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Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving gradual quantitative transitions without abrupt changes or discontinuities. Cooperation sometimes written as co-operation is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for common, mutual, or some underlying benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit.

In social science generally and linguistics specifically, the cooperative principle describes how effective communication in conversation is achieved in common social situations, that is, how listeners and speakers must act cooperatively and mutually accept one another to be understood in a particular way.

In the social sciences, coordinated management of meaning CMM provides understanding of how individuals create, coordinate and manage meanings in their process of communication. As used by copyright theorists, the term copynorm or more frequently copynorms is used to refer to a normalized social standard regarding the ethical issue of duplicating copyrighted material. The Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy JLPP is a law review published by students at Cornell Law School, First published in July , JLPP publishes articles, commentaries, book reviews, and student notes that explore the intersections of law, government, public policy, and the social sciences, with a focus on current domestic issues and their implications.

Corporate capitalism is a term used in social science and economics to describe a capitalist marketplace characterized by the dominance of hierarchical, bureaucratic corporations. In statistics, many statistical tests calculate correlations between variables and when two variables are found to be correlated, it is tempting to assume that this shows that one variable causes the other.

Cosumnes River College is a two-year community college located on the southern edge of Sacramento in Sacramento County, California. A couple interview or joint couple interview, or more broadly conjoint interview, joint interview or dyadic interview is a method of qualitative research used in the social sciences, where two spouses are interviewed together.

Coursera is an online learning platform founded by Stanford professors Andrew Ng and Daphne Koller that offers courses, specializations, and degrees. Craig Bruce Reucassel born 1 January is an Australian television and radio comedian. Crime analysis is a law enforcement function that involves systematic analysis for identifying and analyzing patterns and trends in crime and disorder.

Laboratoire CRISES or Centre de recherches interdisciplinaires en sciences humaines et sociales is a French research centre in humanities and social sciences, founded in Montpellier, France, in January Critical psychology is a perspective on psychology that draws extensively on critical theory.

Critical race theory CRT is a theoretical framework in the social sciences that uses critical theory to examine society and culture as they relate to categorizations of race, law, and power. Critical realism, a philosophical approach associated with Roy Bhaskar — , combines a general philosophy of science transcendental realism with a philosophy of social science critical naturalism to describe an interface between the natural and social worlds. Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.

Criticism of science addresses and refines problems within science in order to improve science as a whole and its role in society. Cross-Cultural Research formerly Behavior Science Research is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Social Sciences. Cross-cultural studies, sometimes called holocultural studies or comparative studies, is a specialization in anthropology and sister sciences sociology, psychology, economics, political science that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture.

Cross-plot is synonym for scatter plots used primarily in the Earth Sciences and Social Sciences to describe a specialized chart that compares multiple measurements made at a single time or location along two or more axes. In anthropology and geography, a cultural region, cultural sphere, cultural area or culture area refers to a geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities culture.

A cultural artifact, or cultural artefact see American and British English spelling differences , is a term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, ethnology and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users. A cultural critic is a critic of a given culture, usually as a whole and typically on a radical basis. Cultural framework is a term used in social science to explain traditions, value systems, myths and symbols that are common in a given society.

In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society—the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores—so that their imposed, ruling-class worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm; the universally valid dominant ideology, which justifies the social, political, and economic status quo as natural and inevitable, perpetual and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs that benefit only the ruling class.

Since the beginning of her career in the early s, American singer and songwriter Madonna has had a social-cultural impact on the world through her recordings, attitude, clothing and lifestyle. The cultural turn is a movement beginning in the early s among scholars in the humanities and social sciences to make culture the focus of contemporary debates; it also describes a shift in emphasis toward meaning and away from a positivist epistemology. The culture of Paris,in France and of the French people has been shaped by geography, by profound historical events, and by foreign and internal forces and groups.

The culture of Sussex refers to the pattern of human activity and symbolism associated with Sussex and its people. The culture of the People's Republic of China is a rich and varied blend of traditional Chinese culture with communist and other international modern and post-modern influences.

Culturology or science of culture is a branch of social sciences concerned with the scientific understanding, description, analysis, and prediction of cultures as a whole. Customer relationship management CRM is an approach to manage a company's interaction with current and potential customers.

The Czech Academy of Sciences abbr. The Academy is the leading non-university public research institution in the Czech Republic. Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences SVU is a nonprofit, nonpolitical, cultural organization, dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge, the free dissemination of ideas, and the fostering of contacts among people. Boys Senior Secondary School is a senior secondary high school located in Gopalapuram, a central part of Chennai, India.

Daeduk College is a private technical college in the Yuseong-gu district of Daejeon, a major city of South Korea. Dafna Lemish is an Israeli media researcher in the fields of children, youth and leisure culture; as well as construction of gender identity in the media. Damond L. Daniel E. Daniel Nettle born is a British behavioural researcher, biologist and social scientist.

Daniel Yankelovich December 29, — September 22, was a public opinion analyst and social scientist. Darko Bratina 30 March — 23 September was an Italian sociologist, film theorist and politician of Slovene ethnicity. Darmanto Jatman 16 August — 13 January Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established systematic fashion, which then enables one to answer relevant questions and evaluate outcomes. Data science is an interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and insights from data in various forms, both structured and unstructured, similar to data mining.

David Verge Fleischer is an American born Brazilian social scientist and professor. David Glenn Hays November 17, — July 26, was a linguist, computer scientist and social scientist best known for his early work in machine translation and computational linguistics. David Paul Berenberg March 17, — March 7, was an American socialist teacher, editor, and writer.

In law and government, de facto or;, "in fact" describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws. A standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces for example, by early entrance to the market.

Jeremiah Joseph Duggan 10 November — 27 March was a British student in Paris who died during a visit to Wiesbaden, Germany, after being struck by several cars on a dual carriageway. Debi Prasanna Pattanayak born 14 March is an Indian professor, linguist, social scientist and author. The Decade of the Mind Project is an international initiative to advance scientific understanding of how the mind and complex behaviors are related to the activity of human brains. Dedoose is a web application for mixed methods research developed by academics from UCLA, with support from the William T.

Grant Foundation, and is the successor to EthnoNotes. Demographic gravitation is a concept of "social physics", introduced by Princeton University astrophysicist John Quincy Stewart in Descriptive knowledge, also declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions.

Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns. Design Studies is an academic discipline that pursues a critical understanding of design and its effects through analytical and practical modes of inquiry.

Desmond Green born October 11, is an American mixed martial artist who competes in the featherweight division for Ultimate Fighting Championship. Development Southern Africa, the journal of the Development Bank of Southern Africa, publishes articles that reflect innovative thinking on key development challenges and policy issues facing South Africa and other southern African countries. Developmentalism is an economic theory which states that the best way for less developed economies to develop is through fostering a strong and varied internal market and imposing high tariffs on imported goods.

The dialogical self is a psychological concept which describes the mind's ability to imagine the different positions of participants in an internal dialogue, in close connection with external dialogue. Dieter Senghaas born August 27, , in Geislingen an der Steige is a German social scientist and peace researcher. A dietitian or dietician is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet.

Digital humanities DH is an area of scholarly activity at the intersection of computing or digital technologies and the disciplines of the humanities. Discourse from Latin discursus, "running to and from" denotes written and spoken communications. Discourse analysis DA , or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event.

The Discourse Unit is an international research group that currently has its main base at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

In social science, disenchantment Entzauberung is the cultural rationalization and devaluation of mysticism apparent in modern society. The disengagement theory of aging states that "aging is an inevitable, mutual withdrawal or disengagement, resulting in decreased interaction between the aging person and others in the social system he belongs to".

The term Disneyfication also Disneyization describes the transformation of a society to resemble the theme parks of The Walt Disney Company. Dispositional affect, similar to mood, is a personality trait or overall tendency to respond to situations in stable, predictable ways. The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.

The various academic faculties, departments, and institutes of the University of Oxford are organised into four divisions, each with its own Head and elected board. The Doctor of Social Science degree is a higher qualification offered by select universities, which serves as a doctoral level qualification specifically relating to academic work in the field of social sciences. A doctorate from Latin docere, "to teach" or doctor's degree from Latin doctor, "teacher" or doctoral degree from the ancient formalism licentia docendi is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.

Doomsday cult is an expression used to describe groups who believe in apocalypticism and millenarianism, and can refer both to groups that predict disaster, and to those that attempt to bring it about. Dorothea Jacqueline Dorien DeTombe born is a Dutch sociologist and former academic at the Utrecht University and the Delft University of Technology, known for her contributions in the field of methodology for societal complexity. Double burden is a term used to describe the workload of people who work to earn money, but who are also responsible for significant amounts of unpaid domestic labor.

The double hermeneutic is the theory, expounded by sociologist Anthony Giddens, that everyday "lay" concepts and those from the social sciences have a two-way relationship. Dr Manmohan Singh Scholarships are awards available to Indian students for doctoral study at St John's College at the University of Cambridge and for undergraduate studies at the university. Druga gimnazija Sarajevo is a Sarajevo gymnasium school in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering multidisciplinary and multicultural social science research and criticism about race. Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University. Duquesne University Press, founded in , is a publisher that is part of Duquesne University, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Dynamical systems theory is an area of mathematics used to describe the behavior of the complex dynamical systems, usually by employing differential equations or difference equations. E-Science or eScience is computationally intensive science that is carried out in highly distributed network environments, or science that uses immense data sets that require grid computing; the term sometimes includes technologies that enable distributed collaboration, such as the Access Grid.

E-social science is a more recent development in conjunction with the wider developments in e-science. Edward Hallett "Ted" Carr 28 June — 3 November was an English historian, diplomat, journalist and international relations theorist, and an opponent of empiricism within historiography. Eamon Michael Kelly - was the president of Tulane University from to Earth system governance is a recently developed paradigm that builds on earlier notions of environmental policy and nature conservation, but puts these into the broader context of human-induced transformations of the entire earth system.

Earth system science ESS is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences. Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. East Asian studies is a distinct multidisciplinary field of scholarly enquiry and education that promotes a broad humanistic understanding of East Asia past and present.

Eco-socialism, green socialism or socialist ecology is an ideology merging aspects of socialism with that of green politics, ecology and alter-globalization or anti-globalization. The Economic and Political Weekly is a weekly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all social sciences, and is published by the Sameeksha Trust. In finance, mainly for financial services firms, economic capital is the amount of risk capital, assessed on a realistic basis, which a firm requires to cover the risks that it is running or collecting as a going concern, such as market risk, credit risk, legal risk, and operational risk.

The social science of economics makes extensive use of graphs to better illustrate the economic principles and trends it is attempting to explain. Economic methodology is the study of methods, especially the scientific method, in relation to economics, including principles underlying economic reasoning.

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Diamond, Jr. Econophysics is an interdisciplinary research field, applying theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in economics, usually those including uncertainty or stochastic processes and nonlinear dynamics.

The term edge of chaos is used to denote a transition space between order and disorder that is hypothesized to exist within a wide variety of systems. Edinburgh College is a further and higher education institution with campuses in Edinburgh and Midlothian, Scotland. Editorial URSS is a Russian scientific literature publishing house textbooks, monographs, journals, proceedings of Russian institutes and universities, etc.

Eduardo Bonilla-Silva born February 6, in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania is an American political sociologist and professor of sociology at Duke University. Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

Education in state institutions is free at the initial, primary, secondary and tertiary levels and in the undergraduate university level not for graduate programs. Education in China is a state-run system of public education run by the Ministry of Education. Education in Moldova is currently the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Research.

Mongolia's education system has undergone major changes in the 20th century. The educational system in Taiwan is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education. Education in the Netherlands is characterized by division: education is oriented toward the needs and background of the pupil. Education is divided over schools for different age groups, some of which are divided in streams for different educational levels.

Schools are furthermore divided in public, special religious , and general-special neutral schools, although there are also a few private schools. The Dutch grading scale runs from 1 very poor to 10 outstanding. Education in the Philippines is provided by public and private schools, colleges, universities, and technical and vocational institutions. Education in the Soviet Union was organized in a highly centralized government-run system. Education in Zimbabwe is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education for primary and secondary education and the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education, Science and Technology Development for higher education.

Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. Edward Kofler November 16, — April 22, was a mathematician who made important contributions to game theory and fuzzy logic by working out the theory of linear partial information. In statistics, an effect size is a quantitative measure of the magnitude of a phenomenon. Egalitarian dialogue is a dialogue in which contributions are considered according to the validity of their reasoning, instead of according to the status or position of power of those who make them.

Einar Thorsrud 30 April — 29 May was a Norwegian psychologist, researcher and professor at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim and University of Oslo, who is known for his work in the field of organizational development OD , particularly in the development of theory around participative work design structures.

ELAN is computer software, a professional tool to manually and semi-automatically annotate and transcribe audio or video recordings. Elise L. Andaya is a cultural anthropologist who is currently employed as an Associate Professor of Anthropology by the University of Albany which is the state university of New York. Ellen Ernst Kossek, a social scientist, is an American academic who is known for research on work, family, and personal life. Ellen Markman is Lewis M.

Terman Professor of Psychology at Stanford University. Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information. Emerald Publishing Limited is a scholarly publisher of academic journals and books in the fields of management, business, education, library studies, health care, and engineering. In philosophy, emergentism is the belief in emergence, particularly as it involves consciousness and the philosophy of mind, and as it contrasts or not with reductionism.

In anthropology, folkloristics, and the social and behavioral sciences, emic and etic refer to two kinds of field research done and viewpoints obtained: emic, from within the social group from the perspective of the subject and etic, from outside from the perspective of the observer.

Emma Boona born 17 February is a Ugandan teacher, public administrator and politician. Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure. Empirical legal studies ELS is an approach to the study of law, legal procedure, and legal theory through the use of empirical research.

In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. The Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences is a specialized fifteen-volume Encyclopedia first published in and last published in Energy policy is the manner in which a given entity often governmental has decided to address issues of energy development including energy production, distribution and consumption. Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles to the professional practice of engineering.

Engineering management is the application of the practice of management to the practice of engineering. English studies usually called simply English is an academic discipline taught in primary, secondary, and post-secondary education in English-speaking countries; it is not to be confused with English taught as a foreign language, which is a distinct discipline. Enid Mumford 6 March — 7 April was a British social scientist, computer scientist and Professor Emerita of Manchester University and a Visiting Fellow at Manchester Business School, largely known for her work on human factors and socio-technical systems.

Bishop Enrique San Pedro, S. Environmental determinism also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism is the study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular development trajectories. Environmental journalism is the collection, verification, production, distribution and exhibition of information regarding current events, trends, issues and people that are associated with the non-human world with which humans necessarily interact.

Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the interplay between individuals and their surroundings. Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment. Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution who, when, and where and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

The Erasmus Prize is an annual prize awarded by the board of the Praemium Erasmianum Foundation to individuals or institutions that have made exceptional contributions to culture, society, or social science in Europe and the rest of the world. Eric Henry Monkkonen August 17, in Kansas City, Missouri — May 30, in Culver City, California was an American urban and social science historian who conducted authoritative studies on the history of crime as well as urban development.

Eric Robert Wolf February 1, — March 6, was an anthropologist, best known for his studies of peasants, Latin America, and his advocacy of Marxist perspectives within anthropology. Erik Rinde 17 March — 28 May was a Norwegian jurist who became a pioneer of social sciences in Norway.

Erlendur Haraldsson born is a professor emeritus of psychology on the faculty of social science at the University of Iceland. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel 16 February — 9 August was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista.

Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

Erving Goffman 11 June — 19 November was a Canadian-American sociologist and writer, considered by some "the most influential American sociologist of the twentieth century". Erwin J. Haeberle born 30 March is a German social scientist and sexologist.

Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism is a peer-reviewed academic journal and the official journal of the American Humanist Association. The Estonian Academy of Arts Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, EKA is the only public university in Estonia providing higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation-restoration. ETH Library is the largest public scientific and technical library in Switzerland. Ethics in technology is a sub-field of ethics addressing the ethical questions specific to the Technology Age.

Ethnic and Racial Studies is a peer-reviewed social science academic journal that publishes scholarly articles and book reviews on anthropology, cultural studies, ethnicity and race, and sociology. Ethnic identity development or ethnic-racial identity ERI development includes the identity formation in an individual's self-categorization in, and psychological attachment to, an ethnic group s. Within the field of anthropology and other social sciences, ethnography is a form of research that relies on a range of sources of data, but usually tends to rely mainly on participant observation.

Ethnoscience has been defined as an attempt "to reconstitute what serves as science for others, their practices of looking after themselves and their bodies, their botanical knowledge, but also their forms of classification, of making connections, etc. Ethnozoology is the study of the past and present interrelationships between human cultures and the animals in their environment. Etienne Vermeersch born May 2, in Sint-Michiels nowadays part of Bruges is a Belgian moral philosopher, skeptic, opinion maker and debater.

The European Academy of Sciences and Arts Academia Scientiarum et Artium Europaea is a learned society of around 1, top scientists and artists who approach the questions facing Europe and the globe in various colloquia and publications. The European Association for Evolutionary Political Economy EAEPE is a pluralist forum of social scientists that brings together institutional and evolutionary economists broadly defined.

The European Association of Libraries and Information Services on Addictions ELISAD — previously called, until end of , European Association of Libraries and Information Services on Alcohol and other Drugs — was a European non-governmental and non-profit making social network of libraries, documentation centres and information services situated in Europe and specialised in alcohol, drugs, tobacco and all other behavioural addictions.

The European Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering contemporary issues in Europe. European studies is a field of study offered by many academic colleges and universities that focuses on current developments in European integration. The European University Institute EUI in Florence, Italy, is an international postgraduate and post-doctoral teaching and research institute established by European Union member states to contribute to cultural and scientific development in the social sciences, in a European perspective.

Europeanisation or Europeanization, see spelling differences refers to a number of related phenomena and patterns of change. Evaluation Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Social Sciences. Everett Carll Ladd, Jr.

September 24, December 8, was an American political scientist based at the University of Connecticut. Everett M. Rogers March 6, — October 21, was an eminent American communication theorist and sociologist, who originated the diffusion of innovations theory and introduced the term early adopter.

An evolutionarily stable strategy ESS is a strategy which, if adopted by a population in a given environment, cannot be invaded by any alternative strategy that is initially rare. Evolutionary anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates.

Evolutionary economics is part of mainstream economics as well as a heterodox school of economic thought that is inspired by evolutionary biology. Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

Existential migration is a term coined by Greg Madison in Existential Analysis, the journal of the Society for Existential Analysis. An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis. Power and dominance-submission are two key dimensions of relationships, especially close relationships in which parties rely on one another to achieve their goals and as such it is important to be able to identify indicators of dominance.

The fact—value distinction is the distinction between things that can be known to be true and things that are the personal preferences of individuals. The University of Colombo currently has seven faculties with 41 academic departments and two interdependent schools with five academic departments. The institute conducts social research both in Norway and internationally. Fardad Fateri is an American business and higher education executive, author, public speaker, philanthropist, and professor.

Farooq Adamu Kperogi born , is a Nigerian academic, media scholar, public speaker and newspaper columnist. The fathers' rights movement is a movement whose members are primarily interested in issues related to family law, including child custody and child support that affect fathers and their children.

Fatos Tarifa born is a social scientist and a former diplomat from Albania. The Federal Judicial Center is the education and research agency of the United States federal courts. Federal University Oye Ekiti is a government-owned and -operated Nigerian university. Federico A. Cordero August 18, — October 9, was a guitarist of classical music. In ethology and social science, female bonding is the formation of a close personal relationship and patterns of friendship, attachment, and cooperation in females.

Orser and Catherine J. Feminist empiricism is a perspective within feminist research that combines the objectives and observations of feminism with the research methods and empiricism. Fergusson College FC is an autonomous public educational institution offering courses in the streams of Arts and Science in the city of Pune. Fernando Henrique Cardoso born June 18, , also known by his initials FHC, is a Brazilian sociologist, professor and politician who served as the 34th President of Brazil from January 1, to January 1, Field Methods is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Social Sciences.

The Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters is a Finnish academy for natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. Flaming is a hostile and insulting interaction between persons over the Internet, often involving the use of profanity. Florian Witold Znaniecki 15 January — 23 March was a Polish philosopher and sociologist who taught and wrote in Poland and in the United States. Floyd Henry Allport August 22, — October 15, was an American psychologist who is often considered "the father of experimental social psychology", having played a key role in the creation of social psychology as a legitimate field of behavioral science.

A focus group is a small, but demographically diverse group of people and whose reactions are studied especially in market research or political analysis in guided or open discussions about a new product or something else to determine the reactions that can be expected from a larger population. The Fordham University Press is a publishing house, a division of Fordham University, that publishes primarily in the humanities and the social sciences.

Forgiveness is the intentional and voluntary process by which a victim undergoes a change in feelings and attitude regarding an offense, lets go of negative emotions such as vengefulness, forswears recompense from or punishment of the offender, however legally or morally justified it might be, and with an increased ability to wish the offender well. Formal sciences are formal language disciplines concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, statistics, theoretical computer science, robotics, information theory, game theory, systems theory, decision theory, and theoretical linguistics.

Foundation Mattei Dogan is located in Paris, France, and is devoted exclusively to the social sciences. The Foundation University for Health Sciences is a private educational and health care university founded in Statistics is the theory and application of mathematics to the scientific method including hypothesis generation, experimental design, sampling, data collection, data summarization, estimation, prediction and inference from those results to the population from which the experimental sample was drawn.

Roosevelt on Monday, January 6, Frame analysis also called framing analysis is a multi-disciplinary social science research method used to analyze how people understand situations and activities. In the social sciences, framing comprises a set of concepts and theoretical perspectives on how individuals, groups, and societies, organize, perceive, and communicate about reality.

French—Iranian relations are the international relations between France and Iran. Dr Frances Pinter born 13 June is the founder and executive director of Knowledge Unlatched, a not-for-profit company creating a global library consortium enabling sustainable open access academic book publishing.

Franco Archibugi Rome, Italy 18 September is an Italian scholar in political, economic and social sciences, university professor in economic policy and spatial planning. Franklin Benjamin Sanborn December 15, — February 24, was an American journalist, author, and reformer. Fred Stephen Roberts born June 19, from Roberts' web site, retrieved Fredric Jameson born April 14, is an American literary critic and Marxist political theorist.

French immersion is a form of bilingual education in which a child who does not speak French as his or her first language receives instruction in school in French. Friedensau Adventist University in German "Theologische Hochschule Friedensau" is a part of the Seventh-day Adventist education system, the world's second largest Christian school system.

Friedhelm Gehrmann born 12 June in Dortmund is a German scientist in the field of economics and social sciences. Friedrich Engels. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism. Friedrich Heckmann born March 6, is the director of the research institute European forum for migration studies efms and emeritus professor of Sociology at the School of Social and Economic Sciences at the University of Bamberg.

Friedrich Pollock 22 May — 16 December was a German social scientist and philosopher. In sociology, a friend of a friend is a human contact that exists because of a mutual friend. Fairman about freedom of speech, the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, censorship, and use of the word fuck in society. Research funding is a term generally covering any funding for scientific research, in the areas of both "hard" science and technology and social science.

Futures studies also called futurology is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. Futurists or futurologists are scientists and social scientists whose specialty is futurology or the attempt to systematically explore predictions and possibilities about the future and how they can emerge from the present, whether that of human society in particular or of life on Earth in general. A fuzzy cognitive map is a cognitive map within which the relations between the elements e.

Gabriel A. Almond January 12, — December 25, was a political scientist from the United States best known for his pioneering work on comparative politics, political development, and political culture. Gaia philosophy named after Gaia, Greek goddess of the Earth is a broadly inclusive term for related concepts that living organisms on a planet will affect the nature of their environment in order to make the environment more suitable for life.

Gail Jefferson 22 April — 21 February was, along with Harvey Sacks and Emanuel Schegloff, one of the founders of the area of research known as conversation analysis CA. Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit.

Game studies, or ludology, is the study of games, the act of playing them, and the players and cultures surrounding them. Gathering Blue is a young adult-social science novel, written by Lois Lowry and released in the year In mathematics, a Gaussian function, often simply referred to as a Gaussian, is a function of the form: for arbitrary real constants, and. Gavin Kitching B. Phil is a British author and professor of social sciences and international relations formerly head of School Politics and International Relations at the University of New South Wales, where he has taught since Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.

Gender sensitization precides over gender sensitivity which refers to the modification of behavior by raising awareness of gender equality concerns. Gender studies is a field for interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis.

Gene V Glass born June 19, is an American statistician and researcher working in educational psychology and the social sciences. Generalized game theory is an extension of game theory incorporating social theory concepts such as norm, value, belief, role, social relationship, and institution. The generalized other is a concept introduced by George Herbert Mead into the social sciences, and used especially in the field of symbolic interactionism.

A generation is "all of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively. Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. Georg Simmel 1 March — 28 September was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic. George Christopher Archibald 30 December — 22 February , briefly 2nd Baron Archibald in , also known as Chris Archibald, was a British economist, a researcher and professor.

Naval War College. George Malcolm Stratton September 26, — October 8, was a psychologist who pioneered the study of perception in vision by wearing special glasses which inverted images up and down and left and right. George W. Georges Goyau 31 March — 25 October was a French historian and essayist specializing in religious history. Georges Menahem is a French sociologist and economist whose work employs methods drawn from economics, sociology and statistics.

Gerald L. Gerhard Weisser 9 February - 25 October was a social scientist, university teacher, Social Democrat and expert policy advisor. Gerontology is the study of the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive, and biological aspects of ageing. The Gerstein Science Information Centre is the University of Toronto's flagship library supporting the sciences and health sciences. Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.

Giambattista Vico B. Giovan Battista Vico, 23 June — 23 January was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician, historian and jurist, of the Age of Enlightenment. Gian Vittorio Baldi 30 October - 23 March was an Italian film producer, director and screenwriter. Gina Neff is a media and communication scholar whose work centers on the social and organizational impact of new communication technologies.

Giorgi George V. The Giornale degli economisti e Annali di economia, established in Padua in , is an Italian academic journal of economics. The Glasgow University Dialectic Society, re-instituted in , is a student society at the University of Glasgow, Scotland, committed to the promotion of debating, logic, ethics and literary discussion at the university. Glastonbury High School is a public, co-educational high school located in Glastonbury, Connecticut.

Glimpse is an interdisciplinary journal that examines the functions, processes, and effects of vision and its implications for being, knowing, and constructing our world s. Global radiology, a subspecialty of diagnostic radiology, comprises the study and practice of improving access to radiology resources in poor and developing countries, and addressing global health inequities through the application of radiology.

The global warming controversy concerns the public debate over whether global warming is occurring, how much has occurred in modern times, what has caused it, what its effects will be, whether any action should be taken to curb it, and if so what that action should be. Gloria Criscione Pineda, known artistically as "Gloria del Paraguay" is a Paraguayan soprano, recognized for her versatile voice. This is a glossary of terms that are or have been considered areas of study in mathematics.

This glossary of education-related terms is based on how they commonly are used in Wikipedia articles. Godfrey Baldacchino born 25 April is a Maltese and Canadian social scientist. Goldsmiths, University of London, is a public research university in London, England, specialising in the arts, design, humanities, and social sciences. Andrew Gordon Speedie Pask 28 June — 29 March was an English author, inventor, educational theorist, cybernetician and psychologist who made significant contributions to cybernetics, instructional psychology, experimental epistemology and educational technology.

A graduate school sometimes shortened as grad school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees i. The, or GSAPS, is an independent graduate school focusing on social sciences and international relations. Graduate unemployment, or educated unemployment, is unemployment among people with an academic degree. In mathematics, the concept of graph dynamical systems can be used to capture a wide range of processes taking place on graphs or networks.

In sociology of science, the graphism thesis is a proposition of Bruno Latour that graphs are important in science. Gratification is the pleasurable emotional reaction of happiness in response to a fulfillment of a desire or goal. Gravity models are used in various social sciences to predict and describe certain behaviors that mimic gravitational interaction as described in Isaac Newton's law of gravity.

Greg D. Clausen born October 8, is a Minnesota politician and member of the Minnesota Senate. Gregory Bateson 9 May — 4 July was an English anthropologist, social scientist, linguist, visual anthropologist, semiotician, and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields.

Grounded theory GT is a systematic methodology in the social sciences involving the construction of theory through methodic gathering and analysis of data. Group analysis or group analytic psychotherapy is a method of group psychotherapy originated by S. Foulkes in the s. The Gulf Research Center GRC is a privately funded, non-partisan think tank, education provider and consultancy specializing in the Persian Gulf region.

The Gunijan Trust is an initiative for presenting Bangladesh personalities who inspire people through their writings, words, scientific and artistic works and other creative pursuits for peace, humanity and social justice. Gymnasium German plural: Gymnasien , in the German education system, is the most advanced of the three types of German secondary schools, the others being Realschule and Hauptschule.

Gymnasium strongly emphasizes academic learning, comparable to the British grammar school system or with prep schools in the United States. A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. Harold Gordon Skilling February 12, — March 2, was a Canadian political scientist, known for his expertise on the history of Czechoslovakia and support for the Charter 77 dissident movement.

Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries. Hans-Ulrich Wehler September 11, — July 5, was a German historian known for his role in promoting social history through the "Bielefeld School", and for his critical studies of 19th-century Germany. Harari College Worldwide is an American, virtual, tuition-free college that offered the American Advanced Placement International Diploma and a diploma in the Humanities and Social Sciences for high school students.

Hard science and soft science are colloquial terms used to compare scientific fields on the basis of perceived methodological rigor, exactitude, and objectivity. Hard science fiction is a category of science fiction characterized by an emphasis on scientific accuracy. Harold J. Noah born is an American educator, whose research and writing have focused on comparative education and economics of education.

Harry Anastasiou born is a British-born Cypriot-American social and political scientist who has engaged in peace-building initiatives in Cyprus, Greece, Turkey, the Middle East and the European Union. Harry Ott born Chemnitz 15 October died Prieros 24 June was a German diplomat who became a politician towards the end of his professional career.

Harvey Luskin Molotch born January 3, is an American sociologist known for studies that have reconceptualized power relations in interaction, the mass media, and the city. Haverford College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college in Haverford, Pennsylvania. Hazel Kyrk — was an American economist and pioneer of consumer economics. Health: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine is a bimonthly peer-reviewed healthcare journal that covers research in the fields of health and the social sciences.

Health informatics also called health care informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, nursing informatics, clinical informatics, or biomedical informatics is information engineering applied to the field of health care, essentially the management and use of patient healthcare information. Health services research HSR , also known as health systems research or health policy and systems research HPSR , is a multidisciplinary scientific field that examines how people get access to health care practitioners and health care services, how much care costs, and what happens to patients as a result of this care.

Heleieth Iara Bongiovani Saffioti January 4, — December 13, was a Brazilian sociologist, teacher, and feminist activist. Verwoerd and Dr. Henrik Steffens 2 May — 13 February , was a Norwegian-born Danish philosopher, scientist, and poet.

Herbert Aptheker July 31, — March 17, was an American Marxist historian and political activist. Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.

Heritage science is cross-disciplinary scientific research of cultural heritage. Herta Herzog-Massing August 14, — February 25, was an Austrian-American social scientist specializing in communication studies. The hierarchy of the sciences is a theory formulated by Auguste Comte in the 19th century.

A high school diploma is a North American academic school leaving qualification awarded upon high school graduation. Higher education in Canada describes the constellation of provincial higher education systems in Canada and their relationships with tent of federal government, provinces, and territories. Higher education in Portugal is divided into two main subsystems: university and polytechnic education. Higher education in Quebec differs from the education system of other provinces in Canada.

Higher education in the United States is an optional final stage of formal learning following secondary education. Historical ecology is a research program that focuses on the interactions between humans and their environment over long-term periods of time, typically over the course of centuries.

Historical institutionalism HI is a new institutionalist social science method that uses institutions to find sequences of social, political, economic behavior and change across time. In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record. Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.

Historism is a philosophical and historiographical theory, founded in 19th-century Germany as Historismus and especially influential in 19th- and 20th-century Europe. History of anthropology in this article refers primarily to the 18th- and 19th-century precursors of modern anthropology. The history of capitalism has diverse and much debated roots, but fully-fledged capitalism is generally thought to have emerged in north-west Europe, especially in the Low Countries mainly present-day Flanders and Netherlands and Britain, in the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries.

History of Consciousness is the name of a department in the Humanities Division of the University of California, Santa Cruz with a year history of interdisciplinary research and student training in "established and emergent disciplines and fields" in the humanities, arts, and social sciences based on a diverse array of theoretical approaches.

The history of education in China began with the birth of the Chinese civilization. The history of Florida State University dates to the 19th century and is deeply intertwined with the history of education in the state of Florida and in the city of Tallahassee. The military funding of science has had a powerful transformative effect on the practice and products of scientific research since the early 20th century. The history of Ohio Wesleyan University began with discussions of a college in Ohio in when the Ohio Methodist Conference in connection with the Kentucky Conference had established Augusta, the first Methodist institution of higher learning in the United States.

The history of philosophy in Poland parallels the evolution of philosophy in Europe in general. Howard Woodson , S. Anthony College , St. Edmund's College, Shillong , St. Francis College , St. Joseph's College, Jakhama , St. Mary's College of Maryland , St.

Mary's College, Thrissur , St. Paul's School New Hampshire , St. Thomas More College , St. Kent , Stephen Blum , Stephen C. Morgan , Stephen O. Gold , Steven Lukes , Steven M. Oommen , T. Taylor , T. Adorno , Theodor W. Adorno Award , Theodor W. Wilson , Thomas Espenshade , Thomas F. Bradford Wilcox , W. Du Bois , W. Thomas , W. Buckley , Walter H. Gamson , William Augustus Jones Jr. Macaulay Honors College , William F. Frey , William H. Sewell , William H.

Starbuck , William I. Robinson , William J. Carroll , William K. The I' and the 'me are terms central to the social philosophy of George Herbert Mead, one of the key influences on the development of the branch of sociology called symbolic interactionism.

A Defence of Masochism is a non-fiction book by Anita Phillips covering the topic of BDSM, which offers philosophical and sociological arguments for the virtues of masochism. A General View of Positivism Discours sur l'ensemble du positivisme was an book by the French philosopher Auguste Comte, first published in English in A Guide for the Perplexed is a short book by E.

Schumacher, published in A New Kind of Science is a best-selling, controversial book by Stephen Wolfram, published by his own company in Berger, published in Aage B. Aaron Antonovsky 19 December — 7 July was an Israeli American sociologist and academician whose work concerned the relationship between stress, health and well-being salutogenesis.

Aaron Benavot is a global education policy analyst currently working as the director Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Aaron Curry born April 6, is an American college football coach and former linebacker who played in the National Football League. Aaron H. Devor born , formerly known as Holly Devor, is a Canadian sociologist and sexologist known for research of transsexuality and transgender communities.

Abbas Gharib, born 16 June is an Italian-based architect of Iranian origin. Abraham D. Lavender born is a professor of Sociology at Florida International University in Miami, Florida, where his special areas of interest include ethnic relations, Judaica, political sociology, urban sociology, the sociology of sexuality, and social deviance. Abraham Moles — 22 May was an engineer of electrical engineering and acoustics, and a doctor of physics and philosophy.

Abram de Swaan born 8 January is a Dutch essayist, sociologist and professor emeritus from the University of Amsterdam. Absolute Dissent is the thirteenth studio album by English rock band Killing Joke. Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs. Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal "real" or "concrete" signifiers, first principles, or other methods.

Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of an entity, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit. An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.

Academic dress is a traditional form of clothing for academic settings, mainly tertiary and sometimes secondary education, worn mainly by those who have been admitted to a university degree or similar , or hold a status that entitles them to assume them e. Academic freedom is the conviction that the freedom of inquiry by faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy as well as the principles of academia, and that scholars should have freedom to teach or communicate ideas or facts including those that are inconvenient to external political groups or to authorities without being targeted for repression, job loss, or imprisonment.

The academic study of new religious movements is known as new religions studies' NRS. Academic writing is conducted in several sets of forms and genres, normally in an impersonal and dispassionate tone, targeted for a critical and informed audience, based on closely investigated knowledge, and intended to reinforce or challenge concepts or arguments.

The Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences ACJS is an international association established in to foster professional and scholarly activities in the field of criminal justice and criminology. The Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia ASSA is an autonomous, non-governmental organisation devoted to the advancement of knowledge and research in the social sciences.

Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures. Acta Sociologica is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all areas of sociology. In narrative theory, actant is a term from the actantial model of semiotic analysis of narratives. In sociology and anthropology, an action group or task group is a group of people joined temporarily to accomplish some task or take part in some organized collective action.

Action theory or theory of action is an area in philosophy concerned with theories about the processes causing willful human bodily movements of a more or less complex kind. In sociology, action theory is the theory of social action presented by the American theorist Talcott Parsons.

Adam Possamai is a sociologist and novelist born in Belgium and living in Australia. Adam Swift born is a British political philosopher and sociologist who specialises in debates surrounding liberal egalitarianism. Adrian S. Franklin born 19 December is a British-born Australian sociologist, who is a professor of sociology at the University of Tasmania and a television and radio presenter for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Adrian E. Raftery born in Dublin, Ireland is an Irish and American statistician and sociologist.

Adriana Gascoigne is an American technology executive and activist, the founder and Chief Executive Officer of Girls in Tech, a global non-profit dedicated to empowering, educating, and mentoring women in the technology industry. Adriano Duarte Rodrigues born 7 April is a Portuguese communication theorist. Affinity in terms of sociology, refers to "kinship of spirit", interest and other interpersonal commonalities.

African Affairs is a peer-reviewed academic journal published quarterly by Oxford University Press on behalf of the London-based Royal African Society. African immigration to the United States refers to immigrants to the United States who are or were nationals of modern African countries. The African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies is a biannual peer-reviewed Open access academic journal covering issues relevant to criminology, social, and justice systems of interest to Africa.

African Studies is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal publishing articles in the fields of anthropology, linguistics, history, sociology, politics, geography, and literary and cultural studies. African-American studies is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of Black Americans. In sociology and anthropology, an age grade or age class is a form of social organization based on age, within a series of such categories, through which individuals pass over the course of their lives.

Since the s, a number of demonstrations have taken place in the United Kingdom in favour of abolishing the age of consent, in support of children's rights, gay liberationism or, more recently, "as a means to avoid unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections STDs and "bad sex" via education and health promotion". Agenda-setting theory describes the "ability to influence the importance placed on the topics of the public agenda".

An Aggregate pattern can refer to concepts in either statistics or computer programming. Aggressive Behavior is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research pertaining to aggression in, among other fields, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. Agroecology is the study of ecological processes applied to agricultural production systems. Agroecosystem analysis is a thorough analysis of an agricultural environment which considers aspects from ecology, sociology, economics, and politics with equal weight.

Agustin Cueva Davila Ibarra, September 23, — Quito, May 1, was an Ecuadorian writer, literary critic, and marxist sociologist. Ahmed Cevdet Pasha 22 March — 25 May was an Ottoman scholar, intellectual, bureaucrat, administrator, and historian who was a prominent figure in the Tanzimat reforms of the Ottoman Empire.

The Akilam one is the first among the seventeen parts of Akilattirattu Ammanai, the religious book of Ayyavazhi. Jephthah Bowoto, popularly known and referred to as Akpororo, is a Nigerian stand-up comedian, vocalist and actor. Alain Elkann born March 23, is an American novelist, intellectual, and journalist.

Alan Wolfe born is a political scientist and a sociologist and is on the faculty of Boston College and serves as director of the Boisi Center for Religion and American Public Life. Albert Ernest Jenks — was an American anthropologist and a professor at the University of Minnesota. Albert Paul Weiss September 15, — April 3, was a German American behavioral psychologist, theorist, scientist, and experimentalist.

Albert Schatz — was a law professor at the University of Dijon and historian of 19th century individualism and Jean-Baptiste Say. The Albert Shanker Institute is a nonprofit foundation dealing with public education, the labor movement and the sociology of work. Alberto Baldrich January 20, — December 19, was an Argentine philosopher and sociologist who served as Minister of Justice and Public Instruction —45 during the de facto presidency of General Edelmiro Farrell — Alberto V.

Febbrajo born 19 July , Vittorio Veneto is an Italian legal scholar and sociologist. Alberto Gasparini born January 13, , in Modena, Italy is an Italian sociologist and professor of urban and rural sociology, of sociology of international relations and of techniques of forecasting. Alberto Thieroldt born in Lima , is a sociologist and advocate for children's literature.

Bishop Aleixo das Neves Dias, S. Alejandro Portes born October 13, is a prominent Cuban-American sociologist. Alek D. Epstein born April 18, is a Russian-Israeli sociologist of culture and politics. Alena V.

Alenka Puhar born 4 February is a Slovenian journalist, author, translator, and historian. Alexander "Alex" Himelfarb born July 3, is a senior Canadian civil servant and academic. Sir Alexander Morris Carr-Saunders, 14 January — 6 October was an English biologist, sociologist, academic, and academic administrator.

Alexander "Alec" H. Alexander Schwab 5 July - 12 November was a German political activist. Alexandr Semenovich Kapto born April 14, in Upper Tarasovka Village, Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, Ukraine is a Russian and Ukrainian scientist, sociologist, political scientist and a diplomat, journalist and politician. He earned a philosophy degree in and his Ph. Alexandra Kosinski born March 29, , also known as Alex Kosinski, is an American distance-runner.

Alexandre Lacassagne August 17, — September 24, was a French physician and criminologist who was a native of Cahors. Secretary of Labor under President Bill Clinton. Alfred Abraham Knopf Sr. September 12, August 11, was an American publisher of the 20th century, and founder of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.. Alfred de Grazia December 29, — July 13, , born in Chicago, Illinois, was a political scientist and author. Alfred Lorenzer Ulm, April 8, — Perugia, June 26, was a German psychoanalyst and sociologist regarded as a pioneer of interdisciplinary psychoanalysis.

Alfred McClung Lee August 23, — May 19, was an American sociologist whose research included studies of American journalism, propaganda, and race relations. Alfred North Whitehead 15 February — 30 December was an English mathematician and philosopher. The following is a list of the works by Alfred Schmidt, a 20th-century German philosopher, sociologist and critical theorist associated closely with the Frankfurt School. Alfred Winslow Jones 9 September — 2 June was an Australian investor, hedge fund manager, and sociologist.

Alfredo Maria Adriano d'Escragnolle Taunay, Viscount of Taunay February 22, — January 25, , was a French Brazilian writer, musician, professor, military engineer, historian, politician, sociologist and nobleman. Marie, Ontario, Canada. Alice Miller, born as Alicija Englard 12 January — 14 April , was a Swiss psychologist, psychoanalyst and philosopher of Polish-Jewish origin, who is noted for her books on parental child abuse, translated into several languages.

Alice S. Alice Schwarzer born 3 December in Wuppertal is a German journalist and prominent contemporary feminist. Alika Hope, M. Alison Jones is a New Zealand academic who works in the field of sociology of education. Aliyah Saleem born August , is a British secular education campaigner, writer and market researcher. Allan G. Johnson was an American writer and public speaker who worked in the fields of sociology and gender studies. Allison Margaret Kirkman is a New Zealand sociology academic with interests in 'death and dying; gender, sexuality, ageing and health; health care work and workers.

Alloparenting also referred to as alloparental care is a term used to classify any form of parental care provided by an individual towards a non-descendent young. Altai State University is a coeducational and public research university in Barnaul, Russia.

In sociology, an alternative movement refers to a social movement that seeks limited societal change. Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual. The American Dream is a national ethos of the United States, the set of ideals democracy, rights, liberty, opportunity and equality in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success, as well as an upward social mobility for the family and children, achieved through hard work in a society with few barriers.

Established in as the first US scholarly journal in its field, American Journal of Sociology AJS presents pathbreaking work from all areas of sociology, with an emphasis on theory building and innovative methods. In the United States, the lower class are those at or near the lower end of the socio-economic hierarchy. The American Sociological Association ASA , founded in as the American Sociological Society, is a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the discipline and profession of sociology.

The American Sociological Review is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all aspects of sociology. Amitai Etzioni born Werner Falk, 4 January is an Israeli-American sociologist, best known for his work on socioeconomics and communitarianism. Amos N. Analytic induction is a research strategy in sociology aimed at systematically developing causal explanations for types of phenomena. Analytical feminism is a line of philosophy that applies analytic concepts and methods to feminist issues and applies feminist concepts and insights to issues that have traditionally been of interest to analytic philosophers.

Anarchism in the United States began in the midth century and started to grow in influence as it entered the American labor movements, growing an anarcho-communist current as well as gaining notoriety for violent propaganda by the deed and campaigning for diverse social reforms in the early 20th century. Anarchy Alive! Anarchy in Action is a book exploring anarchist thought and practice, written by Colin Ward and first published in Anastasia de Waal is a British social policy analyst and broadcaster, specialising in family and education.

Ancient Judaism Das antike Judentum , is a book written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist, in early the 20th century. Andhra University College of Arts and Commerce is one of the constituent colleges of Andhra University established in Andre Lloyd Miller born March 19, is an American former professional basketball player.

Andrea Jeftanovic b. Santiago de Chile, is a Chilean author, sociologist and academic. Andrej Gosar 30 November — 21 April was a Slovenian and Yugoslav politician, sociologist, economist and political theorist. Andrew Delano Abbott born November is an American sociologist and social theorist working at the University of Chicago.

Andrew Billingsley, Ph. Andrew M. Greeley February 5, — May 29, was an American Roman Catholic priest, sociologist, journalist and popular novelist. Andrew Vasilios Papachristos is an American sociologist and associate professor of sociology at Yale University, where he is also the director of the Center for Research on Inequalities and the Life Course.

Andrew T. Scull born is a British-born sociologist whose research is centered on the social history of medicine and particularly psychiatry. In data visualization, an Andrews plot or Andrews curve is a way to visualize structure in high-dimensional data.

Andy Offutt Irwin born December 14, is an American storyteller, arts educator, singer-songwriter, and humorist. Angelo Celli 25 March — 2 November was an Italian physician, hygienist, parasitologist and philanthropist known for his pioneering works in malarial parasite and control of malaria. Animal studies is a recently recognized field in which animals are studied in a variety of cross-disciplinary ways. Ann Henderson is a campaigner in the labour movement and Rector of the University of Edinburgh.

Ann Ratner Miller — February 28, was an American sociologist and demographer in the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, described as "a pioneer in the study of human migration and patterns of labor force participation", "part of the first generation of demographers that assembled and analyzed census data to undertake the first systematic study of internal migration within the United States".

Anna Olson Atlanta, Georgia, U. Anna Rochester March 30, — May 11, was an American labor reformer, journalist, political activist, and Communist. Anne Morelli born in , also known as Anne Mettewie-Morelli is a Belgian historian of Italian origins, specialized in the history of religions and minorities.

Anne Muxel is a French sociologist more specialised in the study of the biographical memory. Annette Patricia Lareau born is a sociologist working at the University of Pennsylvania. The Annual Review of Sociology is an annual peer-reviewed review journal published by Annual Reviews since Anomalistics is the use of scientific methods to evaluate anomalies phenomena that fall outside current understanding , with the aim of finding a rational explanation.

Anomie is a "condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals". Anselm Leonard Strauss December 18, — September 5, was an American sociologist professor at the University of California, San Francisco UCSF internationally known as a medical sociologist especially for his pioneering attention to chronic illness and dying and as the developer with Barney Glaser of grounded theory, an innovative method of qualitative analysis widely used in sociology, nursing, education, social work, and organizational studies.

Anson D. Shupe, Jr. Anthony Eugene Alridge born November 24, is a former professional gridiron football running back. Antanas "Anthony" Bimba Jr. Anthony J. Diekema born was President of Calvin College from to Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens born 18 January is a British sociologist who is known for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies.

Anthony James Gill born July 17, is an American political scientist and adjunct professor of sociology at the University of Washington; he is a non-resident scholar at the Baylor University Institute for the Study of Religion. Anthony Midget born February 22, is an American football coach and former player who is currently an assistant for the Houston Texans.

Anthropological linguistics is the subfield of linguistics and anthropology, which deals with the place of language in its wider social and cultural context, and its role in making and maintaining cultural practices and societal structures. Anthropological theories of value attempt to expand on the traditional theories of value used by economists or ethicists.

Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present. Anthroposophic medicine or anthroposophical medicine is a form of alternative medicine. Anti-psychiatry is a movement based on the view that psychiatric treatment is often more damaging than helpful to patients. The Anti-terrorism Act, also known as Bill C is an Act of the Parliament of Canada passed by the Harper government that broadened the authority of Canadian government agencies to share information about individuals easily.

Anticipatory socialization is the process, facilitated by social interactions, in which non-group-members learn to take on the values and standards of groups that they aspire to join, so as to ease their entry into the group and help them interact competently once they have been accepted by it.

Antinaturalism is a view in sociology which states that the natural world and the social world are different. In social science, antipositivism also interpretivism and negativism proposes that the social realm cannot be studied with the scientific method of investigation applied to the natural world; investigation of the social realm requires a different epistemology.

Antireductionism is the position in science and metaphysics that stands in contrast to reductionism anti-holism by advocating that not all properties of a system can be explained in terms of its constituent parts and their interactions.

Antisemitism in Turkey refers to acts of hostility against Jews in the Republic of Turkey, as well as the promotion of antisemitic views and beliefs in that country. Antonino Calderone October 24, January 10, was a Sicilian Mafioso who turned state witness pentito in after his arrest in Antonio Candido de Mello e Souza July 24, — May 12, was a Brazilian writer, professor, sociologist and literary critic.

Antonio J. Antonio "Toni" Negri born 1 August is an Italian Marxist sociologist and political philosopher, best known for his co-authorship of Empire and secondarily for his work on Spinoza. Anu Prabhakar born 9 November , also known by her married name Anu Prabhakar Mukherjee, is an Indian film actress, who predominantly appears in Kannada films and is from Mangalore. Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of linguistics which identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems.

Appropriation in sociology is, according to James J. Sosnoski, "the assimilation of concepts into a governing framework Aquad is a free computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software CAQDAS that supports content analysis of open data in qualitative research in psychology, education, sociology, philosophy, medicine, ethnography, politics, etc. Aquila Berlas Kiani — 30 March ,Note: the transliteration of the family name -- Berlas not Barlas -- is preferred by the Institute for Cultural Research and in her memorial obituary.

Arab studies or Arabic studies is an academic discipline centered on the study of Arabs and Arab World. Aravinnd Singh is an Indian cinematographer who works in the Tamil film industry. The archaeology of trade and exchange is a sub-discipline of archaeology that identifies how material goods and ideas moved across human populations. Archibald E. Stevenson September 23, — February 10, was an American attorney and legislative researcher.

Archival research is a type of primary research which involves seeking out and extracting evidence from original archival records. Argentine literature, i. Ari Sitas born in Limassol, Cyprus is a South African sociologist, writer, dramatist and civic activist. Ariel Heryanto is an Indonesian sociologist whose main area of interests are cultural studies, media studies, and postcolonial studies. Ariel Smith Ballif, Sr. Ariel Salleh is an Australian sociologist who writes on humanity-nature relations, social change movements, and ecofeminism.

Aristides Gomes born 8 November In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean stress on third syllable of "arithmetic" , or simply the mean or average when the context is clear, is the sum of a collection of numbers divided by the number of numbers in the collection. Arlie Russell Hochschild born January 15, is an American sociologist and academic. Armand Mattelart born January 8, is a Belgian sociologist and well known as a Leftist French scholar.

Armand Lind Mauss born 5 June is an American sociologist specializing in the sociology of religion. Arnaldo Ferrari Nasi born July 9, in Chiavari, Genoa is an Italian sociologist, political analyst and journalist. Arnaz Jerome Battle born February 22, is a former American football wide receiver.

Arne Johan Vetlesen born 10 September is a Norwegian professor of philosophy at the University of Oslo, who concentrates on the topic of ethics and social philosophy. Arne L. Arnold Dashefsky, born in , is a professor at the University of Connecticut who has written several books on the topics relating to Jewish ethnicity, culture, ideologies, among others.

Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style. Art pop also typeset as art-pop or artpop is a loosely defined style of pop music influenced by pop art's integration of high and low culture, and which emphasizes the manipulation of signs, style, and gesture over personal expression. Arthur B. Shostak born May 11, , is an American sociologist and futurist, and former professor of sociology at Drexel University.

Arthur Burnham Woodford October 7, — was an American economist, university professor, and grammar school rector. Arthur William Dunn ? Colonel Arthur Hale Woods January 29, — May 12, was an American educator, journalist, military and law enforcement officer.

In sociology, articulation labels the process by which particular classes appropriate cultural forms and practices for their own use. Artificial society is the specific agent based computational model for computer simulation in social analysis. ASA style is a widely accepted format for writing university research papers in the field of sociology.

Asian American Studies is an academic discipline which critically examines the history, experiences, culture, and policies relevant to Asian Americans. Asian studies, a term used usually in North America for Oriental studies and is concerned with the Asian people, their cultures, languages, history and politics. An assembly line is a manufacturing process often called a progressive assembly in which parts usually interchangeable parts are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.

The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists APECS is a worldwide association of early career scientists undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, and early career faculty interested in the polar regions and the cryosphere generally. Assortative mating is a mating pattern and a form of sexual selection in which individuals with similar phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected under a random mating pattern.

Aston Group is the designation of a group of organizational researchers who pursued their research between and under the leadership of Derek S. Astra Taylor born is a Canadian-American documentary filmmaker, writer, activist and musician. Ato Jabari Boldon born 30 December is a former athlete from Trinidad and Tobago and four-time Olympic medal winner.

Atomism or social atomism is a sociological theory arising from the scientific notion atomic theory, coined by the ancient Greek philosopher Democritus and the Roman philosopher Lucretius. The term atrocity story also referred to as atrocity tale as defined by the American sociologists David G. Bromley and Anson D. Shupe refers to the symbolic presentation of action or events real or imaginary in such a context that they are made flagrantly to violate the presumably shared premises upon which a given set of social relationships should be conducted.

Attachment parenting AP is a parenting philosophy that proposes methods which aim to promote the attachment of parent and infant not only by maximal parental empathy and responsiveness but also by continuous bodily closeness and touch. Augustine J. Kposowa is an American sociologist and professor of sociology at the University of California, Riverside, where he is also the co-chair of the sociology department.

Ausma Zehanat Khan is a Canadian novelist and author of crime and fantasy novels. Aut Aut is an Italian-language critical philosophy and literary magazine published in Milan, Italy. An autocatalytic set is a collection of entities, each of which can be created catalytically by other entities within the set, such that as a whole, the set is able to catalyze its own production.

Autoethnography, is a form of qualitative research in which an author uses self-reflection and writing to explore their personal experience and connect this autobiographical story to wider cultural, political, and social meanings and understandings.

In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision. The term autopoiesis refers to a system capable of reproducing and maintaining itself. An availability cascade is a self-reinforcing cycle that explains the development of certain kinds of collective beliefs. The Axiom of Cumulative Inertia is a sociological phenomenon rooted in observations of human migratory patterns.

The Akilattirattu Ammanai the scripture of Ayyavazhi teaches Dharma on two different perspective. The ethics of Ayyavazhi are found scattered throughout the primary scripture, Akilattirattu Ammanai. Ayyavazhi rituals are the religious practices prevalent among the followers of Ayyavazhi. Azar Gat born in Haifa, Israel is a researcher and author on military history, military strategy and war and peace in general.

Baby Boomers also known as Boomers are the demographic cohort following the Silent Generation and preceding Generation X. There are varying timelines defining the start and the end of this cohort; demographers and researchers typically use birth years starting from the early- to mids and ending anywhere from to The academic undergraduate degree of Bachelor of Social Science B. Bachelor of Social Services called socionom in Swedish and Danish, sosionom in Norwegian, and sosionomi in Finnish is a degree in social welfare from Scandinavian universities.

A bachelor's degree from Middle Latin baccalaureus or baccalaureate from Modern Latin baccalaureatus is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years depending on institution and academic discipline. Balthasar Henry Meyer May 28, — February 9, was an American government official and professor of economics and sociology.

Barbara E. Barbara Bain born September 13, is an American film and television actress. Ward — was a British social anthropologist and academic, who specialised in Chinese society. Barnita Bagchi born 12 June is a Bengali speaking Indian feminist and academic. Barrington Moore Jr. Barry B. Levine born is an American academic and founding professor of Sociology at the Florida International University.

Barry Glassner is a professor of sociology and author or co-author of nine books, including The Culture of Fear, which discussed the culture of fear phenomenon. In Marxist theory, human society consists of two parts: the base or substructure and superstructure. Baseball FeverThe title refers to the protagonist Ezra Feldman and his obsession of baseball; however, it may also refer to his educative father and his depicted sourness of Ezra and his addiction to baseball.

Basic Books is a book publisher founded in and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books. Basic Concepts in Sociology is a book written by Maximilian Weber, a German economist and sociologist. Bay View High is a highly selective, independent, coeducational school in Karachi, Pakistan.

Bayside Comprehensive School, or simply Bayside, is a boys' comprehensive school in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. Beatrix Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard,; born 31 January is a member of the Dutch royal family who reigned as Queen of the Netherlands from 30 April until her abdication on 30 April Beauty is a characteristic of an animal, idea, object, person or place that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction.

Elizabeth M. Beebe Freitas August 28, — February 17, was an American pianist, organist, vocal coach and educator. Originating in New England, one particular Beecher family in the 19th century was a political family notable for issues of religion, civil rights, and social reform. Behavior modification refers to behavior-change procedures that were employed during the s and early s. Behavioral confirmation is a type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people's social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations.

Behavioral geography is an approach to human geography that examines human behavior using a disaggregate approach. Behavioral medicine is concerned with the integration of knowledge in the biological, behavioral, psychological, and social sciences relevant to health and illness. The term behavioral sciences encompasses the various disciplines that explores the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world.

Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty. Miriam Weeks born June 9, , known predominantly by her stage name of Belle Knox, is an American former pornographic actress.

Benjamin David Habern born July 28, , is a former American football center for the University of Oklahoma Sooners football team from to Ben Manski born July 16, is an American sociologist, lawyer, and democracy advocate. Benjamin Bradley Bolger born is a perpetual student who has earned 14 degrees and claims to be the second-most credentialed person in modern history after Michael W.

Nicholson who has 29 degrees. Benjamin H. Bratton born is an American sociologist, architectural and design theorist, known for a mix of philosophical and aesthetic research, organizational planning and strategy, and for his writing on the cultural implications of computing and globalization. Benjamin Zablocki born January 19, is an American professor of sociology at Rutgers University where he teaches sociology of religion and social psychology.

Representative from Illinois. Benton Johnson born is an American sociologist and professor emeritus of the University of Oregon's Department of Sociology. The Bergamasque dialect is the western variant of the Eastern Lombard group of the Lombard language. Bernard Lefkowitz, a native of New York City, was an author, sociologist, journalist, and investigative reporter. Bernhard Ebbinghaus born 2 June is a German sociologist and comparative social policy expert at the University of Oxford.

Beth Fukumoto born March 30, is an American politician and a member of the Hawaii House of Representatives since January 16, , representing District Beth Nicole Hagendorf is an American actress, television producer, and television host. Elizabeth "Beth" Phinney born June 19, is a Canadian former politician. Senator Frank Church of Idaho. Betsy Leondar-Wright born January 15, is an American economic justice activist, sociologist, and author, who writes on class and economic inequality.

Betty Jane Schueler, Ph. Betty T. Yee born October 19, is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party who has served as California State Controller since Beverly J. Silver born is an American scholar of labor and development whose work has been translated into over twelve languages. Bhadrak College was established on 6 July in Bhadrak town with the initiative of benevolent personalities. Bhupendranath Datta 4 September — 25 December was an Indian revolutionary and later a noted sociologist.

Biblical criticism is a philosophical and methodological approach to studying the Bible, using neutral non-sectarian judgment, that grew out of the scientific thinking of the Age of Reason — Biblical studies is the academic application of a set of diverse disciplines to the study of the Bible the Tanakh and the New Testament. This bibliography of anthropology lists some notable publications in the field of anthropology, including its various subfields.

This bibliography of sociology is a list of works, organized by subdiscipline, on the subject of sociology. Biculturalism in sociology describes the co-existence, to varying degrees, of two originally distinct cultures. The Bielefeld School is a group of German historians based originally at Bielefeld University who promote social history and political history using quantification and the methods of political science and sociology.

Bilateral descent is a system of family lineage in which the relatives on the mother's side and father's side are equally important for emotional ties or for transfer of property or wealth. William Henry Cosby Jr. Bill Randle March 14, — July 9, was an American disc jockey, lawyer and university professor. William Bernard "Bill" Thieben born March 28, is a retired American professional basketball player.

William "Billy' Parker V born May 17, is a former professional gridiron football linebacker. In philosophy, sociology and the arts, the word "biofact" is a hybrid between an artifact and living being, or between concepts of nature and technology. Biofacticity is a philosophical concept that allows to identify a living object as a so-called biofact, i.

Biographical research is a qualitative research approach aligned to the social interpretive paradigm of research. Biological psychiatry or biopsychiatry is an approach to psychiatry that aims to understand mental disorder in terms of the biological function of the nervous system. Consumer behaviour is the study of the motivations surrounding a purchase of a product or service.

The biopsychosocial model is a broad view that attributes disease outcome to the intricate, variable interaction of biological factors genetic, biochemical, etc , psychological factors mood, personality, behavior, etc. Santrock, J. Biosocial criminology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by exploring both biological factors and environmental factors.

Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females, or romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity; this latter aspect is sometimes alternatively termed pansexuality. The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women, and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, all of which exist on the heterosexual—homosexual continuum.

During the first half of the nineteenth century, as many as one million enslaved Africans were transported through sales in the domestic slave trade to the Deep South in a forced migration to work as laborers for the region's cotton plantations. Black existentialism or Africana critical theory is a school of thought that "critiques domination and affirms the empowerment of Black people in the world". Robert Beamon born August 29, is an American former track and field athlete, best known for his world record in the long jump at the Mexico City Olympics in Robert "Bob" Blauner May 18, — October 20, was an American sociologist, college professor and author.

Robert J. Krist born March 29, is an American politician serving in U. Bobby Singh born November 21, is a retired professional American and Canadian football guard. Bobby William Austin born December 29, is an American sociologist, lecturer, and writer. Body culture studies describe and compare bodily practice in the larger context of culture and society, i.

Boerehaat is an Afrikaans word that means "ethnic hatred of Boers", or Afrikaners as they became known after the Second Boer War. Borden Grammar School is a selective boys grammar school with academy status situated in the centre of Sittingbourne, Kent, England, which educates students aged 11— Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives is a book by John Palfrey and Urs Gasser exploring the consequences of the wide availability of internet connectivity to the first generation of people born to it, whom Palfrey and Gasser refer to as "digital natives".

In sociology, a boundary object is information, such as specimens, field notes, and maps, used in different ways by different communities. In science studies, boundary-work comprises instances in which boundaries, demarcations, or other divisions between fields of knowledge are created, advocated, attacked, or reinforced.

The film is about three men who are looking to meet needs that are not being satisfied in their marriages, and their bachelor friend, who arrange for a "kept woman", who is in reality a sociology student studying contemporary American men. Representative for from to John Bradley Holland born December 6, is a retired American professional basketball player.

Brad Leftwich born is a prominent American old-time fiddle and banjo player and teacher. Abraham Bram Peper born 13 February is a Dutch sociologist and former politician. The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines" are commonly divided into three major groups.

For more than half a century, scholarship has been generated to help managers and stakeholders understand how to drive favorable brand attitudes, brand loyalty, repeat purchase, customer lifetime value, customer advocacy, and communities of like-minded individuals organized around brands. Branden Oliver born May 7, is an American football running back who is currently a free agent.

Brandy Britton August 8, - January 30, was a professor of sociology and anthropology. Tracey Lynn Livermore born March 29, , known professionally as Brandi Love, is an American pornographic actress, as well as the co-owner and chief financial officer of two multimedia companies.

Branding national myths and symbols BNMS is a field of research focusing on branding and marketing of a nation's myths and symbols. Brandon Lavar Flowers born February 18, is a former American football cornerback. Brandon Wade Hein born February 17, was sentenced to life imprisonment without possibility of parole for his involvement in the stabbing murder of year-old Jimmy Farris, the son of an LAPD police officer.

Branko Bokun — was an author of in the fields of sociology and psychology. In the fields of sociology and social psychology, a breaching experiment is an experiment that seeks to examine people's reactions to violations of commonly accepted social rules or norms. Child Labor: An American History.

Armonk, N. Sharpe, Breast cancer awareness is an effort to raise awareness and reduce the stigma of breast cancer through education on symptoms and treatment. Brent Robert Barry born December 31, , commonly known by the nicknames Bones, is an American retired professional basketball player. Brent Metcalf born July 14, is an American amateur wrestler currently competing in the international circuit for the United States of America.

Brentwood Academy is a coeducational college preparatory school located in Brentwood, Tennessee, United States. Brian Roberts born , London authored numerous historical and biographical works around prominent persons, places and themes shaping South African history. Brian Michael Stableford born 25 July is a British science fiction writer who has published more than 70 novels.

British African Caribbean or Afro-Caribbean people are residents of the United Kingdom whose ancestors were primarily indigenous to Africa. The British Journal of Sociology is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in at the London School of Economics. The British Journal of Sociology of Education is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the fields of Education and sociology. Brock Williams born August 11, is a former professional American football cornerback.

Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.

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In game betting nba playoffs Aaron H. Archived from the original on 10 July Gregory Bateson 9 May — 4 July was an English anthropologist, social scientist, linguist, visual anthropologist, semiotician, and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields. Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong. African-American studies is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of Black Americans.
King george stakes betting lines Bill L. Community studies is an academic field drawing on both sociology and anthropology and the social research methods of ethnography and participant observation in the study of community. American Institutes for Research AIR is a nonprofit, nonpartisan behavioral and social science research, evaluation, assessment and technical assistance organization based in Washington, D. Retrieved 3 August The culture of Sussex refers to the pattern of human activity and symbolism associated with Sussex and its people. Consumer behaviour is the study of the motivations surrounding a purchase of a product or service.
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The increase is directly related to the pandemic, says Setec, responsible for the concession. The 2nd round of Elections will take place this Sunday 29th and , people will be able to vote in Juiz de Fora. Altogether, the city has victims since the beginning of the pandemic and people hospitalized by the disease on Saturday The bulletin is constructed with the information made available daily by the city halls.

Recovered from covid, coach Cuca returned to direct Santos in the field after 19 days. Folha Pe 2 months ago. Leda Nagle, 69, was discharged from hospital on Friday Summer in SC Worsening coronavirus indexes demands even more caution from tourists looking for holidays in Santa Catarina Coronavirus volatility prevents the neighboring state from setting rules for ;.

The bulletin of the State Department of Health Sesacre this Saturday 28 brings new cases of Covid and a death in the state. There are hospitalizations in public ICUs and in public wards. The number of victims confirmed in 24 hours was the same in relation to Friday Hojeemdia 2 months ago.

Gazeta Do Povo 2 months ago. According to data released by the Ministry of Health on Saturday 28 , the number of deaths related to the coronavirus pandemic reached , An intense shootout caused panic in Morro da Serrinha, this Saturday afternoon 28th , and spread a climate of tension throughout the Madureira neighborhood.

Veja 2 months ago. O Correio Brazilense 2 months ago. The Federal District recorded new cases of coronavirus in the last 24 hours. O Tempo 2 months ago. O Documento 2 months ago. Chamomile is a medicinal plant with antibacterial, healing and soothing properties, with which it is possible to make sweeteners, attract money and sleep well.

Test and find out: which candidate do you most identify with? The government also reports that , cases are currently being monitored, and 5,, have recovered. Bonde 2 months ago. Arapongas Metropolitan Region of Londrina returned to record death due to the coronavirus this Saturday 28 after 19 days.

There were also new deaths due to Covid A Tarde 2 months ago. Within 24 hours, Mato Grosso had seven deaths from the coronavirus. After six weeks of increase in new cases of infected with the new coronavirus, the city of Lagoa Santa, in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, decided to stop the process of reactivating economic activities. The General Hospital of Roraima HGR is without kits to perform an exam that measures the oxygenation in the lungs of patients with coronavirus.

Folha De S. Paulo 2 months ago. Nothing more symbolic for a historic election in which the main vector of composition of the vote is the new coronavirus pandemic than, in the largest city in the country, one of the epicenters of the disease, the candidate who had been oscillating positively in the final stretch, Guilherme Boulos. Have you ever felt a taste of summer approaching?

Thelma Assis, 35, had a positive diagnosis for Covid If you found any error in this news, please fill out the form below and click submit. For the magic of Christmas to exist in this pandemic year, Santa Claus was placed in the home office. Em Tempo 2 months ago. Only 10 of the total burials were victims of Covid In Bahia, in the last 24 hours, 4, cases of Covid were registered growth rate of 1.

She goes by the name of Ricardo Nunes, the candidate for vice. This time, the vote will be only for the choice of the mayor. Malafaia acts as a key person in the dissemination of fake news, with concepts that he is never able to explain, and trumpeting threats, according to him, "coming from the left", but that actually never arrived.

Strong in the fight for a spot in the G-4 of the Brazilian Championship, Fluminense, who is in fifth place and with 35 points, will have to resort to his base divisions for the important commitment this next Monday, against Red Bull Bragantino. Sabrina Sato used social media to celebrate the discharge received by her father, Omar Rahal. Londrina reached the mark of 14, positive cases of Covdi this Saturday 28 , more than the last report. Curitiba passes 1, deaths and active cases of Covid do not stop rising: there are already more than 13 thousand.

Civilian and military police, in addition to the Fire Department and the CIF team, closed establishments with a large number of people. One day after Black Friday, the scene on the streets of downtown Belo Horizonte this Saturday 28th continues to be a tumult at the door of many stores and agglomerations. The Belo Horizonte City Hall banned eight bars and restaurants in the city, between the night of this Friday 27 and the dawn of this Saturday 28 , for noncompliance with municipal decrees in relation to the fight against the pandemic by the new coronavirus Covid DiarioWeb 2 months ago.

Cargo vehicle drivers in the region are participating in the 29 Truck Driver's Gymkhana at a gas station. The state of Rio de Janeiro reached this Saturday 28 22, deaths and , confirmed cases of Covid, according to the balance released by the State Health Secretariat. Regarding the balance of the previous day, there were 91 more deaths and 5, cases. And more heavy investments and. Despite the change in the Covid Risk Map, released by the State Government on Friday night, City Halls do not intend to change, at first, the current rules established.

This Saturday morning 28 , the Secretary of State for Health, Carlos Eduardo Amaral, and the deputy, Marcelo Cabral, held a meeting with regional leaders of the Southeast macro-health region of the State, to address the increase in cases and hospitalizations in this region. Correio24horas 2 months ago. The Feira de Santana Electoral Court prepared the polling places for the second round of the Municipal Elections this Saturday Standing in the cabin of her "popemobile", a pickup truck adapted to protect the candidate from the risk of contamination by the coronavirus, Erundina asked the militancy not to stop the mobilization in the final stretch of the campaign.

This Saturday 28th , the government of Pernambuco confirmed another 2, cases of the new coronavirus. Another flagship of his candidacy is the Retomada Program, a hybrid loan model with popular aid. In reinforcement of actions to prevent and control the spread of covid in Curitiba, City Hall teams took to the streets in two separate operations to curb irregular activities and crowding situations. On Saturday 28 , the State Department of Health released 1, more confirmed cases and 30 deaths due to infection caused by the new coronavirus.

This year, the trimotor produced by the American Mcdonnell Douglas, completed 30 years. The Brazilian stock exchange has never seen so much foreign money as it did in November. If before the fortress protected the capital against invaders, today, the job is to prevent new contagions by the coronavirus. The first point that needs to be made clear when talking about the celebration of Christmas and New Year in the covid pandemic is that there is always a risk of contamination.

The INSS will not block benefits for lack of proof of life until January for beneficiaries who, under normal conditions, would need to have re-registered their password between March and November or, still, do the procedure in December this year. The Regional Electoral Court of Rio TRE-RJ made this Saturday 28 , the eve of the election of the second round of elections in five municipalities of the state, the distribution of 17, electronic voting machines that will be used tomorrow 29 , of which 1, are.

ClicRBS 2 months ago. Under observation With coronavirus, Fernando Carvalho is hospitalized as a precaution in a hospital in Porto Alegre Family members say that the picture of the former president of Inter is stable. Coronavirus Pernambuco records more than 2 thousand cases of Covid in the last 24h According to SES-PE, the increase in the number of cases today is motivated by the accumulation of notifications in the last three days, due to instability in the MS system.

Diariodonordeste 2 months ago. Last Sunday 22 the singer Flay announced, while getting ready for the video recording, that there was new music coming. With the reduction of the public inside the Central Market, limited to people, owners of bars of the Central Market have been using, since September, part of Avenida Augusto de Lima, which is facing the shopping center, to place tables and thus avoid crowding in.

Candidate remains hospitalized in the ICU for treatment against Covid;. Brazil recorded 33, cases of Covid and new deaths from the disease in the last 24 hours. The action aims to stimulate the negotiation of tax debts and optimize the collection of the city hall, which was impacted by the effects of the Covid pandemic.

The manager of the Department of Environmental and Urban Inspection, Graciela Marques, explained that for each event promoted, about four people are being held responsible for carrying it out, as they reinforce the commission of the infraction. With 21 more positive cases from Covid, Sorocaba SP accounted for 22, confirmations this Saturday O Progresso 2 months ago. Dourados Collective sport in open place and bowling are released in republication of decree.

Midia News 2 months ago. Raissa Barbosa was shocked when she left Record, on Friday night 27 , hours after her controversial elimination in 'A Fazenda'. Is it no wonder that some pharmaceutical companies are extensively disclosing ethnicity data from volunteers in clinical trials for covid? The city of Santos has adopted, since the dawn of today, sanitary barriers in the fight against the pandemic of the new coronavirus. Through Instagram, Leda Nagle published a video to inform followers that she had been discharged from the hospital.

The elderly are particularly affected by the coronavirus pandemic. D24am 2 months ago. The new representative of Brazil in the international beauty contest Miss Supranational will be revealed this Saturday 28th , in the 12th edition of the event, in the Federal District.

The Municipality of Varre-Sai, in the Northwest of Rio de Janeiro, registered 43 cases of Covid in an expanded testing action carried out in the city. The State Government, through the Secretariat of Health, provided another 30 monitors to the municipality of Curitiba this Saturday Most of those enrolled in the Single Registry in the Federal District are considered black or brown. RIO - A group made up of people over 60 invaded the internet. RIO - Whether on consoles, computers or, mainly, smartphones, Brazilians are increasingly adept at online games.

Rio - This year's municipal elections registered higher abstention rates compared to previous elections, either due to the Covid Sars-Cov-2 pandemic or the lack of interest in the electoral process. Globo 2 months ago. Orm 2 months ago. For disrespecting curfews and sanitary measures, in addition to concentrating large numbers of teenagers, a party was interrupted on Friday night 28 in Dourados.

The electronic ballot box is the device used for elections in Brazil for over 20 years. Athletico-PR continues to have problems because of covid Bookstore campaign Photo: Loyola bookstore disclosure With numbers falling since the popularization of e-commerce, exclusively physical bookstores in faced another major dilemma, the new coronavirus pandemic covid This Sunday the second round of the municipal elections will take place in 57 Brazilian cities.

Another artistic personality has coronavirus. The National Institute of Social Security INSS will publish next Monday the 30th an ordinance that extends the suspension of proof of life for retirees and pensioners for another two months. Officials at the RioCentro Field Hospital warn that the occupation of vacancies has returned to the same levels as the peak of the pandemic.

On Friday, at 8 pm, the balance indicated: deaths by Covid in the last 24 hours, reaching a total of , deaths since the beginning of the pandemic. The electronic ballot boxes for the second round of the municipal elections in Campinas SP were taken, this Saturday morning 28th , from the Palace of Justice to the schools of the city where the votes will be held this Sunday 29th.

At the same time that it records records of movement - October was the best month of this year, with 4. The coronavirus pandemic forced bookstores to close for months this year, but it also created opportunities. Pizzeria owners have invested in online service, through social networks. Radios 2 months ago. At this time of year, Christmas lights often adorn homes across the country.

The melee did not disappear from this year's election campaigns, despite the pandemic of the new coronavirus, and was present in leaflets, walks and caravans that the two candidates for City Hall, Bruno Covas PSDB , who is trying to be reelected, and Guilherme Boulos. The tenth chapter of the Brazilian documentary series 'The Tyranny of the Minuscule Crown: Covid', which addresses several facets of the pandemic of the new coronavirus, shows the impact of the stoppage of the shows on the national metal and rock scene.

Tocantins counted cases of coronavirus this Saturday The sale of alcoholic beverages is prevented from on Saturday 28 until on Sunday For the second time, the State Department of Education SEE , postponed the return of face-to-face classes in state public schools. About people were caught participating in the event in a farm in the municipality.

The State of Alagoas dismantled exclusive beds for Covid The order came about because of the high number of tests that the folder already kept in stock, according to the ministry itself, which made little progress in distribution in the following months. This Saturday On the night of this Friday 27 , the Civil Police arrested two men suspected of selling meth in Copacabana, in the southern region of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Mato Grasso 2 months ago. Direct voting is a recent achievement in Brazil and needed a lot of dialogue until the current format was established.

The Municipality of Varginha, in the South of Minas Gerais, announced the return of face-to-face classes in the municipality to February 1, - a date that can be changed, under the possible threat of a second wave of the Covid pandemic in Brazil, still. The Rio Times 2 months ago. COVID survivors benefit from home health care after being discharged from hospital, new data show.

Researchers from the Visiting Nurse Service of New York, the University of Pennsylvania, and Villanova University studied 1, patients who received home health care, nearly half of whom were under age Manaus voters return to the polls this Sunday, 29, to decide who will manage the capital of Amazonas for the next four years.

In the queue at the box office markings on the floor indicate the distance that people should have from each other. Public transport users have gained yet another route alternative: the newly opened Line The Federal Police in Sergipe reported on Saturday 28 the suspension of public service at the agency's headquarters, in Aracaju, from November 28 to December 6, due to the confirmation of Covid cases.

On the eve of completing four months outside the coordination of Operation Car Wash, Attorney Deltan Dallagnol is currently at the forefront of much less stormy investigations. The problem is that, often, this sequel in the chest does not give any symptoms and the person will only feel its consequences when demanding extra work from the cardiovascular system.

The determination of the Electoral Justice of Amazonas on the 15th, the first round of the municipal elections, to take off the air for three days a report by The Intercept Brasil that revealed friendly relations and supposed favoritism between state electoral judges and a candidate for mayor of.

The manager of a regional hypermarket was arrested in Patos de Minas this Friday 27 , in a municipal Procon operation during Black Friday. Carta Capital 2 months ago. Even in mild cases, the coronavirus can affect the heart. Almost 10, people have already lost the battle to Covid in Minas.

Data from the Laboratory Environment Manager GAL show that testing has grown month by month since the beginning of the pandemic until August. As already noted by international observers and analysts, there will not be enough logistics or product to serve the entire population in immunizing against Covid What I know is the first Sunday after falling to the 2nd Division for the second time, Mr. Joelmir had a stroke before to watch the first match after the downgrading. He made a tomography early in the morning.

In some minutes the doctor a fanatic Corinthians supporter said another giant could no longer rise again. In the day after to the diabolic second-class division my father started to go to Heaven. The chances to recover from an autoimmune disease were not so good. They became almost impossible with the bleeding of his privileged brain.

Irrigated and ventilated as too few among those who know and recognize him. Beloved and cherished for those not too few that had the privilege to know him. Do I need to say anything else to the best Babbo in the world that turned to be the best Nonno in the Universe? I need. But I don't know. Usually he knew everything. When he didn't knew, he invented with the same class as he talked what he knew.

Every father looks like that to his son. But a journalist's father to someone which is also a journalist gets even more orphan. I have never seen my father as a super-hero. Only as a super human. But I could never realize he would get ill and weak in flesh. I have never admitted we could lose the one that made us only gain. He taught me so many things I couldn't describe them.

One of them is, not all words are needed to be said. They should only be thought. Those who talks about what thinks, doesn't think about what he talks. Those who feels what he talks doesn't need to say it. But, today, I need to thank for my 46 years. For the 49 years of love from my mother. For his 75 years. More than everything, for the affection from the people that know him — therefore like him.

And specially for the people who don't know him — and some who cried like he was an old friend. I've learned a thing from you, babbo. Before become a great journalist it is needed to be a great person. I have learned from him I don't need to work to be a great professional. I need to try to be a great person.

As you did both. Excuse me, but I won't cry. I cry for everything. Because of that I always cry for the family. Palmeiras, loves, pains, colours, songs. But I won't cry for everything more than anything in the world, my parents. My parents which could be also called my mothers [note 4] were always ready. A gift from God. My father never missed me even when absent by his work. I never missed him because he had that wonderful woman, Mrs.

According to Mr. Joelmir, the second biggest thing in his life. Because the first one always was his love he felt for her since When they became a family. My brother and I. Sons of the radio. Sons of a pioneer, respected economics' journalist, a recognized, innovator TV anchorman, a communication master, brilliant and labourer.

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Se existe corrupção no Congresso, é porque presidente é corruptor, dispara Álvaro Dias

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