan, usato per i servizi di distribuzione nelle aree urbane e prodotto a partire dal , si colloca nel segmento degli small van.
I propulsori disponibili appartengono alla collaudata fami-. Nome: Trafic My19 SpaceClass. Coppia: Nm. Accelerazione km: 12,4 sec. Livello ecologico: Euro 6d. Cambio: manuale a 6 marce. Massa a vuoto: 2. Sito produttivo: stabilimento di Kocaeli, in Turchia. Un esempio? Il bracciolo al sedile di conducente e passeggero. Grazie al tavolino centrale rotondo estraibile, in qualche minuto di pausa trasformiamo la cabina in una sala riunioni attrezzata, con prese usb e luci a led: una vera e propria suite privata, che consente di lavorare riparati dai vetri oscurati, in un ambiente con ottimo comfort termico grazie al climatizzatore e al riscaldamento, regolabili dallo spazio passeggeri.
Oltre a consentire il viaggio di otto passeggeri, Trafic offre un bagagliaio molto spazioso: abbassando tutti i sedili, SpaceClass L2 dispone di uno spazio per i bagagli pari a 6 mc. Viene prodotto a Sandouville, sito dalle cui linee nasce anche Fiat Talento e che rappresenta la piattaforma produttiva per il nuovo medio Mitsubishi per i mercati di Austria e Nuova Zelanda e per il Nissan NV Altri partner sono stati selezionati in altri Paesi europei.
Enel X, la business line innovati-. Grazie alla partnership con PSA proponiamo a tutte le persone che sceglieranno di guidare elettrico le migliori so-. Con Enel X sono state studiate tre soluzioni di ricarica personalizzate: il pacchetto Home in ambito privato, quello Street in ambito pubblico e il Full Recharge comprensivo di tutte e due i servizi.
Ad oggi, sono circa 9. Veicolo di riferimento in Europa per la Casa francese, nel rappresenta il 16 per cento di quota nel suo segmento, con i due terzi delle immatricolazioni nella versione commerciale e un terzo in versione autovettura. Forte del comfort di bordo, di una progettazione intelligente e tecnologie di assistenza alla guida, la terza generazione di Berlingo conferma il suo successo attraverso un ricco mix di vendite.
Lo stesso dovrebbe valere per i prezzi dei veicoli. Il nuovo prezzo di listino del TGE 3. Per tutte queste applicazioni urbane, MAN propone al mercato il proprio furgone. Per rispondere alle future esigenze di manutenzione e riparazione dei veicoli elettrici, la Rete di assistenza MAN ha iniziato un processo di adeguamento delle.
In officina sono autorizzati a intervenire sul prodotto elettrico solo i mec-. Richiudere portiere e veicolo ed effettuare la consegna. Una volta prelevato, certo di aver preso quello giusto, richiude lo sportellino ed effettua la consegna. Geniale, no? Come nasce il progetto sul piano tecnico? Dopo aver svuotato la cassetta un secondo scaffale riceve il. Ma un van, specie di grandi dimensioni, deve anche essere parcheggiato in modo semplice, efficiente e confortevole. Ulteriori tecnologie disponibili a bordo di Transit per supportare gli utenti nelle manovre di uscita dai parcheggi o nelle percorrenze in aree urbane molto affollate includono il Park-Out Assist, il Cross Traffic Alert, il Side Sensing System e i Front e Rear Wide-View Camera.
Il Traffic Cross Alert avverte i conducenti che escono da un parcheggio della presenza di pedoni e ciclisti sulla strada o che potrebbero attraversare nella traiettoria posteriore del veicolo. Inoltre, il Side Sensing System fornisce avvisi visivi e acustici in caso rilevi ostacoli nelle vicinanze del veicolo, per aiutare i. Front Wide-View Camera e Rear Wide-View Camera consentono ai conducenti di visualizzare il traffico in arrivo: veicoli, pedoni o ciclisti, quando si esce da un parcheggio o da un garage, anche in retromarcia.
In Europa, i consumatori potranno scegliere tra 18 veicoli elettrificati Ford entro la fine. Impermeabile e antipolvere, Dometic CAM vanta un montaggio facile e senza fori sulla maggior parte dei veicoli in commercio. Basta collegare la fonte di alimentazione, senza connettere sistemi aggiuntivi, e ripetere la calibrazione. Abbiamo anche incre- mentato il numero dei dipendenti, passati da 1. Parliamo di emissioni che sono prodotte per il 50 per cento dal riscaldamento privato, per il 25 per cento dalle industrie e per il 25 per cento dal trasporto.
Lo sviluppo di una rete di infrastrutture di rifornimento a LNG permette di diminuire gli effetti inquinanti per i trasporti pesanti. Protagonisti di ogni intervento sono i Vigili del Fuoco, al cui servizio Scania e BAI Brescia Antincendi International mettono veicoli aeroportuali sviluppati ad hoc: le due aziende si sono aggiudicate la gara indetta dal Ministero degli Interni per la fornitura di 40 mezzi destinati al Corpo Nazionale dei vigili del Fuoco.
LA TUA. Marco Cassago, Direttore della filiale italiana di AS Per i pedaggi il PASSango viene offerto in quattro ver sioni, ad esempio PASSango Europilot prevede la geolocalizzazione per avere sempre il controllo della posizione dei veicoli in movimento e relativi percorsi. Si tratta di un dispositivo con una autonomia di durata di cinque anni, low cost: si aggancia con due viti al rimorchio e comunica la sua posizione quando viene parcheggiato. Grande flotta o pa- droncino? Di coloro che ogni giorno, con abnegazione, si met- tono in viaggio.
I 25 miliardi disposti dal Governo sono qualcosa, ma quando sento i numeri degli altri Paesi, i miliardi della Germania, non posso impedirmi di considerare che una cifra simile dovrebbe essere messa a disposizione di famiglie e imprese anche in Italia. Intanto nel trasporto passeggeri le aziende che erogano i servizi di TPL hanno messo in campo piani straordinari per la disinfezione dei mezzi impiegati in linea: ad esempio Tper, nei territori di Bo logna e Ferrara, e SETA nei bacini provinciali di Modena, Reggio Emilia e Piacenza, a ogni rientro in deposito dei bus effettuava- no interventi mirati con prodotti a base di cloro, dal posto guida del conducente alle parti di maggiore contatto mancorrenti, appoggi e sedili.
Siamo ambiziosi nel voler creare una filiera sostenibile completa, dal committente al destinatario Matteo Lorenzo De Campo, Amministratore delegato del Gruppo Maganetti. Il distri- butore di Gera Lario funziona molto bene e si sta rivelando una scelta strategica vincente. Inoltre, Maganetti sup- porta i suoi clienti nello sviluppare un servizio logistico aggiornato con i tempi e con le leggi vigenti in Italia. Nel abbiamo acqui- stato un immobile, con uffici, capannone e piazzale dove siamo ubicati ancora oggi.
Assumere e attrarre i conducenti migliori sta diventando imperativo categorico per le aziende di trasporto. Nel segmento dei veicoli commerciali, Lamberet conta di rivoluzionare il panorama dei frigoriferi, in senso proprio e figurato, con il lancio Erick Mejean, Direttore Generale di Lamberet. Ha inoltre acquisito una posizione di leadership di mercato in Belgio e Lussemburgo 19,4 per cento e in Bulgaria 23,6 per cento. Sempre nel la rete Daf di oltre 1.
Elisa Pigozzi, Amministratrice Realtrailer. La sede Fassi di Firenze, con sede a Calenzano, ha collaborato con la SVI fin dalle origini e ancora oggi si conferma fornitore di riferimento. Conti CrossTrac Asfalto e sterrato? Due mondi. Una soluzione. Pascal Gabet, direttore generale HaropaPort de Rouen. Trova il tuo Concessionario di zona su www. I sei Touring entreranno in servizio principalmente a Roma come mezzi sostituivi per Busitalia, incaricata dalle Ferrovie dello Stato di sostituire con trasporto su gomma le tratte su rotaia a minore frequentazione che possono effettuarsi con autobus.
Diversamente dalla prima generazione, il Caddy di seconda generazione venne proposto inizialmente solo in ver- sione Furgone chiuso e Kombi con tetto alto. Il Concept Sprinter FCELL abbina la tecnologia della cella a combustile con quella delle batterie sotto forma di un veicolo ibrido plugin. Abbiamo inoltre preso deci- Pagina XII sioni determinati per riprendere la strada del successo.
Anche gli impianti stanno conoscendo uno sviluppo tecnologico? Pagina 3 solio. Che cosa vuol dire esattamente biometano? Questo vuol dire che un camion che viaggia a biometano certificato non solo emette zero emissioni, ma riutilizza letame, recuperando il biometano che prima finiva in atmosfera, o ricicla scarti dalla produzione di cibo per animali, ad esempio gambi di mais. Come sta procedendo Ham Italia nella diffusione del biometano? Quando vedremo le prime stazioni di rifornimento?
Ham sta investendo su quanto offre il mercato a prezzi ragionevoli: 5mila tonnellate andranno in produzione a fine anno e stiamo trattando per altre mila. Ham Italia non si propone co me realizzatore degli impianti di liquefazione, ma semmai come consulente esperto in materia. Ham Italia ha trovato la soluzione anche per questo.
I figli Giuseppe e Pasquale operano soprattutto con carichi nel settore industriale, nel bacino di servizio per il sito di Bagnoli, effettuando tratte nazionali nord-sud. Gli Ambrosio si occupano della raccolta del materiale dei fornitori Fiat, che viene stoccato e poi distribuito nei vari stabilimenti. Il giovane si trasferisce a Torino. Carinaro, in provincia di Caserta, destinato a diventare autentico punto di riferimento per le operazioni di trasporto e logistica, oggi equipaggiato con 20mila mq di celle frigo gradi per i viaggi a temperatura controllata.
Sulla base degli ordinativi del giorno precedente, ogni mattina da Carinaro partono veicoli che riforniscono i punti vendita di colossi quali il Gruppo Expert e supermercati della GDO del Centro e Sud Italia per food e non food. Oggi la flotta. Forse troppo presto.
Abbiamo investito continua Vincenzo - sulla rea-. Un rapporto che prosegue oggi con le nuove generazioni al timone delle aziende, nelle persone di Michele Valiante e dei fratelli Luigi e Vincenzo Ambrosio. Oltre ai prodotti, tutti di nuova generazione,. Come solo un lavoratore che parte da zero sa fare.
E sceglie solo i mezzi migliori. In un Paese cresciuto con il trasporto su strada oggi le aziende del settore spesso fanno capo alla seconda o alla terza generazione di proprietari. Lui ha solo 39 anni, e quando iniziava la sua avventura ne aveva appena Era un passaggio necessario. Il nostro punto di forza? Gli operativi sulla strada sono invece tutti assunti direttamente da Spiz Trasporti.
Nien te LNG? Chiedere a Roberto Spizzirri se sia soddisfatto della sua scelta sembra pleonastico. Per il Daimler Trucks mette in conto condizioni congiunturali particolarmente impegnative nei principali mercati di vendita e prevede che la.
Con 2,5 miliardi di euro, abbiamo ottenuto un risultato di tutto rispetto. Abbiamo reagito al vento contrario della congiuntura economica in regioni chiave, adeguando la nostra produzione di conseguenza. Continueremo a promuovere e a sostenere la trasformazione del nostro settore.
In questo modo riusciremo a realizzare una trasformazione sostenibile verso i trasporti del futuro automatizzati, interconnessi ed a zero emissioni. In Europa i costi del personale verranno tagliati di milioni di euro entro il , anno entro il quale anche i costi variabili dovranno essere ridotti di milioni di euro.
In primis, si tratta di prodotti alimentari e farmaceutici. Senza contare gli approvvigionamenti necessari a rifornire le corsie ospedaliere e i reparti di terapia intensiva dove sono ricoverati i contagiati da Covid e dove migliaia di medici e infermieri svolgono il loro preziosissimo lavoro. In prima linea ci sono naturalmente le aziende della filiera agroalimentare. Un azione a gradi che continua giorno dopo giorno, anche in piena emergenza Coronavirus.
Si aggiunge la filiale diretta in Francia, a Saint Quentin Fallavier. La percentuale di veicoli Euro 6 ha raggiunto quasi il 90 per cento del totale della flotta. Nel contia-. Tutti valori ereditati dal fondatore e fatti propri dai tre fratelli oggi alla guida del Gruppo. Abbiamo anche incre-. Ogni an no in tutti i segmenti operativi registriamo un aumento dal 7 al 10 per cento, con particolare riferimento alle recenti ot time performance in ambito logistica di magazzino e distribuzione ultimo miglio, due settori dove investiamo e vo gliamo crescere per offrire al cliente finale un servizio a gradi che parte dal trasporto del prodotto dal sito produttivo al magazzino dove viene preparato per la successiva consegna.
Sono diversi i progetti in cantiere che il Gruppo Torello sta realizzando per migliorare ulteriormente il suo servizio. Andremo avanti con le trazioni a LNG e. Con oltre 3. Engie Italia gestisce 3 centrali termoelettriche, 20 centrali di cogenerazione e 12 reti di teleriscaldamento. Si tratta di un nuovo avamposto strategico per la diffusione della trazione a metano. Parliamo di emissioni che.
Lo sviluppo di una rete di infrastrutture di rifornimento a LNG permette. Impegno vuol dire anche sottolineare il ruolo di Iveco in oltre venti anni di lavoro assiduo sulle trazioni alternative e in particolare sul metano gassoso e liquido.
In Italia, i truck alimentati a metano immatricolati negli ultimi due anni sono circa 2. Leader globale nel controllo del clima con il suo portafoglio di innovazioni, Trane Technologies - colore distintivo viola e 36mila dipendenti nel mondo - porta sul mercato soluzioni efficienti e sostenibili per edifici e case con il marchio Trane e, per i trasporti, con Thermo King.
Con la nuo-. La soluzione ibrida di refrigerazione mono e multitemperatura per semirimorchi di Thermo King, leader europeo nella refrigerazione di veicoli trainati. Il trainato rappresenta il punto di forza di Thermo King, la cui leadership in molti Paesi europei si conferma anche nelle soluzioni di refrigerazione per motrici e leggeri. Non siamo leader nei segmenti Marine e Rail, dove pure abbiamo quote importanti.
Da parte nostra confermiamo le medesime. Trane Technologies vuole essere al centro di questi cambiamenti con i suoi prodotti: con il marchio Trane dedicandosi alle tecnologie relative alla climatizzazione, con Thermo King nel trasporto refrigerato. Protagonisti di ogni intervento sono i Vigili del Fuoco, al cui servizio Scania e BAI Brescia Antincendi International mettono veicoli aeroportuali sviluppati ad hoc: le due aziende si sono aggiudicate la gara indetta dal.
Ministero degli Interni per la fornitura di 40 mezzi destinati al Corpo Nazionale dei vigili del Fuoco. Il grande lavoro di squadra messo in atto in Italscania e nella collaborazione con BAI ci ha consentito di configurare dei veicoli in grado di rispondere al meglio alle caratteristiche tecniche e alle esigenze richieste.
Siamo veramente fieri di fornire i nostri veicoli antincendio Efestus. I veicoli consegnati sono dotati del potente motore da cv e cabina P20N in grado di soddisfare i numerosi requisiti in termini di spazi interni e altezza da terra. Per il momento abbiamo consegnato i primi 20 veicoli e altri 20 sono in consegna. Scania ha iniziato a of-. Offre fino a 1. Menci, Zorzi e al tre ancora. Con ciascuna di esse abbiamo iniziato a lavorare, nella maggior parte dei casi per il mercato italiano ma, come con Cappellotto, con riferimenti internazionali.
Con questo spirito e approccio abbiamo iniziato a lavorare anche con O. La partnership con O. Al punto da trasformare la sua. Utilizziamo anche i fornitori della O. Il nostro servizio si estende anche ai clienti O. Il catalogo prodotti O. La sede centrale di O. Ogni anno produce circa veicoli. Ora, le soluzioni green promosse da Truck Italia entrano in un settore altamente specializzato come quello degli spurghi e del la sanificazione urbana. Ecoline costruisce e commercializza macchinari per pulizia outdoor e indoor.
Progetta e promuove soluzioni per un progresso sostenibile e introduce innovazioni positive per i settori di riferimento. Oltre allo spurgo, le nostre soluzioni sono in grado di fare diverse importanti operazioni: dalla rimozione dei graffiti e dei chewing-gum al lavaggio di monumenti e arredi urbani, di pavimentazioni e piazze, di impianti fotovoltaici e grandi vetrate, fino alla decontaminazione da guano dei piccioni alla pulizia di superfici in legno e molto altro ancora.
La sezione di engineering di Ecoline progetta, costruisce e commercializza i macchinari per la pulizia outdoor e indoor. I dipendenti sono una quindicina. Massimo Projetti fa parte della direzione di J Art, un network che ha lo scopo di diffondere e rilanciare in Italia la puli-. Dobbiamo essere sempre molto presenti per facilitare tutto questo. Continuiamo dunque a tenerci aggiornati, collaborando attivamente con Mercedes-Benz. Operiamo nel settore dei servizi ecologici utilizzando sempre attrezzature e tecnologie evolute.
Autospurgo 90 offre i propri servizi ai privati cittadini, alle imprese e agli enti pubblici. Noi di Autospurgo 90, che nella tutela ambientale siamo attivi da decenni, non possiamo che. In Italia operano circa aziende del settore spurghi. Siamo a Cesena, esattamente nella frazione Borello. Ai tempi i veicoli frigo non esistevano, ci si ingegnava come meglio si poteva. Cesena emerge come uno dei porti di maggiore importanza nel trasporto refrigerato.
Nel i Domeniconi sono protagonisti di una nuova sfida imprenditoriale, che ha come corollario la nascita della Cooperativa AVG, presieduta da Mattia e con Evio Ragonesi come vicepresidente. AVG conta 25 dipendenti, due impiegate, un responsabile del piazzale e i quattro fondatori i Domeniconi e Ragonesi. Nel parco sono presenti quattro Iveco Daily e tre bilici trattore Mercedes-Benz Actros e semirimorchi Lamberet noleggiati da Fraikin: una partnership che Domeniconi non solo ha confermato, ma che intende estendere per il rinnovo della flotta.
Siamo particolarmente lieti di quello che si preannuncia come matrimonio tra due aziende dalla lunga e gloriosa tradizione: Fraikin nasce a Parigi nel , Do meniconi a Cesena nel Nel SAB cede a Domeniconi Autotrasporti il ramo del trasporto, per dedicarsi unicamente alla gestione del patrimonio immobiliare, e nel viene aperta la sede SAB di via Romagna: 19mila mq di piazzale e due capannoni di duemila e tremila mq. La crisi economica del non. Nel inizia la sua esperienza nelle Carte Carburante, per tornare, nel , a occuparsi di lubrificanti.
Il core business resta la fornitura di carburanti. Per i pedaggi il PASSango viene offerto in quattro ver sioni, ad esempio PASSango Europilot prevede la geolocalizzazione per avere sempre il controllo della posizione dei. Proponiamo servizi informatici per la connessione dati, che consentono di trasmettere dati mentre i veicoli viaggiano. Si tratta di un dispositivo con una autonomia di durata di cinque anni, low. I clienti che parteciperanno a questo sviluppo troveranno ap-. Grande flotta o pa-.
Le esigenze di sicurezza possono variare notevolmente a seconda delle dimensioni del veicolo e delle applicazioni per le quali viene utilizzato. Quali sono le tecnologie su cui si basa il nuovo sistema? Molte compagnie di autobus, in particolare, hanno mostrato interesse nel sistema per ridurre, ad esempio, le collisioni con ciclisti e pedoni che il conducente non vede.
Anche i principali produttori mondiali di carrelli elevatori stanno adottando il sistema per migliorare la sicurezza del magazzino e della fabbrica. Quali sono le aspettative in relazione al feedback dei mercati europei e italiano sul nuovo sistema? Per ciascuna classe la coppia aumenta di Nm, portandosi rispettivamente a 2. Grazie alle nu-. Con Mercedes-Benz eEconic, veicolo elettrico a batteria con pianale ribassato, Daimler Trucks compie un ulteriore importante passo in avanti nella strategia globale di elettrificazione dei propri veicoli pesanti.
A tal fine, grazie alla nostra strategia globale basata su piattaforme, puntiamo su tecnologie e architetture standardizzate a livello mondiale an che nel campo dei veicoli elettrici e siamo in grado di accelerare enormemente i lavori di sviluppo grazie alle sinergie. La prima consegna ai clienti ha avuto luogo nel Abbiamo sempre sottolineato negli ultimi 30 anni come trasporti e logistica costituiscano le arterie fondamentali per consentire ad un Paese di vivere e svilupparsi.
Abbiamo sentito operatori e manager del settore. Senza affatto trascurare che, in ma-. Se ci fermiano noi a causa di blocchi, limitazioni illogiche e provvedimenti irrazionali, il Paese intero va a fondo. Giustissima la precauzione ma se le mascherine non si tro vano e sono da giorni e sau rite come la mettiamo? Secondo esempio: le aree di servizio autostradale devo tassativamente chiudere alle Diverso il caso del tragitto a bordo della mia auto necessario per raggiungere il truck.
Ma quando sono in cabina Sarebbe positivo se il Governo facesse in modo di darglieli. Del tutto inimmaginabile che in una manciata di giorni quel materiale sarebbe servito al nostro Paese. Era la sera del 23 febbraio quando iniziava a diffondersi la notizia dei primi contagi da Covid19 in Lombardia.
Non se ne parla, ma al pari di medici e infermieri gli autotrasportatori svolgono un servizio essenziale. Fatelo tutti, voi che potete. Gli autisti e i meccanici non possono e non devono farlo, in caso contrario si fermerebbe il Paese. Ecco, che ansia avremmo per loro a saperli per strada, a contatto con la gente, senza le protezioni adeguate?
Delle persone che guidano i camion. Di coloro che ogni giorno, con abnegazione, si met-. E lo fanno purtroppo spesso senza gli strumenti adatti. Io non voglio fare polemica ma si fa fatica a reperire mascherine, termometri e tutti quei dispositivi che oggi salvano le vite delle persone in trincea. Dobbiamo prestare attenzione anche a loro. I concessionari, le reti, gli autisti stessi, siamo tutti estremamente preoccupati.
Stiamo affrontando qualcosa di inedito. I 25 miliardi disposti dal Governo sono qualcosa, ma quando sento i numeri degli altri Paesi, i miliardi della Germania, non. Diciamocelo, 25 miliardi sono uno stanziamento davvero esiguo. Tassa di attracco e altri costi mettono fuori mercato il sistema portuale italiano.
Qualcuno dovrebbe occuparsene subito, se non vogliamo perdere traffico merci a. Intanto nel trasporto passeggeri le aziende che erogano i servizi di TPL hanno messo in campo piani straordinari per la disinfezione. A seguito delle ordinanze.
Tra i primi a prendere posizione Maurizio Longo, segretario generale di Trasportounito. La terza evidenza riguarda il ruolo svolto dal trasporto nella nostra organizzazione sociale. Una richiesta che fa da sempre Antonio Mollica, 61 anni, da 42 al volante del camion, al suo attivo 10 km su strada.
Aree sosta e ristoranti chiusi dopo le 18, che vuol dire camionisti costretti a veri e propri orinatoi a cielo aperto, a non avere un luogo dove ristorarsi o lavarsi le mani. Circostanza che riguarda anche le diecimila donne che in Italia fanno questo mestiere. Ho ricevuto lamentele da tutta Italia per la mancanza di mascherine omologate: non credo sia da paese civile sapere che chi gui da per.
Questo vuol dire che bloccare il trasporto due giorni equivale a un Paese finito. Quella dei camionisti neppure, aggiungiamo noi. E devo dire che tutto ha funzionato bene. Il tutto. Sono le parole di Andrea Gentile, Presidente di Assologistica. Oltre ad aderire ai contributi delle Confederazioni Confetra e Confindustria , Assologistica ha dato. Una squadra, quella degli autisti di Rea Trasporti, che conta oggi 72 persone.
Tra le prime aziende a ot-. I mezzi operano in questi casi per la Rivoira, azienda leader nella produzione e distribuzione di gas allo stato liquido e gassoso e nella costruzione di impianti, sempre per il gas. Passano pochi mesi e Lo ner aspira a un ruolo di maggiore vicinanza al veicolo industriale.
In quegli anni. Siamo ambiziosi nel voler creare una filiera sostenibile completa, dal committente al destinatario. Carichiamo materie prime, semilavorati, lavorati, alluminio, prodotti agricoli, merce refrigerata. In flotta disponiamo di 25 semirimorchi frigoriferi a cui vanno aggiunti centinati, vasche e ribaltabili.
Per quanto riguarda i semirimorchi frigoriferi ci affidiamo a veicoli Schmitz Cargobull abbinati a gruppi. Nel non abbiamo comunque rinunciato a pianificare importanti investimenti. In particolare, ci siamo con centrati sul biometano liquido, che per noi rappresenta lo step successi-. Diverso il caso del biometano ricavato da fonti rinnovabili. Si tratta ovviamente di distributori aperti al pubblico.
Se il buon giorno si vede dal mattino, il Gruppo Maganetti ha tutte le carte in regola per replicare i successi fin qui conseguiti. Il distri-. Maganetti affonda le sue radici negli anni Sessanta del secolo scorso. Mia madre Maria Patrizia Romeri Maganetti e mio padre non avevano un ruolo operativo in azienda, quindi il passaggio ge-.
Inoltre, Maganetti sup-. In sostanza, le B Corp aderiscono a un nuovo paradigma di business adeguato ai nostri tempi, concreto e replicabile. Maganetti, che diventa anche la quinta B Corp della provincia di Sondrio, ha iniziato il lungo iter per la certificazione nel gennaio A oggi nel mondo vi sono circa 2. Il Renault Trucks T 01 Racing, intera-. La verniciatura esterna. Sul veicolo sono presenti adesivi retroriflettenti esclusivi che richiamano il mondo delle corse.
Le finiture sono completate dalla verniciatura della visiera, dei cerchi, della calandra del radiatore e della scocca dei retrovisori. Ha un basso chilometraggio e una garanzia del costruttore di 12 mesi o mila km. Il costruttore francese ha stipulato un contratto con il Gruppo Carlsberg per la fornitura di 20 autocarri D Wide Z.
I 20 autocarri D Wide Z. Con una gamma completa di autocarri elettrici da 3,1 a 26 tonnellate, Renault Trucks risponde alle esigenze immediate e future delle imprese che lavorano nelle aree urbane. Il D Wide Z. Due motori elettrici erogano una potenza totale di kW potenza continua kW e una coppia massima di Nm. Il layout della cabina offre un ambiente spazioso per autisti e passeggeri, con scomparti portaoggetti capienti e organizzati e una comoda area notte.
Il layout dei comandi fa in modo che tutte le funzioni siano a portata di mano, permettendo agli autisti di lavorare agevolmente. Il volante multifunzione dotato di 22 co mandi mette tutte le funzioni necessarie a portata di mano, compresi i sistemi di assistenza alla guida. Il lettino inferiore in un unico pezzo presenta un materasso dello spessore di 14 cm, disponibile in due livelli di comfort.
Nel abbiamo acqui-. Abbiamo tutte le tipologie di veicoli, trattori, motrici, semirimorchi, furgoni, tutti isotermici con gruppo frigo per un totale di 78 pezzi, in prevalenza di marca. Assumere e attrarre i conducenti migliori sta diventando imperativo categorico per le. Volvo Trucks risponde a questa esigenza con una nuova generazione di pesanti stradali, sviluppata per rivolgersi a conducenti qualificati con veicoli che si pro pongono come strumenti di lavoro sicuri, efficienti e interessanti.
Nella cantieristica i veicoli sono strumenti di lavoro robusti e pratici. Anche gli esterni sono stati aggiornati per riflettere le nuove caratteristiche con un design accattivante. In molti mercati FH e FM sono disponibili con motore LNG alimentato a gas conforme allo standard Euro VI, che offre efficienza e prestazioni nei consumi allo stesso livello dei veicoli Volvo con alimentazione diesel. Nel segmento dei veicoli commerciali, Lamberet conta di rivoluzionare il panorama dei frigoriferi, in senso proprio e figurato, con il lancio.
I primi prototipi sono in uso da 2 anni e danno pie na soddisfazione. Questo veicolo offre il miglior rendimento energetico sul mercato, con un COP EER di 1,55, per un consumo ridotto a soli 45 ampere. Berlingo e Peugeot Partner elettrici. Queste applicazioni innovative di Lamberet per il trasporto a temperatura controllata hanno suscitato fin da subito molto interesse da parte dei clienti, tanto che fin dai primi mesi del le soluzioni presentate si sono trasformate presto in conferme di importanti contratti di fornitura soprattutto nel settore della grande distribuzione alimentare e della logistica distributiva del farmaco.
La stretta collaborazione con le maggiori Case costruttrici fa parte del Dna di Lamberet. Nel suo percorso di crescita costante degli ultimi 10 anni, Lamberet ha assunto un ruolo di leader consolidato, in particolare nel mercato italiano.
I Parts Specialists sono una vera e propria squadra di mec canici esperti di Diesel Technic, pronti a dare il miglior supporto non solo attraverso il sito dedicato ma anche tramite un apposito HelpDesk, strumento disponibile on line tramite il quale i Parts Specialists rispondono alle richieste individuali degli utenti. Per soddisfare tutte le richieste, il duo originario dei Parts Specialists di Diesel Technic, composto da Lars e.
Comitato di Redazione Fabio Basilico - f. Il telaio del pianale impedisce inoltre la penetrazione del-. Le pareti dello spessore di 60 mm, il tetto dello spessore di 85 mm e il fondo dello spessore di mm garantiscono un ridotto coefficiente di trasmissione del calore valore K. Questa elevata protezione contro gli effetti della temperatura riduce il consumo di energia consentendo al tempo stesso una riduzione dei costi. Ad esempio, le dodici guide per carico multipiano, cadauna parete, e i loro portapallet consentono un carico fino a 33EP Europallet.
Questa paratia, fatta di singoli profili a V in allu-. Oltre a una coppia di rulli in acciaio, sono montate due file di paracolpi in gomma sul pannello chiusura telaio e una protezione in gomma a sinistra e a destra del telaio portale. Ha inoltre acquisito una posizione di leadership di mercato in. Belgio e Lussemburgo 19,4 per cento e in Bulgaria 23,6 per cento. Inoltre, Daf ha venduto 7. In Sud Africa le vendite sono. Daf ha inoltre venduto quasi 3mila motori Paccar ai principali produttori di autobus, pullman e veicoli speciali in tutto il mondo.
Sempre nel la rete Daf di oltre. Krone, produttore tedesco leader di. Investimento ragionato, quello del management Krone, il cui. Naturalmente ci siamo riorganizzati con lavoro a distanza e part time. Mercedes-Benz e Bosch cooperano in Brasile ercedes-Benz e Bosch hanno unito le loro forze in Brasile per dare vita a un modernissimo centro di test per veicoli. In such circumstances, it is difficult to attain sufficient enough accuracy because of the external factors inducing the error component in electromagnetic wave propagation.
For instance, the local climate characteristics such as orographic effect and the proximity to water source can produce the significant anomalies in the water vapor distribution and consequently result in the error components of InSAR phase angle measurements.
Moreover the high altitude parts of target area cause the stratified tropospheric delay error in DInSAR measurement. Thus we employed two approaches i. Since the water vapor observation from spaceborne radiometer is not feasible by the temporal gap in this case, the quantities from weather Research Forecasting WRF with 1 km spatial resolution was used to address the atmospheric phase error in two pass DInSAR analysis.
Also it was observed that base DEM offset with time dependent perpendicular baselines of InSAR time series produce a significant error. In this paper, we report the recent progress in optical-beam scanning fiber interferometry for potential online nanoscale surface measurement based on the previous research.
It attempts to generate a robust and miniature measurement device for future development into a multiprobe array measurement system. In this research, both fiber-optic- interferometry and the wavelength-division-multiplexing techniques have been used, so that the optical probe and the optical interferometer are well spaced and fast surface scanning can be carried out, allowing flexibility for online measurement.
In addition, this system provides a self-reference signal to stabilize the optical detection with high common-mode noise suppression by adopting an active phase tracking and stabilization technique. Low-frequency noise was significantly reduced compared with unstabilized result. The measurement of a sample surface shows an attained repeatability of 3. This paper reviews existing remote sensing methods of road damage detection and demonstrates the possibility of using DInSAR Differential Interferometry SAR method to identify endangered road sections.
In this study two radar images collected by Sentinel-1 satellite have been used. Images were acquired with 24 days interval in The analysis allowed to estimate the scale of the post-mining deformation that occurred in Upper Silesia and to indicate areas where road infrastructure is particularly vulnerable to damage.
Beam shaping optics to enhance performance of interferometry techniques in grating manufacture. Improving of industrial holographic and interferometry techniques is of great importance in interference lithography, computer-generated holography, holographic data storage, interferometry recording of Bragg gratings as well as gratings of various types in semiconductor industry. Performance of mentioned techniques is essentially enhanced by providing a light beam with flat phase front and flat-top irradiance distribution.
Therefore, transformation of Gaussian distribution of a TEM00 laser to flat-top top hat, uniform distribution is an important optical task. There are different refractive and diffractive beam shaping approaches used in laser industrial and scientific applications, but only few of them are capable to fulfil the optimum conditions for beam quality demanding holography and interferometry. High optical quality of resulting flat-top beam allows applying additional optical components to build various imaging optical systems for variation of beam size and shape to fulfil requirements of a particular application.
This paper will describe design basics of refractive beam shapers and optical layouts of their applying in holography and laser interference lithography. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well. X-ray phase radiography and tomography with grating interferometry and the reverse projection technique. X-ray grating interferometry provides substantially increased contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging methods, and therefore new and complementary information.
Compared with other phase-contrast imaging techniques , x-ray grating interferometry can overcome some of the problems that have impaired the applications of x-ray phase-contrast radiography and phase tomography. Recently, special attention has been paid to the development of quantitative phase retrieval methods, which is mandatory to perform x-ray phase tomography, to achieve material identification, to differentiate distinct tissues, etc. Typically, the phase-stepping approach has been utilized for phase retrieval in grating interferometry.
This method requires a grating scanning and acquisition of multiple radiographic projections, and therefore is disadvantageous in terms of imaging speed and radiation damage. Compared with the phase-stepping approach, the present RP method abandons grating scanning completely, and thus is advantageous due to its much higher efficiency and the reduced radiation dose, without the degradation of reconstruction quality. This review presents a detailed explanation of the principle of the RP method.
Both radiography and phase tomography experiments are performed to validate the RP method. We believe that this new technique will find widespread applications in biomedical imaging and in vivo studies. This paper examines the capability of remote sensing radar interferometry to monitor land movements, as it varies with time, in areas close to open pit lignite mines.
The study area is the "Mavropigi" lignite mine in Ptolemais, Northern Greece; whose continuous operation is of vital importance to the electric power supply of Greece. The mine is presently m deep while horizontal and vertical movements have been measured in the vicinity of the pit. The results of this work show that DInSAR can be used effectively to capture ground movement information, well before signs of movements can be observed visually in the form of imminent fissures and tension cracks.
The advantage of remote sensing interferometry is that it can be applied even in inaccessible areas where monitoring with ground equipment is either impossible or of high-cost large areas. Comparing interferometry techniques for multi-degree of freedom test mass readout. Future gravitational physics experiments, for example in the fields of gravitational wave detection and geodesy, will potentially require similar levels of displacement and tilt readouts of multiple test masses in multiple degrees of freedom.
In this article we compare currently available classic interferometry schemes with new techniques using phase modulations and complex readout algorithms. Based on a simple example we show that the new techniques have great potential to simplify interferometric readouts. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph, interferometry , and schlieren imaging for centuries, which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow.
Interferometry tracks changes in phase-shift resulting in bands appearing. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field.
In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraph, schlieren and interferometry images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs.
Applications of our method to multifield data and custom application-dependent color filter creation are explored. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are finally presented. Swept frequency acoustic interferometry technique for chemical weapons verification and monitoring. Nondestructive evaluation NDE techniques are important for rapid on-site verification and monitoring of chemical munitions, such as artillery shells and bulk containers.
Present NDE techniques provide only limited characterizations of such munitions. This paper describes the development of a novel noninvasive technique , swept-frequency acoustic interferometry SFAI , that significantly enhances the capability of munitions characterizations.
The SFAI technique allows very accurate and simultaneous determination of sound velocity and attenuation of chemical agents over a large frequency range inside artillery shells, in addition to determining agent density. The frequency-dependent sound velocity and attenuation can, in principle, provide molecular relaxation properties of the chemical agent. The same instrument also enables a direct fill-level measurement in bulk containers.
Industrial and other applications of this general-purpose technique are also discussed. Ferretti et al. The study has fewer scenes in descending orbit. For further work, ALOS 2 will let to have more data in descending orbit. Characterizing mass movements in Ecuador in necessary to put monitoring systems to avoid economic and human lost.
The result of Stacking DInSAR did not show clearly fringes, indeed the amount of interferograms were no enough for this technique. Fletcher, Agencia Espacial Europea Publicaciones. Postbus The Netherlands. Geoscience : Sandwell David T. B12 : 30, , Wei Meng, Sandwell David T Di Martire, Diego, E-mail: diego.
The study was conducted through the integration of conventional methods geological-geomorphological field survey, air-photo interpretation and an Advanced-Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar A-DInSAR technique. The DInSAR results, coupled with field survey, supported the analysis of the instability mechanism and confirmed the historical record of the movements already available for the town.
However, InSAR measurements are prone to atmospheric errors. RADAR waves traverse the Earth's atmosphere twice and experience a delay due to atmospheric refraction. The two major layers of the atmosphere troposphere and ionosphere are mainly responsible for this delay in the propagating RADAR wave. Previous studies have shown that water vapour and clouds present in the troposphere and the Total Electron Content TEC of the ionosphere are responsible for the additional path delay in the RADAR wave.
The tropospheric refractivity is mainly dependent on pressure, temperature and partial pressure of water vapour. The tropospheric refractivity leads to an increase in the observed range. These induced propagation delays affect the quality of phase measurement and introduce errors in the topography and deformation fields.
The study area consists of different types of scatterers exhibiting different coherence. The existing Saastamoinen model was used to perform a quantitative evaluation of the phase changes caused by pressure, temperature and humidity of the troposphere during the study. Unless the phase values due to atmospheric disturbances are not corrected, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurements.
Thus, the atmospheric error correction is essential for all practical applications of DInSAR to avoid inaccurate height and deformation. Thus, the atmospheric error correction is essential for all practical applications of DInSAR to avoid inaccurate. Full Text Available Fiber-optic sensing is a field that is developing at a fast pace. Novel fiber-optic sensor designs and sensing principles constantly open doors for new opportunities.
In this paper, we review a fiber-optic sensing technique developed in our research group called frequency-shifted interferometry FSI. This technique uses a continuous-wave light source, an optical frequency shifter, and a slow detector. We discuss the operation principles of several FSI implementations and show their applications in fiber length and dispersion measurement, locating weak reflections along a fiber link, fiber-optic sensor multiplexing, and high-sensitivity cavity ring-down measurement.
Detailed analysis of FSI system parameters is also presented. Applicability of coda wave interferometry technique for measurement of acoustoelastic effect of concrete. Shin, Sung Woo [Dept. In this study, we examined the applicability of coda wave interferometry CWI technique , which was developed to characterize seismic waves, to detect and evaluate change in the velocity of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to acoustoelastic effect.
Ultrasonic wave measurements and compressive loading tests were conducted on a concrete specimen. The measured wave signals were processed with CWI to detect and evaluate the relative velocity change with respect to the stress state of the specimen. A phase change due to the acoustoelastic effect of concrete was clearly detected in the late-arriving coda wave.
This shows that the relative velocity change of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to the acoustoelastic effect can be evaluated successfully and precisely using CWI. Shim, Sung Woo [Dept. Development of a measurement technique to characterize erosion and redeposition in a tokamak by speckle interferometry. The optical setup and the interferograms acquisition and processing have been developed and tested in laboratory before being suited to the complex tokamak environment. Now, we need to define the regions of plasma facing components where we want to make erosion and redeposition measurements.
After that, we propose a diagnostic to validate the optical technique in situ on a tokamak, allowing us to develop a diagnostic for ITER. There is a need for real time, reliable density measurement for density control, compatible with the restricted access and radiation environment on ITER.
Line average density measurements using microwave or laser interferometry techniques have proven to be robust and reliable for density control on contemporary tokamaks. In ITER, the large path length, high density and density gradients, limit the wavelength of a probing beam to shorter then about 50 microm due to refraction effects.
In this paper the authors consider the design of short wavelength vibration compensated interferometers and Faraday rotation techniques for density measurements on ITER. These techniques allow operation of the diagnostics without a prohibitively large vibration isolated structure and permits the optics to be mounted directly on the radial port plugs on ITER. A beam path designed for Plasma effects on the probing beams and design tradeoffs will be discussed along with radiation and long pulse issues.
A proposed layout of the diagnostic for ITER will be present. Characterization of Nb SRF cavity materials by white light interferometry and replica techniques. Much work has shown that the topography of the interior surface is an important contributor to the performance of Nb superconducting radiofrequency SRF accelerator cavities.
Micron-scale topography is implicated in non-linear loss mechanisms that limit the useful accelerating gradient range and impact cryogenic cost. Process development suffers because the cavity interior surface cannot be viewed directly without cutting out pieces, rendering the cavities unavailable for further study. Here we explore replica techniques as an alternative, providing imprints of cavity internal surface that can be readily examined.
A second matter is the topography measurement technique used. Atomic force microscopy AFM has proven successful, but too time intensive for routine use in this application. We therefore introduce white light interferometry WLI as an alternative approach. Different forms of this oil-film technique with various levels of accuracy and ease of use have been successfully applied in a wide range of flows. The method's popularity is growing due to its relative ease of implementation and minimal intrusiveness as well as an increased demand for C sub f measurements.
Nonetheless, the accuracy of these methods has not been rigorously addressed to date. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract. Castaldo, R. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to perform inverse numerical modelling of slow landslides that combines the potentialities of both numerical approaches and well-known remote-sensing satellite techniques. In particular, through an optimization procedure based on a genetic algorithm, we minimize, with respect to a proper penalty function, the difference between the modelled displacement field and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry DInSAR deformation time series.
The proposed methodology allows us to automatically search for the physical parameters that characterize the landslide behaviour. To validate the presented approach, we focus our analysis on the slow Ivancich landslide Assisi, central Italy. The landslide is driven by the presence of a shear band, whose behaviour is simulated through a two-dimensional time-dependent finite element model, in two different physical scenarios, i. Newtonian viscous flow and a deviatoric creep model. Comparison between the model results and DInSAR measurements reveals that the deviatoric creep model is more suitable to describe the kinematical evolution of the landslide.
This finding is also confirmed by comparing the model results with the available independent inclinometer measurements. Our analysis emphasizes that integration of different data, within inverse numerical models, allows deep investigation of the kinematical behaviour of slow active landslides and discrimination of the driving forces that govern their deformation processes.
Forest parameter estimation using polarimetric SAR interferometry techniques at low frequencies. Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry Pol-InSAR is an active radar remote sensing technique based on the coherent combination of both polarimetric and interferometric observables. This dissertation addresses the actual status, potentials and limitations of Pol-InSAR inversion techniques for 3-D forest parameter estimations on a global scale using lower frequencies such as L- and P-band.
The multi-baseline Pol-InSAR inversion technique is applied to optimize the performance with respect to the actual level of the vertical wave number and to mitigate the impact of temporal decorrelation on the Pol-InSAR forest parameter inversion. Despite the limiting impact of temporal decorrelation in Pol-InSAR inversion, it remains a poorly understood factor in forest height inversion. Therefore, the main goal of this dissertation is to provide a quantitative estimation of the temporal decorrelation effects by using multi-baseline Pol-InSAR data.
A new approach to quantify the different temporal decorrelation components is proposed and discussed. Temporal decorrelation coefficients are estimated for temporal baselines ranging from 10 minutes to 54 days and are converted to height inversion errors. The impact of the system parameters e. Multi-temporal InSAR methods are developed in recent times to retrieve the deformation signal from pixels with different scattering characteristics. From 1D LOS velocity maps, localization of landslide is evident along the reservoir rim area which was also investigated in the previous studies.
Both PS-InSAR and SBAS effectively extract measurement pixels in the study region, and the general results provided by both approaches show a similar deformation pattern along the Tehri reservoir region. It is also proposed to take up a few major landslides area in Uttarakhand for slope stability assessment. Digital holographic interferometry : A novel optical calorimetry technique for radiation dosimetry. Cavan, Alicia, E-mail: alicia. Purpose: To develop and demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a novel optical calorimetry method to determine radiation absorbed dose in a transparent medium.
Methods: The calorimetric property of water is measured during irradiation by means of an interferometer, which detects temperature-induced changes in the refractive index that can be mathematically related to absorbed dose. The proposed method uses a technique called digital holographic interferometry DHI , which comprises an optical laser interferometer setup and consecutive physical reconstruction of the recorded wave fronts by means of the Fresnel transform.
This paper describes the conceptual framework and provides the mathematical basis for DHI dosimetry. Dose distributions from a high dose rate Brachytherapy source were measured by a prototype optical setup to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.
Results: The developed DHI dosimeter successfully determined absorbed dose distributions in water in the region adjacent to a high dose rate Brachytherapy source. A temperature change of 0. The relative dose fall off was in agreement with treatment planning system modeled data. Conclusions: First results with a prototype optical setup and a Brachytherapy source demonstrate the proof-of-principle of the approach.
The general approach is fundamentally independent of the radiation type and energy. The sensitivity range determined indicates that the method is predominantly suitable for high dose rate applications. Further work is required to determine absolute dose in all three dimensions.
Interferometry with polarised neutrons. This paper aimed to give an outline of what might be expected from an extension of polarized beam techniques in neutron interferometry and how it could be achieved properly and what is the present state of this special field of interferometry. Atomic interferometry. Since the theoretical works of L. The basic principle of the interferometry of any material particle, atom, molecule or aggregate is simple: using a simple incident wave, several mutually consistent waves with well-defined relative phases are generated and controllable phase-shifts are introduced between them in order to generate a wave which is the sum of the previous waves.
An interference figure is obtained which consists in a succession of dark and bright fringes. The atomic interferometry is based on the same principle but involves different techniques , different wave equations, but also different beams, sources and correlations which are described in this book. Because of the small possible wavelengths and the wide range of possible atomic interactions, atomic interferometers can be used in many domains from the sub-micron lithography to the construction of sensors like: inertial sensors, gravity-meters, accelerometers, gyro-meters etc.
The first chapter is a preliminary study of the space and time diffraction of atoms. The next chapters is devoted to the description of slit, light separation and polarization interferometers, and the last chapter treats of the properties of Bose-Einstein condensates which are interesting in atomic interferometry. Speckle interferometry. Illumination of a rough surface by a coherent monochromatic wave creates a grainy structure in space termed a speckle pattern.
It was considered a special kind of noise and was the bane of holographers. However, its information-carrying property was soon discovered and the phenomenon was used for metrological applications. The realization that a speckle pattern carried information led to a new measurement technique known as speckle interferometry SI. Although the speckle phenomenon in itself is a consequence of interference among numerous randomly dephased waves, a reference wave is required in SI.
Further, it employs an imaging geometry. Initially SI was performed mostly by using silver emulsions as the recording media. The double-exposure specklegram was filtered to extract the desired information. Since SI can be configured so as to be sensitive to the in-plane displacement component, the out-of-plane displacement component or their derivatives, the interferograms corresponding to these were extracted from the specklegram for further analysis. Since the speckle size can be controlled by the F number of the imaging lens, it was soon realized that SI could be performed with electronic detection, thereby increasing its accuracy and speed of measurement.
Furthermore, a phase-shifting technique can also be incorporated. This technique came to be known as electronic speckle pattern interferometry ESPI. It employed the same experimental configurations as SI. ESPI found many industrial applications as it supplements holographic interferometry. We present three examples covering diverse areas.
In one application it has been used to measure residual stress in a blank recordable compact disk. In another application, microscopic ESPI has been used to study the influence of relative humidity on paint-coated figurines and also the effect of a conservation agent applied on top of this. The final application is to find the defects in pipes. These diverse applications. Experimental investigation for determination of thermal effects in a Nd: YAG laser crystal by use of interferometry technique.
Thermal effects have an important role in high power solid state laser designing. Known of this effect and their roles on intensity and quality of output beam needs so many experiments. In this paper, we focused on influence of temperature distribution on thermal lensing in the Nd:YAG laser by use of interferometry technique.
Then we used from a plariscop set up for describing of intensity reduce and distortion of the wave shape when it use from the Polaroid into the resonator at side pump. Previous DEMs derived from synthetic aperture radar SAR and optical shape-from-shading have been tied to airborne radio echo-sounding surface profiles from which contain an elevation-dependent bias of up to several tens of metres compared with recent elevation data.
ICESat elevations from winter —08 were used as ground control points to refine the interferometric baseline. The resulting DEM is validated against the same ground control points and independent surface elevation profiles from Global Navigation Satellite Systems GNSS and airborne laser altimetry, yielding root mean square RMS errors of about 10 m in all cases. This quality is sufficient for most glaciological applications, and the new DEM will be a baseline data set for ongoing and future research at Austfonna.
Holographic interferometry - a nondestructive inspection technique for early detection of construction element damages. After a short introduction into the fundamentals of holographic interferometry , the application of this process to non-destructive material testing is explained.
Practical examples of qualitative and quantitative deformation measurements carried out on building elements of different materials as well as on metallic and nonmetallic combinations show the possibilities of early recognition of manufacturing flaws and weak points due to the construction and also the determination of construction material characteristic coefficients.
Detection techniques in low-coherence interferometry and their impact on overall measurement accuracy. Ground subsidence caused by aquifer withdrawal is a geotechnical hazard that affects wide areas, causing high economic losses. This phenomenon id due to aquifer system fine soil consolidation produced by the increase of effective stress caused by piezo metric depletion.
The Vega Media of the Segura River basin SE Spain has suffered this type of phenomena since 90s being until the moment the first documented case at a regional scale in Spain. The processing has provided the subsidence spatial distribution and temporal evolution for the whole study area showing maximum subsidence values near 15 cm for the period. Author 33 refs. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry using Sentinel-1 Data. The work will firstly address the data processing and analysis procedure implemented by the authors.
The work will discuss the characteristics of the main products derived by using Sentinel-1 DInSAR and PSI: deformation maps, deformation velocity maps, deformation time series, residual topographic error, etc. The analysis will be carried out over different types of land use area, e. The deformation monitoring based on Sentinel-1 data will be compared with the monitoring based on data from pre-existing missions, e.
The comparison will concern different study areas, mainly located in Italy and Spain. Speckle Interferometry. Before the milestone work of Leedertz in coherent speckles generated from a laser illuminated object are considered noise to be eliminated or minimized.
Leedertz shows that coherent speckles are actually information carriers. Since then the speckle technique has found many applications to fields of mechanics, metrology, nondestructive evaluation and material sciences. Speckles need not be coherent. Artificially created socalled white light speckles can also be used as information carriers. In this paper we present two recent developments of speckle technique with applications to micromechanics problems using SIEM Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy , to nondestructive evaluation of crevice corrosion and composite disbond and vibration of large structures using TADS Time-Average Digital Specklegraphy.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a procedure to map subsidence at the regional scale by means of persistent scatterer interferometry PSI. Subsidence analysis is usually restricted to plain areas and where the presence of this phenomenon is already known. The proposed procedure allows a fast identification of subsidences in large and hilly-mountainous areas. The test area is the Tuscany region, in Central Italy, where several areas are affected by natural and anthropogenic subsidence and where PSI data acquired by the Envisat satellite are available both in ascending and descending orbit.
Full Text Available Subsidences are defined as slow and gradual movements of the terrain or built surface. These may affect all types of terrains, and are caused by tension-induced changes for many reasons, such as lowering water tables groundwater extraction, underground mining minerals, coal, salt, excavation of tunnels, extraction of oil or gas, slow processes of dissolution and lixiviation of materials, consolidation of soft soils, organic soils, In many cases, subsidences occur gradually and may be recognized before they cause damage in the works.
This article presents the evolution of this technique for measuring surface land subsidence and its application to various fields with satisfactory precision results. It presents a review on the use of DInSAR for monitoring and measuring subsidence of land and earth structures in Construction and in the fields of Geotechnics, Hydrology and Volcanology.
Las subsidencias se definen como movimientos lentos y paulatinos de la superficie del terreno natural o construido y que pueden afectar a todo tipo de terrenos. Bocanegra Bahamon, T. From these observing sessions density, temperature and pressure profiles of Venus and Mars neutral atmosphere and ionosphere have been retrieved.
We present an error propagation analysis where the uncertainties of the atmospheric properties measured with this technique have been derived. Principles of Stellar Interferometry. Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique , attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution.
This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se. Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f Full Text Available The rapidly developing urbanization since the last decade of the 20th century has led to extensive groundwater extraction, resulting in subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Recent advances in multi-temporal spaceborne SAR interferometry , especially with a persistent scatters interferometry PSI approach, has made this a robust remote sensing technique for measuring large-scale ground subsidence with millimetric accuracy. This work has presented an advanced PSI analysis, to provide an unprecedented spatial extent and continuous temporal coverage of the subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City from to The study shows that subsidence is most severe in the Holocene silt loam areas along the Sai Gon River and in the southwest of the city.
The groundwater extraction resulting from urbanization and urban growth is mainly responsible for the subsidence. Subsidence in turn leads to more flooding and water nuisance. From to , the estimation of the average subsidence rate is After four years, in regions along Sai Gon River and in the southwest of the city, the land has sunk up to cm. If not addressed, subsidence leads to the increase of inundation, both in frequency and spatial extent.
Finally, regarding climate change, the effects of subsidence should be considered as appreciably greater than those resulting from rising sea level. It is essential to consider these two factors, because the city is inhabited by more than 7. Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an advanced methodology to perform three-dimensional 3D Finite Element FE modeling to investigate the kinematical evolution of a slow landslide phenomenon. Our approach benefits from the effective integration of the available geological, geotechnical and satellite datasets to perform an accurate simulation of the landslide process.
Subsequently, we analyze the physical behavior characterizing the observed landslide phenomenon by means of an inverse analysis based on an optimization procedure. We focus on the Ivancich landslide phenomenon, which affects a residential area outside the historical center of the town of Assisi Central Italy. Thanks to the large amount of available information, we have selected this area as a representative case study highlighting the capability of advanced 3D FE modeling to perform effective risk analyses of slow landslide processes and accurate urban development planning.
The achieved results allow us to explore the spatial and temporal evolution of the slow-moving phenomenon and via comparison with the geomorphological data, to derive a synoptic view of the kinematical activity of the urban area affected by the Ivancich landslide. Kaon interferometry. The main goal is to test the resolution power of the method here discussed when applied to the two-dimensional kaon interferometry.
This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine pit walls have been done based on ground based radar. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair.
Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors.
The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares LS solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition SVD , with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity.
The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment. Antihydrogen Experiment Gravity Interferometry Spectroscopy.
A further goal of the experiment is to carry out spectroscopy of the antihydrogen atoms in flight. Crosetto, M. A lot of research and development has been devoted to the exploitation of satellite SAR images for deformation measurement and monitoring purposes since Differential Interferometric Synthetic Apertura Radar InSAR was first described in Both techniques make use of multiple SAR images acquired over the same site and advanced procedures to separate the deformation component from the other phase components, such as the residual topographic component, the atmospheric component, the thermal expansion component and the phase noise.
TomoSAR offers the advantage of detecting either single scatterers presenting stable proprieties over time Persistent Scatterers and multiple scatterers interfering within the same range-azimuth resolution cell, a significant improvement for urban areas monitoring. This paper addresses a preliminary inter-comparison of the results of both techniques , for a test site located in the metropolitan area of Barcelona Spain , where interferometric Sentinel-1 data were analysed.
Technique for the focal-length measurement of positive lenses using Fizeau interferometry. We present what we believe is a new technique for the focal-length measurement of positive lenses using Fizeau interferometery. The technique utilizes the Gaussian lens equation.
The image distance is measured interferometrically in terms of the radius of curvature of the image-forming wavefront emerging from the lens. The radii of curvature of the image-forming wavefronts corresponding to two different axial object positions of known separation are measured. The focal length of the lens is determined by solving the equations obtained using the Gaussian lens equation for the two object positions.
Results obtained for a corrected doublet lens of a nominal focal length of Full Text Available This paper describes a modified open-ended coaxial technique for microwave dielectric characterization in liquid media. A calibration model is developed to relate the measured transmission coefficient to the local properties of the sample under test. As a demonstration, the permittivity of different sodium chloride solutions is experimentally determined.
Accuracies of 0. Landslides can lead to high impacts in less developed countries, particularly in some urban tropical environments where a combination of intense rainfall, active tectonics, steep topography and high population density can be found. However, the processes controlling landslides initiation and their evolution through time remains poorly understood.
Results show that various landslide processes of different ages, mechanisms and state of activity can be identified across Bukavu city. InSAR ground deformation maps reveal for instance the complexity of a large 1. The evaluation of the ground deformations captured by DInSAR through a two-step validation procedure combining Differential GPS measurements and field observations attested the reliability of the measurements as well as the capability of the technique to grasp the deformation pattern affecting this complex tropical-urban environment.
However, longer time series will be needed to infer landside response to climate, seismic and anthropogenic activities. It is, indeed, characterized by enhanced revisit frequency, coverage and reliability for operational services and applications requiring long SAR data time series.
Moreover, SENTINEL-1 is specifically oriented to interferometry applications with stringent requirements based on attitude and orbit accuracy and it is intrinsically characterized by small spatial and temporal baselines.
Such a DInSAR chain is designed to exploit distributed computing infrastructures, and more specifically Cloud Computing environments, to properly deal with the storage and the processing of huge S1 datasets. In particular, since S1 IWS data are acquired with the innovative Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans TOPS mode, we could benefit from the structure of S1 data, which are composed by bursts that can be considered as separate acquisitions.
Indeed, the processing is intrinsically parallelizable with respect to such independent input data and therefore we basically exploited this coarse granularity parallelization strategy in the majority of the steps of the SBAS processing chain.
Moreover, we also implemented more sophisticated parallelization approaches, exploiting both multi-node and multi. The influence on the latter potentially biases the estimation of deformations. These effects have been found to be variable in magnitude and sign, as well as dependent on polarization, as opposed to predictions by existing models.
Such diversity can be explained when the soil is modelled as a half-space with spatially varying dielectric properties and a rough interface. The predictions are sensitive to the choice of dielectric mixing model, in particular the absorptive properties; the differences between the mixing models are found to be partially compensatable by varying the relative importance of surface and volume scattering. However, for half of the agricultural fields the Hallikainen mixing model cannot reproduce the observed sensitivities of the phase to soil moisture.
In addition, the first-order expansion does not predict any impact on the HV coherence, which is however empirically found to display similar sensitivities to soil moisture as the co-pol channels HH and VV. These results indicate that the first-order solution, while not able to reproduce all observed phenomena, can capture some of the more salient patterns of the effect of soil moisture changes on the HH and VV DInSAR signals.
Hence it may prove useful in separating the deformations from the moisture signals, thus yielding improved displacement estimates or new ways for inferring soil moisture. Vibration insensitive interferometry. The largest limitation of phase-shifting interferometry for optical testing is the sensitivity to the environment, both vibration and air turbulence.
An interferometer using temporal phase-shifting is very sensitive to vibration because the various phase shifted frames of interferometric data are taken at different times and vibration causes the phase shifts between the data frames to be different from what is desired. Vibration effects can be reduced by taking all the phase shifted frames simultaneously and turbulence effects can be reduced by averaging many measurements.
There are several techniques for simultaneously obtaining several phase-shifted interferograms and this paper will discuss two such techniques : 1 Simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry on a single detector array PhaseCam and 2 Micropolarizer phase-shifting array. The application of these techniques for the testing of large optical components, measurement of vibrational modes, the phasing of segmented optical components, and the measurement of deformations of large diffuse structures is described.
Phase Referencing in Optical Interferometry. Filho, Mercedes E. One of the aims of next generation optical interferometric instrumentation is to be able to make use of information contained in the visibility phase to construct high dynamic range images. Radio and optical interferometry are at the two extremes of phase corruption by the atmosphere. While in radio it is possible to obtain calibrated phases for the science objects, in the optical this is currently not possible.
Instead, optical interferometry has relied on closure phase techniques to produce Humphrey Fellowship IntroductionLandslides lead to human and economic losses across the country, mainly in the winter season.
On the other hand, satellite radar data has cost-effective benefits due to open-source software and free availability of data. With the purpose of establishing an early warning system of landslide-related surface deformation, three case studies were designed in the Coast, Sierra Andean , and Oriente jungle regions.
For the calculation of the interferograms in Repeat Orbit Interferometry PACkage, the displacement was detected as the error and was corrected. Under this frame, as a first approach, the stacking DInSAR technique  was applied in the case studies ; however, due to lush vegetation and steep topography, it is necessary to apply advanced InSAR techniques . The purpose of the research is to determine a pattern of data acquisition and successful results to understand the spatial and temporal ground movements associated with landslides.
The further work consists of establishing landslide inventories to combine phases of SAR images to generate maps of surface deformation in Tumba-San Francisco and Guarumales to compare the results with ground-based measurements to determine the maps' accuracy. References Sandwell D. Phase gradient approach to stacking interferograms.
Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. B12, pp. Investigating landslides and unstable slopes with. Characterization of the multi-component driving land subsidence using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry technique : the Ravenna case of study Italy.
Land subsidence represents a kind of hazard, which affects an increasing number of worldwide regions, densely populated, causing damage to the environment and infrastructures. Settlements can be related to multiple processes both natural and anthropic i. Over the last decades, advanced subsidence studies exploited Synthetic-Aperture Radar SAR data, a recent remote sensing tool, to investigate land subsidence phenomena around the world.
In particular, Persistent Scatterer Interferometry PSI technique , allowing a quantitative estimation at high resolution of the surface deformations, has already been successfully applied to monitor the phenomenon evolution; PSI measurements represent the cumulative displacement, deriving from the contribution of natural and anthropic components, both superficial and deep.
The overlapping of several causative factors makes more difficult to accurately interpret the resulting deformations; therefore, it is essential to implement a suitable methodology to distinguish the shallow and deep components of motion. The aim of our research is to introduce a PSI-based approach not only to monitoring but also to understand the land subsidence mechanism, in order to disentangle the natural and anthropic components of motion.
The methodology consists of three main phases: 1 Post-processing elaborations i. In this work, the methodology has been applied to the Ravenna area, Italy, using. Monitoring of deformation phenomena affecting urban areas and man-made structures is of key relevance for the preservation of the artistic, archaeological and architectural heritage.
The differential SAR interferometry DInSAR technique has already been demonstrated to be an effective tool for non-invasive deformation analyses over large areas by producing spatially dense deformation maps with centimetre to millimetre accuracy. Moreover, by exploiting long sequences of SAR data acquired by different sensors, the advanced DInSAR technique referred to as the small baseline subset SBAS approach allows providing long-term deformation time series, which are strategic for guaranteeing the monitoring of urban area displacements.
In this work, we investigate the effectiveness of the two-scale multi-sensor SBAS-DInSAR approach to detect and monitor displacements affecting historical and artistic monuments. Accordingly, our analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of the full resolution multi-sensor SBAS approach to operate as a surface deformation tool for supporting the study and conservation strategies of the historical, cultural and artistic heritage.
Atmospheric phase delay, as one of the most important errors that limit the monitoring accuracy of InSAR, would lead to the masking of true phase in subsidence monitoring. The results before and after the atmospheric phase delay correction were verified and analyzed in the main subsidence area.
The experimental results show that atmospheric phase influences the deformation results to a certain extent. After the correction, the measurement error of vertical deformation is reduced by about 18 mm, which proves that the removal of atmospheric effects can improve the accuracy of the D-InSAR monitoring. Basics of interferometry. This book is for those who have some knowledge of optics, but little or no previous experience in interferometry.
Accordingly, the carefully designed presentation helps readers easily find and assimilate the interferometric techniques they need for precision measurements. Mathematics is held to a minimum, and the topics covered are also summarized in capsule overviews at the beginning and end of each chapter.
Each chapter also contains a set of worked problems that give a feel for numbers.
I must express my gratitude to Prof. Theodora Antonopoulou, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens who kindly accepted to verify the translation of this passage. According to this tradition, the monk could be cast in the privileged role of a most active intercessor — a view which gains in relevance due to a specifically Serbian development. Those in charge of the secular power were therefore prompted to emulate Josaphat, the prince who cautiously observes the spiritual advice offered by his master, the eremite Barlaam.
Sava under Milutin. See, most recently, P. Guran, , p. Erga Theologika, D. Balfour ed. Ev mediu. Baroc, Bucharest: Meridiane. Texte, Paris: Paul Geuthner. Steininschriften, Vienna: H. Academiei R. Istoria artei. Treasures of Byzantine Art, Nicosia: A. Leventis Foundation. The Alphabetical Collection, Translated, with a foreword by B. Keywords: Divergent polysemy, heteronymic reports, translation difficulties, translation solutions.
Cristea, , pp. Galisson et D. Coste, in: T. Cristea, Selon T. Hjelmslev , La capitale de la Moldavie, son altesse Georgie Duca et sa cour. Monsieur ; domnule! La solution traductive serait donc la Rue des boyards, ou bien La promenade des boyards.
Ovidius University Press, Constanta. ECO, U. Rey et J. Minerva, Bucarest, Beside the influences and the interferences between literature and cinematography, there is specific interest regarding the reader 's role or the ideal representation of reality; the prose of Mircea Nedelciu contains a sum of reflexions about body and writing. Either he describes the photographic process, or he stops in front of some plastic backgrounds, all of these images cause the writer changes of physiological behavior or of opinion regarding time, perception and object.
Keywords: Photography, object, body, time, presence. Des images. Les traductions m'appartiennent. Ibidem, p. Habituellement, il me demande si je n'ai pas, par 12 Mircea Nedelciu, , pp. Mais comment est-il possible? Quelle est la cause? Il y a un couchement du soleil, la fin du mois de mai, une vieille place19". L'interposition 17 Ibidem, p. Gilles Mors, Claude Nori, , p. Efectul de ecou controlat. Ce-i omenirea? Although these revisions generated the most acid cultural polemics of the '90s, practical results delay so much that the analysis of their inertia becomes a substantial issue of the current Romanian canonical debate.
Keywords: Literary canon, canonical debate, East-ethical revisionism, Monica Lovinescu, Romanian literary criticism, canonicity, canonization. The first two aforementioned components appear in a very clear light today, while the third has remained concealed in obscurity, even though it could shed light, I believe, on the Romanian canon-related debates initiated during the first post-communist decade.
On the other hand, it was necessary to reform the literary hierarchy of the post-war period because the literary canon stabilized in the ss had been heavily indebted to the censorship and self-censorship that writers, literary critics, theorists and educational policy makers had been subjected to. Practical consequences The long-term impact of these ideological premises on the reinterpretation of Romanian post-war prose, poetry, drama, criticism and literary history has been minimal, as many researchers have convincingly demonstrated.
For our literary criticism and history, these years can largely be considered to have been wasted. De la E. From E. Their conjunctural value is confirmed by the fact that Lovinescu considered them a mere expression of a particular historical moment and never attempted to expand them beyond their initial context. Disclosures, however, create emotions, sometimes even debates, which are very interesting in themselves, but no more than that.
In short, I do not think a critic can propose an ethical revision of literature without great damage to the latter. Canonicity vs. By contrast, the social and national representativeness of an 4 E. In spite of these tensions, contradictions, and ambiguities, it is possible to make some general concluding remarks without denying those tensions or forcing them into a premature and artificial reconciliation.
Literature is not made in a social vacuum, and neither are its critical reappraisals. To be at all comprehensive, therefore, any critique or analysis of the canon must also include a metacritique of the claims that are made about it, an assessment of the social and material conditions of their own possibility, especially those that have done most to influence the form the debate has taken.
To the extent that specific modes of production affect not only the form and dissemination of cultural works but also the discourse about them, the economic principles and ideological mystifications of capitalist society affect not only the production and reproduction of literary canons but also the rhetoric surrounding them. Because of the socialist-realist past, in the period of pseudo- or quasiliberalization, the ethical criterion and the political criterion were despised, since it was deemed that they had been placed in the service of socialist realism.
Erroneously deployed, but serving it nonetheless. A literature of high quality was created, much more synchronous with what was produced in the West [ Hence, the, perhaps, too great insistence in these texts of ours [ I believe that Romanian literature is one of the most aesthetically refined literatures of the East, which, in broad outlines, appears to have been devoid of the ethical obsession.
I , foreword by Acad. The revisionist hypercanon That is why canonical revision a gesture of retrieval and reparation is predicated on upheavals of the representative standing of a personality or a work for a particular moment in literary history, for a stage in the evolution of society, rather than on value detraction. Can Sadoveanu be removed from literature if his post-war opportunism is shed light on?
There can be no sanctioning. Every culture worthy of the name — and not just in Eastern Europe, which has gone through unprecedented experiences — undertakes such revisiting or revisions of the past, as the function of criticism is to vitalize culture, not to punish. Idem, Unde scurte IV. It is because of this that revisions do not abound. Indeed, it has become clear that East-ethical revisionism missed revisiting post-war literature, even though — as I have tried to demonstrate — at the theoretical or conceptual level, Monica Lovinescu configures the first consistent explanation, with sufficient correspondences, in the Western cultural space, with the extra aesthetic branchings on which the literary canon is founded.
On the contrary, the causes underlying the failure of East-ethical revisions could be understood through an approach that I would call imagological. These are the sequences that relativize, always reconfirming, at the same time, the sacrifices entailed by the condition of exile and the legitimacy of critical activity.
This is probably the point of maximum tension in the journal. And I could see what I had actually known all along: no wound has healed. After this I am no longer good for anything. I have been through life waiting for this moment. The blame, above all, is mine. Popescu or C. III, ed. Dan C. Popular theatre, and more so religious popular theatre, developed in Romanian territories and across all of Europe based on certain models that, as much as one may try, cannot be made secular, since they are in fact dramatizations of biblical situations.
A servant of the church, though he may add his own contributions to a text or a picture, cannot and may not overstep the boundaries of the canon. In the magazine Manuscriptum XVI, no. In reality, the latter act was a mere formality, seeing as Picu had lived a harsh monastic life since youth, strictly observing the rules of monkhood life and even changing his name to that of Procopie.
Picu could never make the decision to live in a monastery, the contemplative life of which he deemed insufficient and the discipline of which he found overly weak as well as pointless. He did not feel any need for external constraint, but wished to master himself and life not only for himself and God, but for people; and not only in prayer, but above all in the love of his community and hard labour.
Had he lived in another time and place, he might have been another Anthony of Padua or Francis of Assisi in the field of socio-religious endeavours, a Roland or a Greban in the field of poetry and mystery, a Ion Cucuzel in the field of religious chanting, a Fra Filippo or a Botticelli in the field of painting, a Pastalozi in the field of education, and so on.
These are not only laudatory, but very precise and pithy characterizations. Aaron, I. Eliade etc. His copies of the secular texts by Eugene Sue, Gessner, and Alexandre Dumas the father, were made for personal use. In his rich correspondence with various monks and nuns, there are very many references to these transcriptions, to his work as a copyist and illustrator of religious books, but not to the secular ones.
He added to the St. Petersburg copy of the Bible pages written with his own hand, in admirable Cyrillic calligraphy, comprising the prefaces to all the previous Bibles and moral lessons from the Church Fathers, and in addition to this, illustrations, true masterpieces of great artistic inspiration and accomplishment. The Academy Library possesses a significant number of texts of varying lengths dating back to the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 20th century, generically titled VICLEI.
In terms of structure, they can be divided into two categories: with characters and without. The short texts have no characters and are, in fact, compositions specific to religious ritual, also known as doxologies. We encounter the doxology model in other writings of his like the Star Chants, but not in these dramatic structures out of which one was published by Elisabeta Nanu and dated and one was published by Mihai Moraru and dated , May 13th.
IV, , no. As such, neither Elisabeta Nanu nor N. Cartojan were able to analyze these versions. There are no major differences between these and the others, but they do offer valuable insight in a possible and necessary comparison with the versions published by Ioan Tomici in Brief Teachings for the Rearing and Good Conduct of Romanian Youths, as well as Various Exquisite Churchly Songs and Some Pious and Delightful Worldly Ones, Buda, the University Typography, , or those published by Anton Pann.
I din — published by E. Nanu and the second text in ms. III din A comparison between the dramatic development of these three texts with that of the one printed by Ioan Tomici in clearly shows that we are dealing with the same version within which the older text is in prose form, and the following three , , are in verse form.
The other version 2 , more ample, is represented by the third Nativity Play text in ms. I and by the first one of the texts in ms. III The second version does not differ from the first. The third version is completely different with regard to the number of characters, instructions for direction, scenography, and costumes, as well as with regard to its treatment of the theme. The Germanic and Hungarian models call for the introduction of scenes involving Mary and Joseph and their dialogue with Herod about sheltering the Holy Family, the kings hatred and malice, and their eventual banishment.
This prologue brings to mind a classical approach to constructing a play, where the beginning serves to present the context, the dialogue serves to describe the characters, and the villain is introduced, so that by the time the Magi arrive, we have established the conflict, the climax, and the final oration.
The version published by Mihai Moraru in , May 13th brings about still more new elements, a sign that the theme has further matured and developed. Firstly, there is the difference regarding staging. The [Magi] Kings of the East must like be dressed and girded with swords, bearing slightly platters in their hands, whereon they have laid their gifts for Christ, that is, gold, frankincense, and myrrh.
And in their right hands — sceptres. And a small, beautiful child, dressed in the way of angels, with a white garment, with a glittering halo crown, and pretty wings, and holding in his right hand something like a broadsword and in his left hand a bell with which he beckons the Kings.
The Virgin Mary must be dressed prettily, like a pure maiden; and walk behind Joseph. With all this in order, let them walk forth and recite the following words. Questions and answers, as I will show below. They also act as a precise establishing of the ritual. BAR from prove that these terms of literary origins denoted two literary genres well known and cultivated as early as the beginnings of the Illuminist movement.
There is, however, no allowance for the crossing of rite and ritual bounds into parody, like in certain Moldavian or Wallachian texts; the tone always remains always, if not grave, assured and serious. And when the magi are done singing, the angel returns to the shepherds and sings: Rise up, rise up, you shepherd men, and quickly do awaken, so you may find the Lord Christ! Even this scene will later return to a serious tone and reenter the realm of ritual.
The costumes are given general descriptions and the props are a part of the daily lives of the players and the public. Mary, mother of Jesus The Virgin Mary must be dressed prettily, like a pure maiden; and walk behind Joseph. This is in accordance with the Transylvanian custom of women walking behind men. This version, dated March , is essentially a theatrical play. It is clearly influenced by and adapted from a Catholic model, even with its narrow area of circulation. The Myrrh-Bringers was performed, starting the 19th century, particularly in the Transylvanian area.
The text was published for the first time by D. Its structure brings to mind a theatre poem made out of questions and answers, containing lamentations and biblical references. The result is not only an oeuvre that is functional in nature, serving a practical purpose twice a year, but above all a literary creation, cohesive and impressive in its theatrical quality.
Last but not least, a connection between the Romanian autofiction and the globalized literary phenomenon will be sketched out, in terms of themes tackled by the writers and critics. Keywords: Autofiction, identity, feminine, literary canon, Romanian literature 1. Les exemples des textes qui 9 idem, chap. Our research aims to establish the typology of the anthroponyms, focussing on prepositional occurrences in those onomastic structures and to classify the compound anthroponyms into several structural patterns, taking into account their components the lexical — grammatical classes the preposition combines with and the place of the preposition in that structure in initial or medial position etc.
Starting from an inventory of compound anthroponyms containing prepositions, the present research seeks to highlight the specificity of Romanian anthroponomy: a great number of prepositions functioning as anthroponymic components as well as a wide range of combinations at the level of structure. Keywords: preposition, onomastics, anthroponyms, compounds, Romanian language I.
Preliminaries The occurrence of the preposition in anthroponymic structures is only briefly discussed in the literature on this topic. The purpose of the present paper is to realize an inventory of names of persons which have in their composition one or more prepositions and to establish the role of the preposition in the phrase that it belongs to, starting from its place in that structure. Therefore, the main aim of this article is to analyze the preposition as part of compound anthroponymic structures in the Romanian language in relation to the presence of the preposition in anthroponyms of other Romance languages: French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese.
Defining the concepts of preposition, onomastics, anthroponyms Prepositions make up a lexical-grammatical class which has a connecting role at the level of the simple sentence, establishing relationships of dependency between a subordinate term and its regent. The preposition is generally mainly acknowledged for its syntactic role and much less for its semantic aspects, since they are not so obvious in the case of this class of words. In addition, certain prepositions occur as formative elements in compounds.
Onomastics is a controversial issue among the linguists, especially from the viewpoint of the different meanings of this term. Thus, some linguists define onomastics as the study of place names, called toponyms, and names of people known as anthroponyms1. Besides the two mentioned onomastic categories, N. Moreover, according to other sources, onomastics includes proper names of celestial objects astronyms , mythological things mitonyms , watercourses hydronyms , mountains oronyms , the names of literary works, companies or institutions etc.
In this research paper we use the narrow sense of the term, i. Typology and prepositional occurrences in anthroponymic compounds. Contrastivity Romanian other Romance languages Anthroponyms are characterized by a varied typology: there are individual anthroponyms first names, i. This statement comes from the fact that there are no prepositional compounds registered in the dictionaries dealing with these types of anthroponyms. In Dictionar enciclopedic al numelor de botez5, Tatiana Petrache makes some clarifications on the etymology and meaning of Christian names, the list including simple, derived or compound forms, among which there is not even a situation with a preposition as a constitutive morpheme.
One way 4 Ibidem. This surname occurs in the dictionary 12 Ibidem. It is the simple preposition din, which, together with the noun vale it forms the surname Dinvale obtained by the fusion of its elements as in the examples given above. The cases of surnames in which the preposition occurs in middle position are less common. A more elaborate explanation for this surname is given by Al. Graur: 18 Ibidem.
We notice that the two surnames Capdebo u and Capdefier were obtained by means of the fusion of the elements. The third surname of this pattern was formed by juxtaposition preserving the autonomy of the components in spelling. De Felice, fr.
Dehue , matronymic origin it. Della Giovanna and toponymic origin fr. The most representative example is Vefve Martin Iean de France. Graur, op. The author points out that this is quite a rare pattern in French. Iorgu Iordan mentions that this appellative is a nickname. Most of the nicknames containing prepositions are listed by I.
In addition to the above nicknames, I. Candrea refers to a nickname usually given to Moldavians by Wallachians and Oltenians in a pejorative sense: Cap de bou. Candrea, op. This is the general definition of a byname. In Nume de persoane35, Al. Graur gives the example Ionescu de la Brad and discusses a common type of bynames: the bearers preferred to add to their family name the name of their birthplace or the name of the village whose fame they contributed to. What draws our attention is the spelling of the compound preposition de la in one word, which is not common.
Another Romanian linguist, N. Nowadays the process of adding a byname to the first name is very common. This method of individualization by attaching a byname to the first name was also frequently used in the past in 35 Al Graur, op. Constantinescu, op. In Enciclopedia Limbilor Romanice40 there are some examples of bynames made up of preposition or preposition and definite article and a place name: Di Francia, Dalla Costa, Dell Colle.
The process mentioned above is also found in the formation of Spanish bynames. In Enciclopedia Limbilor Romanice41 it is mentioned that toponyms, with or without preposition, used as bynames are predominant in Spanish and Portuguese: Sp. Severo de Calceata, Pg. Naum etc. Conclusions With most Romanian compound anthroponyms having a preposition in their structure, the preposition is either in initial position Dinvale or in medial position, between the first name and the surname Ion dela Vale.
The pattern is similar in other Romance Languages: Fr. Peppino de Filippo, Sp. Prepositions functioning as a part of compound anthroponyms can be simple or compound, as in the examples above. Both variants are well represented in French: Dubois, Dupont, on the one hand, and Jean de la Fontaine, Jehan de Veau, on the other hand.
One of the main differences between Romanian anthroponomy and the anthroponomy of the other Romance languages is the highest number of prepositions functioning as anthroponymic components in Romanian and many posibilities of combination.
SALA, Marius coord. Keywords: Sensational literature, Scandinavian culture, cultural rifts. Literature as a manifest element of cultural rifts Almost half a century ago, the reading public from all over the world discovered the fabulous South-American literature. But the phenomenon of the overwhelming emergence of a literary genre in a certain, well delimited cultural space and time evokes such a comparison, which might seem disproportionate. Their volumes of poetry, drama, their collected essays and auto biographies were no less valuable.
Of course, the books which we are going to discuss in the following pages are of a totally different nature and quality from the South-American ones. The Stieg Larsson phenomenon This miraculous phenomenon seems to be repeating itself now, at the dawn of the third millennium, in the case of Scandinavian literature, albeit in what is considered to be a rather minor genre — the detective thriller.
The first signs appeared right at the beginning of our century, with a few names hardly known in Europe at the time. The journalist, still in his prime, submitted from the very first, to the Norstendts Publishing House in Stockholm, all the pages of the volumes 1. The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo; 2. The Girl Who Played with Fire; 3. Its impact was overwhelming. The two million copies of the first edition were sold very quickly in the country of origin.
In Norway, the first , copies were sold in only two days. The reactions on the part of professional literary critics and of all categories of readers measured up to its distribution, without precedent in Nordic literature. The renowned man of culture Pascal Bruckner stated that S. It is the case of the married couple Alexander Ahndoril and Alexandra Coelho Ahndoril, who, until , had written successful books in their own particular style, rewarded with formidable reviews and important prizes.
The change did not end here: the two wrote together the novels in this series, which they signed by a common pseudonym — Lars Kepler. The fact that they did not publicly declare these changes caused a wave of speculations in the literary space of Northern Europe, thus contributing, obviously, to publicising the books.
The appearance of the first volume in the series, The Hypnotist, in , was an immense success. The book was at the top of the sales in Sweden, staying on top throughout the year. On the other hand, a tradition of the detective novel had already existed in the Scandinavian countries ever since the 19th and especially the 29th century. Of course, the explanation has to do with the economic and social infrastructure of the Scandinavian countries. This latter aspect has several nuances — there is a public cultured and wealthy enough to buy and enjoy these books4.
With reference to the latter component, everyone knows the data about the coherence of the educational strategies in Sweden, the system of evaluating the competences of students in Island and especially the modern approach to educational policies in Finland. The new orientation, which is already being experimented in a few schools in Helsinki, is also aimed at developing the practical component of education, as well as another change in the teacher-pupil relationship.
We should also add that the problem of education itself has become a subject for presentday literature5. Still, in some countries, such as Norway or Iceland, they the criterion of loans from the big libraries was also taken into consideration.
The final result is of a profoundly human nature: the respect for work, high professional conscientiousness, manifested by responsibility for what the professional writer does, the attachment to the human values discussed in these books and, not least, the incredible potential for work which we have already mentioned. Does the crime novel represent literature? It is true that these conditions, only very briefly outlined here, should have generated another kind of literature — philosophical, psychological, social and historical, etc.
However, the fast pace of contemporary life and the transformation of the taste for reading into a mass phenomenon did not allow for such an evolution. Writers chose to satisfy the demand on the book market: a middle-brow prose, aimed at accommodating all tastes and levels of intellectual reception. Is this part of authentic literature? Opinions are divided. Critics and literary historians still hold on to this position, in many cases: great literature, literature as authentic art is not likely to provoke Hector.
Practically, the play dramatizes the confrontation between the spirit of the Renaissance, about the interconnectedness of the elements in the universe Prof. Hector , and the pragmatic spirit of confrontation in a world in permanent competition Prof. One vision is that of humanism, of the cultural needs of the superior being, the other one — of postmodernity, of work market competitiveness, material success.
Unfortunately, great writers able to excel in the truly grand genres — poetry especially lyrical verse of philosophical reflection , highly aesthetic prose, drama of ideas — emerge only rarely, anywhere in the world. Whereas the commercially successful novels which combine aesthetic quality with social and political argument and topicality, sophisticated narrative structures with intellectual debate have appealed to an incredibly high number of authors.
The representatives of the new wave of sensational books Statistical figures differ widely in their numerical and nominal representation of the authors in this trend of writing, maybe precisely because the genre eschews easy categorisation. Like any statistics7, this one, too, is debatable, and when it comes to spiritual products, figures so much less significant. Larsson ; translations in scores of languages ; novel series or cycles, respectively between 3 and 14 volumes per series , number pages, film adaptations and so on.
As far as we are concerned, we confined ourselves to a limited number of writers, selected subjectively, with one criterion being their publication in Romanian, combined with a more subjective and restrictive one, that of our own reading. It would have been proper that our presentation should observe, even in this avowedly subjective context, a certain value ranking of the names selected here.
But is this possible in art — if we insist, however, that the respective novel represent literary art? And then, can a single reader presume to operate such classifications? Not even the professionals of literary criticism and literary history book history attempt to make such appreciations in a synchronic perspective.
Only after a long time has passed will the diachronic perspective allow a certain sifting of values. We all know, however, that we would be faced with at least two impediments: a a historical one, showing that Al. Consequently, we resorted to an external criterion, also utilized by makers of numerical classifications, rankings and lists of writers — that of geographical and cultural distribution.
He managed to finish 14 volumes until , breaking the records of his congeners. Its protagonist is still indebted to the old model — the morose detective in his fifties, typical of the Icelandic and Nordic crime novel in general.
Her er Jo! A scandal about her becoming a victim of e-book piracy broke out in , during the writing of her first 12 books, an occurrence otherwise beneficial in terms of marketing. The measured, minute reconstruction of a family chronicle reveals secret love affairs, homosexuality, tense familial relations, the conflict between old and new mentalities and especially an incest, whose discovery resolves the problem of the inheritance for the descendants of a family of freaks.
The scene in the first paragraphs is explained by the one in the last pages, in a coherent, dense account, with no detectives, but with strong and weak people, joined together in life and death, but also tied together by an incest — which proves to be the key of the novel.
The other two volumes of the trilogy, Hermit Crabs and Pastures Green, have not been translated into Romanian, as far as we know. Anyway, at the age of 58, Anne Ragde has written 47 books, all of them radiating energy, understanding and humour. The detective and his assistant investigate the dark 8 Relating to the commentaries of a professional and impassioned reader, known in the online medium, we might say that after reading this book you begin to see all sorts of strange things happening: you spill your coffee over the computer keyboard, forget that you have lectures to give, talk to yourself in the room or the street and so on.
Another series, Lindemans, in two volumes, was published between and In addition to the ten volumes of the two series, we should mention other novels, short stories, biographies, essays, travelogues, travel guides — 25 titles in total. A lawyer specialised in child protection, she served as Minister of Justice for a few months in , but resigned from office to devote herself to her political militancy, also concerned with all kinds of minority rights.
Katja Kollio also portrays characters of chick-lit inspiration. Simukka blends the two approaches, since the detective investigation is conducted by a teenage girl and, in general, the world in these books concerns adolescence. Intelligent, sarcastic, tough, quiet young people hide in their past — not very distant, evidently — a secret which marks the shaping of their personality. What is striking to readers from other cultures is the almost complete independence of these youngsters, still in school in the majority of cases.
Indeed, the writer stated, in an interview occasioned by her presence at the Gaudeamus Book Fair in Bucharest , that independence at an early age is characteristic of Finnish society. A young person who has not become independent from his family before the age of 20 is considered rather odd9, in contrast with what happens elsewhere in Europe, where the marsupial, phenomenon, prolonged till the age of , is a cause of concern, as well as a subject for sociological and anthropological studies, for literary and cinematographic works of art.
The book was soon translated into 33 languages, staying on top for 26 weeks in Top New York Times. The thematic and formal particularities of the fonder had already been successfully tested by other authors of the genre. Being one of the youngest exponents of the great group of Nordic noir writers a little older, however, than the Finn Simukka , she reinforces the phenomenon by her creative vigour.
In fact, one cannot establish a linear succession, as the publication dates clearly show that the novels from different cycles were written in parallel, in an entwining, overlapping chronology of prodigious restlessness. Naturally, this haste does not produce masterpieces of genuine literature.
In , she wrote three books, coming out 6th in the ranking of best-selling modern writers, with the books she had already published, but after authors of the same category — adventure, humour, intrigue, etc. The Books seller, We have ignored, from the boreal region, the writers from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, although there are also notable contributions from the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Evidently, they could not be classmates, as they grew up in different countries. They might have read the same speciality treatises. They are more certain to have followed the same models, old or especially contemporary ones. None of these possibilities would equate to disqualifying the authors, as long as each author and each volume is a page turner. Marius Chivu, , p.
Otherwise, some of the students emerged as authentic values, such as N. Many novels have a preamble of a few italicised paragraphs, which seem to have nothing in common with the beginning proper or with the rest of the narrative, either. At the end of the book, there are other paragraphs, which clarify the meaning of the initial ones, in the light of the whole story they had framed.
This is the well-known technique of compositional symmetry, practiced in innumerable variants. Anne B. Ragde used it shortly before Stieg Larsson, and many other representatives of the genre followed suit. There are always three or four distinct planes which can be identified in the irresistibly captivating unfolding of the narrative. The death or disappearance of some people, inexplicable explosions trigger tenacious investigations, which lead to the discovery of chains of terrifying murders, incredible secrets, webs of complicities, sordid details in the life of some characters, families, communities, corporations or whole state entities.
Social critique, more or less obvious, is the first ingredient elevating these novels above the narrow and dispraised sphere of the detective genre. The detective enquiry reveals old deficiencies and new learn good things and meet professional writers of distinction.
Sometimes there are more or less direct allusions to elections, presidents of states, plots at the highest level. The family saga, such as the Vangers — in S. Larsson; the Neshovs — in A. The families at the centre of the plot, as well as the individuals living in isolation, but trapped in the web of complicated social relations, are actually samples of eccentrics, freaks, obsessed people, perverts, but also of lucid, balanced, intelligent, honest individuals, replete with the customary in-between category, of people both good and bad at the same time, with an admirable avoidance of character Manichaeism.
Of course, one might say that this is an indispensable ingredient of any successful book. In fact, the writer is evidently the prototype of the freelance journalist, the investigator Blomkvist of the book, and the story of the economic magazine suspended after a famous trial, is based on the Expo case in the real life of the journalist and writer, which he renamed Millenium in the novel. Larsson actually suffered a condemnation after the uncomfortable revelations made in his magazine.
However, whenever they used it, the writers evoked here applied it masterfully. Ravaging hatred and abominable violence intersect with delicate feelings of love, with the need for protection and communication, with romance flowering in the most unexpected circumstances.
There is filial love, fraternal love, warm friendship and affinities, just as there are homosexual and bisexual relations, presented with deep understanding, in the spirit of a very tolerant society, in this sense. All these grow, like water-lilies, out of the muddy depths of a quagmire of lies, misogyny, greed, blackmail, hatred, misanthropy, manifested against the background of extreme tensions, hidden in the basements of the high society of the shining, septic, prosperous, modern cities, cu flaunted preoccupations for access to instruction, social protection and healthcare.
The characters are usually strong, irrespective of their direct or secret manifestation, be they victims or victimisers, Eccentricity is equally characteristic of criminals, spies, corrupt officials and of young pupils and undergraduates, journalists, writers as characters , detectives, psychologists and so on.
They are cold and ruthless, like Nordic winters, when they have to be so, but they can also be in love, protective or helpless, in other circumstances. At the same time, they resist until the end, making tough decisions; they bathe at night in the freezing ocean, speak to no one for days on end, suffer from hunger and thirst, resist terrible blows and inflict equally terrible physical, psychic or financial blows, and, despite all these, they manage to be credible characters and profoundly human figures.
Investigators are as weird as they are human, as are the ones under investigation. The other investigators are younger and not necessarily professionals. They can be journalists, lawyers, psychologists, profilers and even writers. They have great family problems themselves — they are divorced, in conflict with cu their rebellious children or senile parents, with bosses, neighbours, the system.
Not only have these writers the power to project and write whole series of two to fourteen volumes, as well as several series, but also bulky volumes of an impressive number of pages — between and each. Larsson had projected 10 volumes, submitted three of 2, pages in total, and he seems to have written some more before he died. Only Anne Ragde, S. Simukka and a few others write somewhat shorter novels, about pages long. But all of them — big or small — are extremely dense and are part of series or cycles, beside other diverse volumes.
But the absolute superlative cannot be attributed to several representatives of the same group. People are not poor, but administer their money with care; they drink a lot of coffee in these novels, at any time of day or night, they all call each other by their first name, irrespective of their position in the social or biological hierarchy — a particularity of the Scandinavian community spirit.
Specialists hold different opinions. We are told that a writer cultivated adventure and not a detective plot, that another stands out as more philosophical and psychological than others, that some address the innocence of children and adolescents, others deal with high-technology and state-of-the-art devices.
Certain reservations about this kind of books have always existed and still exist today. But these represent an identity phenomenon only at an individual level. As far as we are concerned, we believe that all of them create literature. A certain kind of literature, which will disappear as a successful genre, as Al.
For now, however, they represent a cultural rift, a particular identity. For Orbitor. Both the judgments by means of which a world perceives itself, perhaps adjusting itself according to certain desiderata, and the external judgments which may undergo changes according to certain patterns, are essentially subjected to sensorial and conceptual subjectivity, requiring its periodical adjustment to the natural laws of organic matter. Keywords: Travellers, Swedish society, the perception of otherness.
The very same features, however, charge these texts with a dose of relativity. By all means, the texts of specialists geographers, historians, architects, psychologists, sociologists etc. They all relate to something and, regardless of the incorporated amount of material or experience, that particular thing remains central and predominant, whether it belongs to axiology, theology, to the perspective of their own research field or simply to aesthetics. In St. This fact may become a stimulus and suggestion for a more elaborate and demanding mental effort, by which the one who scrutinizes the entire space tries to imagine how many average basilicas would fit in there, volumetrically speaking.
While those who are not animated by the fruitful urge to observe, imagine and compare spaces may regard it superficially, only after such an effort could one reach a deep understanding of the fact that those who designed and built St. Then, only in that moment can one understand how proportionate that building is in all three dimensions, how the exterior merges with the surrounding space, the complexity of the ways in which the inner spaces are managed architecturally and in which the inbuilt constructions are incorporated, with all the consequences deriving from this fact and affecting our senses and mind.
Therefore, the approaches which deal with a subject from a narrow perspective do not seem to be productive at all, and even less ironic, especially when dilettantes ironize other dilettantes. Except for the fact that the data and criteria which may be controlled and perhaps scientifically accepted are strictly technical in nature, these kinds of issues do not belong to only one domain; they pertain to a space dominated by a certain degree of subjectivity, the superior understanding not casting aside the right to simple human judgement.
This domain seems to be rather a field in which perspectives intersect each other and where ideas flow free. Naturally, the traveller does not often understand everything he observes and the scientist cannot place on a high level of understanding all of his findings. Nevertheless, their inevitably interpretative accounts are the ones which constitute the most powerful imagery. In fact, this is the way human beings perceive, represent and think their world and by which they act within it.
These limitations are — apparently paradoxically — due not only to their consubstantiality with that particular world, but also to their lack of understanding of how other worlds, generated by other mentalities, are built.
They may perfectly function in their own world, but this does not necessarily mean that they have fully understood it on the conceptual level since they rather naturally assimilated the environment they live in. Intransigence is probably the most relevant thing for the observation and understanding of how human beings dogmatize their perceptions, their understanding and the bonds between them and their own world and environment travellers are no exception to this either, despite the fact that they have acquired the routine of traversing several spaces.
Although Goethe considered that we get to know ourselves best through others, this interest is almost never oriented towards the willingness to accept the opinions of others — not even in an adjusted way. Whether he does it at home or among foreigners, he imagines himself testing the abilities of the other with a wise omniscience and from the position of a unique referential being. However, what he pursues is the correspondence between what others say and what he perceives and thinks, regarded as a truth beyond any doubt.
Any deviation from his worldview is shattered by the argument he believes to be the supreme and the ultimate one, i. The foreigner is always ready to explain how the world actually is to those who are willing to listen and how many misunderstandings of reality there are! Anyone who carries out the experiment of approving everything a foreigner says may see that what he really needs is not approval — often he does not even feel the need to transform the other into a being who perceives, understands and judges just as he does — but what he does need is to push his limits till it makes clear that the two worlds are strictly hierarchical, that one has nothing to do but to follow the other exactly.
It is not knowledge which is transferred and broadened but it is a single Procrustean bed. The foreigner always has a story about the other, by which he bespeaks his perception of a sordid, incoherent, sad world or, in any case, of a world charged with such attributes, his judgements being definitive and irrevocable. Each time he would describe in detail how he was assaulted by a journalist or how he experienced, certainly indirectly, the regime.
He would also tell how brave he was unlike the great majority of Romanians who should have done the same in every second of their lives when he rejected a supposed offer to praise the regime. Each time people forget to tell how they obtained the visa to enter a country which is selective not only regarding entrance but also regarding exit!
Some of these characteristics are natural features; others are developed by the culturally determined will power. What is fascinating in the Germanic world is space partition. Just like Romans or Slavs, Germans have straight bipolar streets with buildings on each side, but here the three-dimensionality of space is much more deeply understood.
The streets are not necessarily built as spaces between parallel rows of buildings or as streams intersected at more or less right angles, but neither can they be compared to the entangled sinuosity of the Asian or North African world. Between two arteries there is a real network of freedom, lanes and piazzas, i. This kind of geography represents the way these communities relate to each other, being congener with the way in which public space has been internalized and then reflected.
Buildings bear the clear traces of the same historicity. It is difficult to say whether it is natural or deliberate, but it most certainly is consciously assimilated. Quite exemplary may be the experiences in spaces where tourists usually do not enter, except for certain smaller proportions, such as the Opera and the Museum of Natural History. The traveller may find himself at a performance which normally would not be any different from other performances; it may even be as good as the one which, on its premiere, hosted the royal family among the spectators.
It is very likely that he would encounter opera singers who are not much known on world stages but who deliver an excellent performance. Although they have the necessary conditions which would allow them to bring famous singers, Swedish people prefer to listen to artists whom their own reality can provide.
Perhaps this fact maintains their equilibrium, which seems to say that by means of exceptionality it is not possible to found a society which would be well-balanced in terms of the dynamic between stability and variability. It seems to me that it is the sign of the deliberate will to consolidate a stable edifice, which would not be one of the stages constructed for the transitory genius.
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