saida de mauro betting da band too hot

topham trophy betting trends

Also picked up on warrant for fail to appear out of the Shroy, 35, of Montgomery, PA was arrested for being a fugitive from justice. She was taken to the Washington County Jail.

Saida de mauro betting da band too hot 50 1 each way betting

Saida de mauro betting da band too hot

What does China stand to gain politically from closer engagement with Latin America and the Caribbean? December 23, How Significant Will U. In addition to normalizing relations after a half century and opening new embassies in Washington and Havana, the countries have agreed to allow U. How significant are the changes for banks and other financial services companies in the United States and elsewhere?

How important of a market is Cuba for U. How much will improved commercial ties between Cuba and the United States depend upon the U. Congress' support for changing existing laws that restrict business with Cuba? President Barack Obama on Wednesday announced plans to re-establish diplomatic ties with Cuba after more than 50 years, creating speculation that the move could lead to an easing of restrictions on economic and commercial ties affecting the country's energy sector.

Congress would require money transmitters to verify their customers' immigration status and collect a 7 percent penalty from customers who cannot prove that they are legally in the United States. Is this measure good policy? How would such a law affect companies that offer remittance services? How would Latin American and Caribbean countries that have large immigrant populations in the United States be affected.

President Barack Obama last week announced a plan to protect as many as five million undocumented immigrants from deportation. Obama's plan has drawn sharp criticism from Republican lawmakers who accuse him of overstepping his authority as president. How will Obama's action affect U. Will Obama's move spur Congress to pass its own immigration reform, or will lawmakers focus on fighting the president's actions?

What are the implications for businesses in the United States and Latin America? Morgenstern, Carlos Saladrigas Cuba's government on Nov. The country's foreign commerce minister expressed hopes that the projects being pitched by the government, ranging from an auto plant to a hog farm, would help spur Cuba's flagging economy. How interested are international companies in investing in Cuba? What benefits and drawbacks will companies encounter in investing there?

What results have come from Cuba's four-year-old economic reform process? What sort of central bank will Vanoli run? How will Argentina's long-brewing currency woes play out? By Claudio X. To what extent would expanding preschool and daycare benefit Latin American countries, when even some industrialized countries like the United States do not offer those benefits? Are such initiatives likely to be realized in the region? Are there drawbacks to such plans?

By Marcos Espinal, Katherine Bliss, Amy Nunn Source: Latin America Advisor Amid the Ebola outbreak, countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have heightened public health protections, such as Jamaica, where the government created a "National Coordinating Team" to respond to the threat of the virus, and the United States, which despite declaring its health system is superior has had health care workers contract the disease.

How well are countries in the Americas prepared to fight the spread of a disease like Ebola? Are resources to protect public health in the region being allocated in the right way? What implications would an outbreak of a disease like Ebola have in areas such as immigration policy and security?

What more should aid agencies, governments, multilateral organizations and others be doing in the fight against Ebola? Because Brazil now has four time zones, the presidential election tally was released after 8 p.

However, the results of the gubernatorial elections were released before 8 p. Source: Latin America Advisor For the second year in a row, people in Latin America are less likely to say they live in countries where women are treated with respect and dignity than people in any other region, according to a recent Gallup survey. A median of 35 percent of adults across 22 Latin American countries said women are treated with respect in their nations, about half as high as percentages in any other region, Gallup said, though the figure disguises wide differences between countries.

How are women faring in Latin America, and what are the most important issues facing women in the region? Where has progress been made and how has that been achieved? What more needs to be done to promote gender equality? Yet even with all the problems that reduced oil prices create for his administration, President Nicolas Maduro is doubling down on his current policies. Still, some businesses that rely on modern logistics systems say planned projects aren't enough to meet their needs.

Where is the greatest demand for improved infrastructure in the region, and how well do current plans address those needs? Has money already committed on infrastructure projects been spent wisely? Does the region have adequate engineering talent and other human capital for needed projects? Can a country spend too much on infrastructure? What can investors expect from another Morales administration? What do Sunday's legislative election results suggest about Morales' governing strength and maneuverability moving ahead?

Will anticipated lower prices for natural gas, an important export commodity for Bolivia, undermine the recent momentum in the economy? What economic priorities would you advise Morales to set for his next term? October 1, Brasil, elecciones y clases medias By Peter Hakim Dialogue president emeritus Peter Hakim discusses the upcoming presidential election in Brazil and asserts the results will be decided by the country's middle class.

El sur de Guatemala, el norte de Honduras y el oeste de El Salvador se han visto especialmente afectados. Some 1, past and present government officials, lawmakers, diplomats, academics, economists, journalists, policymakers, and other participants gathered in Washington, DC, on September 3 and 4 to discuss the most pressing challenges and opportunities in the Western Hemisphere. September 11, Mexico energy reform gives Colombia the jitters By Arron Daugherty and Lisa Viscidi Source: Business News Americas In the first of a two-part series, Inter-American Dialogue's energy, climate change and extractive industries program director Lisa Viscidi talks to BNamericas about how the Colombian government is looking to increase oil reserves and maintain competitiveness as Mexico opens its hydrocarbons market.

While the article targeted the influence of foreign governments on the research and work conducted at a few particular think tanks, the Inter-American Dialogue was mentioned in a general info-graphic. Aunque Brasil tiene un buen acceso al financiamiento internacional, la cantidad de capital necesario para sus grandes proyectos de infraestructura sigue siendo enorme. Campos' death sent shockwaves through the country's political world and rattled financial markets just two months ahead of Brazil's October presidential election.

What effects will Campos' sudden death have on the race, including any potential runoff? Tens of thousands of children, mainly from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, have been apprehended at the U. President Emeritus of the Dialogue Peter Hakim assesses the countries' creation of the new international development bank and a reserve arrangement to deal with financial crises in China Policy Review. How successful have Latin America and the Caribbean been in reaching the goals, and where have they fallen short?

With governments now debating a series of sustainable development goals for the post agenda, what should be included? How useful are these kind of broad targets as measurements of progress in the region? But more controversially, the newly approved laws will roll back pollution standards and fast-track environmental licensing for new energy and mining projects. By Michael Shifter Source: Foreign Policy Vladimir Putin's six-day Latin American tour this past week reveals that, in the face of tougher economic sanctions by the United States and perhaps the European Union over the Ukraine crisis, the Russian president will not be quiescent.

Anticipating an intensifying showdown on Ukraine, Putin took advantage of a meeting of the BRICS countries in Brazil to pursue a diplomatic initiative and call on political support in Cuba, Nicaragua, Argentina, and Brazil. July 14, To keep kids from our borders, fix things farther south By Peter Hakim Source: Reuters As it confronts the recent influx of child migrants from Central America, the United States must not only reform its domestic immigration policy, but also reassess its drug, trade, and foreign-aid policies toward the region, writes Dialogue President Emeritus Peter Hakim.

And that applies not only to advancing the peace process but also to achieving broader social harmony. For the energy sector, Santos must build support from business and social movements for policies that promote investment while ensuring the greatest overall benefits for the country.

Citando los altos costos de enfrentar el influjo, la diputada Rep. Candice Miller R-Mich. Citing the high costs of dealing with the influx, Rep. What is behind the spike in unaccompanied children crossing the border? What should the United States and countries of origin do about the situation? How seriously is the issue affecting relations between the United States and its neighbors?

Their encounter turned out to be yet another sign of the deterioration of US-Brazil relations following the disclosure of US spying on Brazil a year ago. Immigration Reform? How important of a role did Cantor's stance on immigration play in his defeat? What does his loss mean for the prospects of immigration reform moving forward? Will other Republicans now be more reluctant to support a comprehensive reform measure? By Thomas Rideg, Ben Supple, Joel Korn Source: Latin America Advisor While it was originally expected that infrastructure investments and World Cup-related tourism would boost Brazil's economy, a recent Banco Santander report cast doubt on the effects that the sporting event, which begins Thursday, will have on Brazil's economy, noting that hotels and restaurants are expecting a slowdown and that additional holidays taken by Brazilians may dampen economic growth.

How is the World Cup affecting Brazil's economy, and will it have an overall negative or positive effect? Will infrastructure investments made for the Cup succeed in promoting long-term growth? While it may be too early to speculate about their long-term legacies, their leadership engenders the questions: Would this be a more compassionate, more peaceful planet if more of it were ruled by women? The announcement came as Rousseff tries to reverse slipping support ahead of the October presidential election in which she is seeking another term in office.

How much support will the announcement win for Rousseff at the polls? What else must she do in order to strengthen her candidacy? What factors between now and October will influence the election? How are Rousseff's rival presidential candidates faring ahead of the vote?

Sixty percent of those surveyed disapproved of Maduro's administration, while 80 percent thought the country was going in the wrong direction. What factors are driving those poll numbers, and will Maduro continue losing support among Venezuelans? Might he be forced out of office before his term is scheduled to expire in ? Is Chavismo coming to an end, and what would most likely replace it? Speaking at American University to an audience comprised mainly of students, Mujica also shared his vision of a world that is becoming more globalized and bilingual.

The attached special technology edition of the Advisor offers viewpoints on these trends from six stakeholders and experts, as well as recent news in telecommunications, biotechnology and venture capital. What factors propelled Varela to victory?

What will be Varela's biggest challenges after taking office July 1? What does his election mean for businesses in Panama? Earlier this year, on February 10, Brussels adopted negotiating directives for a political dialogue and co-operation agreement with Havana. This is not a policy change from the past. Just as we want to support reform and modernization in Cuba, we have consistently raised human rights concerns which will remain at the core of this relationship.

Led by students and segments of the opposition, protests over the past two months have resulted in 41 deaths, over injured, and hundreds more imprisoned. Since most of the violence and repression has come at the hands of the government and its supporters, it is encouraging that they have agreed to a dialogue with opposition figures. I inevitably had the task of toasting him at his farewell. Sadly, I am doing that again today. I complained to him once that he was never there for my farewells.

He replied yes, that was true, but that he was always there to welcome me at the next stop. Who knows? Maybe once again. Peter Bell is a man to be remembered and celebrated. He was a great builder, and there remains so much to be built. He who constructed so many bridges when there are still so many bridges left to build! Agency for International Development created and operated "ZunZuneo," a communications network similar to Twitter that had the aim of destabilizing the Cuban government, the Associated Press reported on April 3.

USAID responded by saying the purpose of the program was "to create a platform for Cubans to speak freely among themselves, period," while the White House denied that it was a covert program. How much of an impact will the revelations have on U. What does the controversy mean for bilateral issues such as the imprisonment in Cuba of former U.

April 7, Time is right to reset a bipartisan energy policy By Thomas F. That all changed with the surge in domestic production of oil and gas over the last decade. What types of policy changes can be expected from his administration? To what extent will he succeed in working with Costa Rica's business community?

Is Portillo's plea deal a turning point for anti-corruption efforts across Latin America? Are other efforts at combatting corruption in Latin Americamaking progress? Which countries in the region are making strides in fighting corruption, and which are falling short?

What specific anti-corruption policies have succeeded in the region and why? The concern is valid. But merely criticizing the current administration for being disengaged and indifferent to what is happening in the region is somewhat misplaced. By Theodore M. More bad news came last week when lawmakers decided to install a special congressional committee to probe allegations of bribery involving Petrobras employees and a foreign company.

How bad is Petrobras' situation today, and what bright spots are on the horizon? How big of a role is the government and politics playing in the company's present circumstances, and what policy changes would improve the outlook for Petrobras moving forward? Do these developments represent a significant advance for Mexico in the fight against drug trafficking, or are they just minor setbacks for the cartels?

Is there more his administration should be doing that it is not? What would the advancement of talks between Argentina and the Paris Club mean for the country? What stands in the way of a breakthrough? Runner-up Norman Quijano, however, can still appeal. How long will the dispute over the contested election drag on?

What do the regions have to offer each other economically? What businesses stand to gain from stronger ties? March 12, Bachelet's regional challenges By Michael Shifter Source: La Tercera Even before Michelle Bachelet began her second term she got a taste of the difficult regional climate she will have to deal with over the next four years.

The Venezuela crisis — which was hard to ignore during her inauguration — exposes and highlights Latin America's deep political polarization. Pero seamos capaces de distinguir las enormes posibilidades del momento actual de las dificultades inevitables de gobernar.

La oportunidad no visita a los pesimistas, viene con el optimismo. At the same time, we call on the international community to make a concerted effort to strengthen democracy and preserve the peace in Venezuela. No question, there are many parallels between the South American and Eastern European nations.

What did the summit accomplish, and on what issues did it fall short of its potential? The demonstrations were punctuated on Feb. Why did these protests erupt now, and why did they turn deadly this time? Does the situation pose a threat to Maduro's government?

Las respuestas no son claras. Will he make any concessions to the protesters? The answers are unclear. They leaves open, however, the question of what the specific learning goals should be. February 19, Why has the level of remittances to the region stagnated?

A few countries, including Bolivia, Honduras and Guatemala, saw significant growth, but several others like Jamaica or El Salvador saw no growth, while remittances decreased to countries including Mexico and Brazil. What is behind the stagnant remittances to the region?

Which countries' economies will feel the most pain? Will the current trends continue? Most of the changes have been positive. The region has grown economically, poverty and inequality rates have fallen, and in most countries democratic governance and pragmatic politics have made notable strides. On the negative side of the ledger is spreading criminality in many countries, often fueled by a widespread drug trade and other illicit activities.

The result has been institutional fragility and persistent corruption. February 4, From distant neighbors to natural partners By Thomas F. Besides the concrete achievements of increased trade and investment, we see a striking change in tone from officials on both sides, from the suspicion and defensiveness of generations past to confidence, optimism and, increasingly, trust. Cunningham Source: Huffington Post In his State of the Union address last week, President Obama took a good first step in asking Congress to provide the tools he needs to close two of the most ambitious trade deals in U.

But he faces an immediate challenge from within his party that could imperil negotiations, with huge stakes for the U. January 31, How Important Is U. Fast-Track Authority for Trade Deals? By Peter Hakim, Cameron T. Combs, Arturo Sarukhan, and James R. Senators Baucus and Hatch and Rep. Camp introduced a bipartisan Trade Promotion Authority bill that would give the president the authority to negotiate trade accords that Congress would then be able to approve or reject, but not amend.

How important is fast-track authority for pending trade deals? January 26, Why the U. Colorado and Washington, however, had already beaten them to the punch, and a handful of other states are expected soon to follow suit. It was the first comprehensive free trade agreement to join developed and developing nations and it has served as a template for our subsequent trade negotiations.

Why has inequality continued to persist in the Americas? It is about whether the Brazilian government rejected the Boeing planes because it had lost confidence in the US government or wanted to make it pay a price for dismissing Brazilian concerns about surveillance. Its economic revival has petered out as commodity prices have stagnated, capital flows have reversed and left the region, and macroeconomic policies remain complacent.

The key question is whether Latin American countries will face a serious internal and external crisis, something they thought they had left behind. It reminds us that we can learn from the experience of others, without suggesting that we should mechanically copy policies and programs. January 8, China eyes overseas agriculture to achieve food security By Margaret Myers Source: Caixin Online As has been the case since the Mao era, self-sufficiency in staple foods is a primary objective of the Communist Party.

Latin America can expect China to increase its interest in agriculture as it seeks to complement domestic production with imports. January 7, U. The critical question, however, is not where inter-American relations stand today, but where they are headed in the coming decades. An examination of three major scenarios is meant to contribute to an understanding of the principal factors that will likely shape the future of hemispheric affairs. Secretary of State Kerry said recently that he is exploring the possibility of deepening the North American Free Trade Agreement to strengthen trade ties with Canada and Mexico with an eye toward expanding the agreement to include other countries in the hemisphere.

How significant of a priority should strengthening NAFTA be as compared to other trade agreements, and would other countries be interested in participating? All have long histories and huge implications. They are still evolving, and bear close watching in Todas tienen largas historias y enormes implicaciones.

What will drive the region's economic growth in the coming year? Which countries will experience solid economic expansion in , and which will struggle? Where have government policies done the most good or damage to growth? December 20, What Does Hold for U. To what extent will the Obama administration seek to strengthen ties in the region? How much will Latin American countries want to work with the United States?

It has far and beyond the most people living with access to marriage equality, not to mention the largest pride celebration on Earth. Many countries in the Americas are expanding their safeguards against discrimination and boast some of the world's most vibrant LGBT movements. But not everything is advancing in a positive direction. Los argumentos son los mismos, pero los protagonistas rotan.

December 16, Bachelet 2. December 15, It's Time for Nafta 2. If there is one thing supporters and critics of this pact have always agreed on, it is the size of the stakes. In November , Mr. Clinton, facing fierce opposition within his party, implored Congress to pass Nafta as a vote for the country's future, a sign that "we still have confidence in ourselves and our potential.

December 2, U. Yet, despite the continuing rhetoric, neither government has been willing to invest much in advancing or upgrading the relationship. It is striking how much of his short presidency —- just days -- was related to Latin America. By Abraham F. Lowenthal The bitter impasse finally, if temporarily, resolved in Washington last week made it absolutely evident to all that the US faces serious problems. These problems did not suddenly arise, nor are they limited to the showdown of government activities and services and the raising the national debt limit.

The difficulties are not only political, but also economic and social; they have developed over many years, and they are by no means resolved. Will the country long seen as a laboratory for policy innovation continue to be a reference for a region that is seeking to address longstanding inequalities, while maintaining democracy and economic growth? November 7, A Conversation with the Former President of Bolivia, Jorge Quiroga By Megan Cook "Democracy is under siege" in Bolivia, the country's former president and a current opposition leader, Jorge Quiroga, said last week at the Inter-American Dialogue in a presentation blasting the current government's record on democratic governance.

Meyer Source: Latin America Advisor In early October, Guatemala's president, members of his cabinet, as well as business and religious leaders in the Central American nation agreed to work together to reduce malnutrition, improve education and provide youths with the skills necessary to be successful in the labor market.

Will the accord be implemented successfully and achieve its goals? Where do Ibero-American relations now stand? Why have businesses operating in Colombia become so pessimistic? To what extent have the policies of President Juan Manuel Santos helped or hindered businesses? Which sectors have thrived during Santos' administration, and which have struggled? The opportunities for bilateral cooperation are countless.

Yet U. Unfortunately, hope for better relations quickly faded with the recent expulsion of US and Venezuelan diplomats. Was the trip a success for Maduro? For China? Meanwhile, tensions between Nicaragua and Colombia over their maritime boundaries, ostensibly settled by an International Court of Justice ruling late last year, have been reignited. What is behind Ortega's bellicose statements?

By James R. The reforms would impose new taxes on the country's top earners as well as on capital gains. How important are tax system reforms for Mexico's economy? Do the specific parts of the reform address the right areas?

Yet not so long ago, US foreign policy decision-making was far less troubled by principle. From Nixon to Obama, the US has made some progress in the past 40 years. What are the most important parts of the overhaul, and how can they be implemented in the face of teacher resistance? September 9, Development vs. Sustained levels of Chinese investment across a range of sectors from natural resources to manufacturing to services have introduced an important dimension to the bilateral relationship.

He will try to persuade a very skeptical nation. It is never easy to predict what will happen once military action is underway, but it is hard to recall when uncertainties have been greater. September 4, Is Legalization Possible? What factors are driving demographic trends in Latin America and the Caribbean?

Uruguay, the smallest country in the region, has been the first, however, to openly rebel. By Juan Rada, Miguel A. What are the best practices for engaging citizens in the region through technology? The Congress is in recess for five weeks, until early September.

When lawmakers return, they will face a number of crucial battles, including on the budget. In such a polarized political environment, none of these will be easy. The drop-off was attributed mainly to a decline in Chinese lending to Venezuela.

How important is Chinese lending to the region today? What does the decline in funding from China mean for Venezuela and the region as a whole? What will the future hold for Chinese lending to Latin America and the Caribbean? The visit marked his first foreign trip as leader of the Roman Catholic church. Standing next to the pontiff, President Dilma Rousseff called for cooperation with the church to combat poverty and hunger.

Why did Francis choose Brazil for his first foreign trip as pope? Was the trip a success, and for whom? Will the visit have any lasting consequences for Brazilian society, or the church's role in that country? July 30, China y EE. July 30, China and the U. July 27, Now What, Madam President? Paulo Although Brazilians love crowds, it was a great surprise to virtually everyone in Brazil when more than a million protestors showed up on the streets of more than cities. Though he is now seeking temporary asylum from Russia, where he has been stranded in the Moscow airport, only a few nations, all in Latin America, have been openly receptive to his pleas.

Why are some governments in the region so eager to thumb their noses at the United States? Are these protests isolated events with unique causes or are there threads that unify them? June 10, Where do Relations Between the U. Vice President Joe Biden called for stronger ties between the two countries. Where do U. What factors and global trends have been driving these investments? Which countries fared best, and worst, in attracting foreign investment, and why?

Will FDI in and continue to gain steam? What effect, if any, is the report having on the drug policy debate in the United States and in the region? In Colombia, authorities have warned the public of a plot by an organized crime group to kill several high-profile journalists. In Argentina, opposition leader and Buenos Aires City Mayor Mauricio Macri signed a decree "to guarantee protection to journalists and media in the city" as the government's ongoing dispute with country's largest media company has intensified.

What do these developments say about press freedom in the Americas? What are the most important trends that stakeholders government, businesses, civil society need to pay attention to? How has the evolution of social media and wider access to the Internet and communications technologies changed the debate over freedom of the press?

May 23, A Tribute to Albert O. This is critical to ensuring that spending is adequately tailored to the changing needs of recipients instead of merely buttressing support for traditional officeholders. In this regard, political and institutional factors are central in accounting for the relative success of social policy experiments throughout Latin America.

How solid is Morales' support as he looks toward his next campaign? How strong is the opposition, and what could Morales' rivals do to gain an edge? Will Morales choose to make his last run for office? Maduro has voiced a desire for "respectful relations" with the United States, though Washington has still not recognized his government. The United States has denied that it is considering sanctions against Venezuela, and Venezuelan authorities recently arrested a U.

The State Department has denied any efforts to destabilize the Venezuelan government. Will U. What do Maduro's cabinet picks portend about the future of bilateral relations? May 1, Which Mexico for Obama? In a region once plagued by bloody coups and military interventionism, free and fair elections are now the norm. At the same time, in a number of countries, political parties are weak and there has been erosion of checks on executive authority.

La diferencia ahora, en el segundo periodo de su gobierno, es que Barack Obama no parece dispuesto a gastar tanto tiempo en tratar de mejorar las relaciones con gobiernos que han sido inamistosos con Washington. If Washington is unable respond to the opportunities in Mexico and the needs of Central America, it hard to imagine the US having any serious policy or strategy for the rest of Latin America. Enlarging the proposed negotiations to include all three North American nations, Canada, Mexico, and the United States would create a unique, historic and much larger opportunity that has the potential to give a real boost to the economies of all of the nations involved as well as to the global economy.

Opponents of the effort to block funding say the move would have neutralized the work of the commission, which has angered leftist governments of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, or ALBA. Do the ALBA countries have a legitimate gripe with the commission? By Jorge Heine, Peter M. Bachelet said that if elected to a second term in office, she would put income inequality at the top of her agenda. Is Bachelet, who still enjoys high approval ratings in Chile, a shoo-in for another term?

Who will give Bachelet her toughest competition in the race? What issues are driving the campaign? By Graciana del Castillo, Claudio Loser, and Christian Daude Source: Latin America Advisor Fitch Ratings last month joined two other major ratings agencies in giving Uruguay its coveted investment grade, a move that lowers the nation's borrowing costs and opens up opportunities for new investors.

Meanwhile, Uruguayan Vice President Danilo Astori said recently that trade relations with neighboring Argentina are "at their worst point in a long time" in the wake of new taxes in Argentina on vacation packages abroad, which "greatly affects Uruguay" due to the high proportion of Argentine tourists in Uruguay. How important are ties with Argentina to Uruguay's economic outlook?

Considering the broader global economic picture, will investment-grade status bring Uruguay the benefits it expects? What priorities should the country's economic policymakers be focused on in the near- and mid-term?

March 27, Post Chavez: Can U. This tribute should make Washington take a fresh look not only at its relations with Venezuela but also with all of Latin America. Jones Source: Latin America Advisor The lower house of Mexico's Congress gave its approval Friday to a measure to overhaul the country's telecommunications industry and sent the legislation to the Senate. What would the overhaul mean for the industry and for Mexico's economy in general?

Will the reforms win the needed legislative approval? Yet few, if any, contemplated the possibility that Chavez would end up leaving the political scene he so thoroughly dominated for 14 years as a result of a severe illness, at the age of While a reinvigorated Vatican engagement with the hemisphere is certainly not welcomed news by the LGBT community, the Pope is not the most imminent threat to equality in the Americas.

What is the state of Peru-China commercial ties today? What is driving the bilateral relationship, and what things stand in the way of improvement? Who stands to benefit or lose the most from expanding Peru-China ties? Venezuelans will not easily forget a leader who, for better or worse, was the consummate showman and left an indelible mark on a highly polarized society.

Venezuelans and the rest of the world wait and watch to see what happens with Hugo Chavez. Is he focusing the beginning of his presidency on the right goals? How might Mexico's local elections this July alter the current course?

Paulo This year Brazil is witnessing the largest harvest in its history. The country will harvest million tons MT of grains and oilseeds, 11 percent more than in the previous year. We became the first producer 84 MT and exporter 41 MT worldwide of soybeans. Sin sorpresas, Rafael Correa fue reelegido de manera aplastante en Ecuador.

Not surprisingly, Rafael Correa won a landslide reelection in Ecuador. And in a move that caught many off guard, the apparently very ill Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez returned to Caracas from Havana. President Barack Obama said Jan. Obama's comments came a day after he presented his plan for immigration reform and just after a bipartisan group of senators presented their own plan.

What stands in the way of passing the legislation before July? Are the immigration reforms that would get through Congress likely to be significant enough to change the status quo? How might U. February 5, El gran paso con la reforma en EE. February 5, A big step for reform By Michael Shifter Source: El Colombiano Just three months ago, no one believed that it would be possible for the US Congress to enact comprehensive immigration reform any time soon.

February 1, Have Prospects for U. What is on the horizon for U. Chinese exports to the region grew 12 to 15 percent last year, and it "is now a strategically important market," he said. How significant is Latin America as an export destination for China? Are business and government leaders actively looking to the region to expand trade? Where is the Chinese economy headed next year and in the mid-term, and how will that affect Latin America?

As we look to , here are some of the trends to follow in the hemisphere's struggle for LGBT rights. By Marcelo Bergman, Eric L. How are the size, make-up and landscape of drug cartels changing? Are different populations, sectors or businesses likely to be affected by the violence in ? US election—unexpectedly—also turned out to be one of the most important events for the region in Bush father , defeated by Bill Clinton in Is Capriles well-positioned to remain the top opposition leader? How would Maduro fare in a special election for the presidency against Henrique Capriles?

McIlhenny cited a number of positive developments in Latin America that have been advanced by a U. Or are fears that the United States doesn't pay enough attention to the region and has lost its prominence well-founded? In addition to government, how do private sector and civil society initiatives factor in? Arab and Latin American nations can anticipate those changes and benefit from them, and could start building new partnerships.

But continuing questions about Chavez's health and the country's dismal governance suggest that change may be coming soon. External players should restrain from meddling during this period of uncertainty. Instead, support should focus on trying to ensure that Venezuelans continue to rely on the ballot box in determining the course of a country facing so many daunting problems.

It is surprising, then, that border disputes continually bedevil the region. Many of these tensions remain unresolved, and when they surface, as in the example of the Nov. Do any of Correa's rivals stand a chance of defeating him? What issues will matter to Ecuadoreans when they go to the polls?

What would Correa seek to do in a third term? It is, however, is fundamental to US diplomacy in this hemisphere, and the US should take a more active role in salvaging the institution. November 30, Why Are U. The senators said the OAS lacks a strategic focus, is too reluctant to make difficult financial decisions and is beset by "capriciously destructive personnel policies. What steps should the OAS take to strengthen itself?

Evan Ellis, Margaret Myers, and Jeremy Martin This year, China continued to make inroads into Latin America's energy sector— including increasing its market share in the wind sector through competitive financing in Argentina, expanding solar development in Brazil and approving loan-for-oil deals in Venezuela. How has Beijing's geopolitical strategy in terms of energy resources evolved in recent years?

Do you expect any major changes or surprises for Sino-Latin ties in ? Sin embargo, hoy se torna muy importante comenzar a delinear una estrategia con miras a abordar la continuidad de las mismas una vez que el litigio haya concluido. November 27, Colombia's Steps at the Hague By Michael Shifter Source: El Colombiano Nothing succeeds in bringing a nation together -- and in transcending sharp political differences -- than disputes over national territory.

Immigration, Cuba, and drugs have always had an unusually high dose of domestic politics, and they still do, but results of the recent US elections suggest that obstacles to progress may be easing. By Peter Hakim Source: Foreign Policy When the leaders of Mexico and the United States meet for the first time, they'll have a chance to make real progress on issues that have been stalled for decades.

Where does the debate about drug policy in the United States and in the region appear to be headed? November 15, New U. It was an error that cost may have cost them the election. Romney and other Republican candidates not only ignored Latinos, but at times actively offended them by the tone and substance of their views on immigration. By Viviana Giacaman, Benoit Hervieu, and Scott Griffen Source: Latin America Advisor Press freedom has been in the headlines recently, as a Bolivian radio journalist was set on fire in a brutal attack last month, and Mexico's government in July said that 67 journalists have been killed and 14 disappeared in the country since Is press freedom seriously jeopardized in these countries or elsewhere in the region?

What implications does it have for the state of democracy? Should regional bodies or other organizations be taking action? If so, how? Lowenthal Source: Folha de S. Will the new law dramatically reduce the country's notable inequality, as supporters assert? Or will it put a 'straitjacket' on universities, as a senator who voted against the bill claims? What role does higher education play in Brazil's social and economic development? Does Brazil's debate over affirmative action have implications for other countries in the region?

October 26, The final lap By Abraham F. Lowenthal Source: Folha de Sao Paulo. October 26, Will America Look South? President Barack Obama's omission of Latin America in his list of regions where relations with the US had improved in the past several years set off a burst of tweets among Latin Americans. What would a Romney administration mean for economic relations with the region? Could he successfully forge new free-trade agreements with Latin America?

How would a Romney victory alter the United States' relations with the region? Who were the big winners and big losers in the municipal elections? What effect will the municipal elections have on national politics in Brazil?

An improved, more productive US-Brazilian relationship will require the two countries to identify issues and goals on which they are willing to commit themselves to sustained long-term cooperation. But, for now, both nations seem comfortable with maintaining the status quom in their bilateral relations.

Es duro de reconocer pero los hechos son los hechos. In , he soundly defeated his opposition challenger Manual Rosales. Chavez was then in sound health, his rhetorical powers were at their height, and he had ample resources thanks to high oil prices. Though there the new government will face substantial challenges, Mexicans have tangible grounds for optimism, particularly about progress on critical reforms.

Paulo The US presidential elections are six weeks away. President Barack Obama has begun to build an advantage in most of the decisive swing states, including Ohio, Virginia and Florida. September 21, Venezuela in Mercosur. What was Brazil Thinking? What made the Brazil government so eager to bring Venezuela into Mercosur remains a puzzle. Brazilian officials have made their case mostly on economic grounds, but the costs of bringing Venezuela into Mercosur could well turn out to be higher than the benefits.

Is Mexico gaining a competitive edge over China in terms of manufacturing? Or will other low-wage countries come to replace both China and Mexico as manufacturing destinations? What are the challenges and benefits of moving production facilities to Mexico? Can Mexico leverage the low cost of wages into more sustainable growth? The time has come for a resolute effort to achieve peace in Colombia, and there are reasons to be hopeful of success—although probably not quickly.

September 7, U. President Jimmy Carter said Thursday. Chile and Venezuela will be observers at the talks, which will begin in Oslo, Norway, and continue in Havana, Cuba. These are basic qualities in both human and international relations. We may have different visions of how to address the fundamental challenges facing us, but we will never be able to address them satisfactorily unless we return to basic civility and a willingness to cooperate to find solutions based on common values.

We must begin with a concern for the most vulnerable among us and a commitment to treat each individual with equity and fairness. This will provide in our western hemisphere a bright future — to all of us. The move came amid a shakeup in which Santos asked his entire member cabinet to resign, a not unusual practice in many countries of the region.

Why did Santos call for the cabinet shakeup now? Will the cabinet shakeup boost Santos' approval ratings? How progressive are revenue collection and social spending? A standard fiscal incidence analysis shows that Uruguay achieves a nontrivial reduction in inequality and poverty when all taxes and transfers are combined.

In comparison with other five countries in Latin America, it ranks first poverty reduction and second inequality reduction , and first in terms of poverty reduction effectiveness and third in terms of overall including transfers in kind inequality reduction effectiveness.

Wikileaks founder Julian Assange, speaking from the Ecuadoran embassy in London, publicly thanked president Rafael Correa for granting him asylum. Combined with declining popular support for the President, the country is headed on a shaky path and the future remains unclear. We said that it was time for equality, which meant full entitlement to rights for everyone. What would be the economic risks and gains of building a canal across Nicaragua?

Each improved three times faster than the average of the 49 countries included in the study. Colombia was also among the top 10, improving at twice the average. This is encouraging news for education reformers, suggesting that sustained efforts to raise student learning are beginning to pay off. August 7, Romney's statesman debut By Michael Shifter Source: El Colombiano The US election is less than three months away, so it is not surprising that the campaigns have moved into high gear.

August 5, The incomplete revolution By Michael Shifter Source: El Deber Stagnation is the term that most frequently comes to mind in thinking about the current situation in Bolivia. The election of Evo Morales was symbolically important and raised high hopes in a country with a majority indigenous population that had long suffered considerable poverty and political instability. By Francisco Altschul, Mirte Postema, and Michael Shifter and Rachel Schwartz Source: Latin America Advisor A dispute between El Salvador's legislative and judicial branches escalated to a constitutional crisis this month, with two separate groups of judges claiming to be the country's legitimate Supreme Court.

After a stalemate and pressures both domestically and internationally to resolve the dispute, the two main political parties agreed to hold talks on July What is behind the conflict? Does the conflict have implications for the state of the country's democracy or is it fundamentally a political issue? How should it be settled?

The presidents of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay agreed to allow the Andean country into the trade bloc after Mercosur suspended Paraguay, whose lawmakers had prevented Venezuela from joining the group. What would Venezuela's entrance mean for it and for the current Mercosur members? Who are the winners and losers? Does allowing Venezuela into Mercosur through the loophole of Paraguay's suspension raise larger concerns about the bloc's operation, as critics of the move have suggested?

As Brazil's economy slows, however, experts debate whether Brazil will be able to recover its previous robust rate of expansion. His brother's in prison, his dad thinks he's a traitor, and almost everyone says his wife calls the shots. But he might still have a chance to turn the country around. The number of unsafe abortions—which represent about 95 percent of the total—grew from 3. Given the current divisiveness in Washington, the bipartisan support it has received across three administrations now seems remarkable.

After 12 years, the plan is gradually winding down, but the U. Where are political and economic relations between India and Latin America headed? What constraints are there to improving trade and how can they be remedied? Which countries and sectors present the best opportunities for growth? President Barack Obama after he announced an executive order to cease deportation of many immigrants brought to the United States illegally as children and the Supreme Court ruled on Arizona's immigration law.

July 20, The right must learn to love the state again By Francis Fukuyama Source: Financial Times When asked to contribute to this series on the future of conservatism, I hesitated because it seemed to me that in both the US and Europe what was most needed was not a new form of conservatism but rather a reinvention of the left. The reforms include lengthening the amount of time students must study to become primary school teachers from three years to five.

What is the state of education reform in Guatemala and the rest of Central America? Are teaching reforms needed in the region? If so, what changes are most critical? What other types of reforms should governments undertake? The decline was statistically significant and robust to changes in the time interval, inequality measures and data sources.

In depth country studies for Argentina, Brazil and Mexico suggest two main phenomena underlie this trend: a fall in the premium to skilled labor and more progressive government transfers. Though trailing China in trade and investment, India has adopted a more cautious and well-informed approach to engagement with the region.

This approach likely more beneficial than China's in terms of long-term relationship-building in Latin America. How has China's involvement in Latin America's energy sector evolved? Will it expand beyond the countries and sectors where it has traditionally focused most of its energy investments?

If so, where is it likely to go and how will that impact the sector? Washington no longer has the resources or authority to shape a hemispheric agenda and provide the leadership to put it into practice. The relationship remains stuck on the same issues: Cuba, immigration and drug policy. According to the government, the measure is aimed at taking profits away from drug dealers and funding rehabilitation programs. What are the implications of Uruguay's proposal?

How progressive are revenue-collection and social-spending patterns? June 28, A Campaign About Nothing By Michael Shifter Source: Foreign Policy On July 1, some 80 million Mexican voters will turn their backs on the drama and turbulence that has recently beset their country as they select a new president for the next six years.

The electorate will choose among three main candidates whose statements and policy positions have been notably cautious -- and who have been strikingly vague about what they would change in how the country is handling its most serious problems. Maisto Source: Latin America Advisor Paraguay's Senate on Friday voted , with two abstentions, to impeach President Fernando Lugo, who immediately moved out of the presidential residence.

Many of those same investors remain on the sidelines today and some probably want to get back in. Is there something they should wait for—like a bottoming of the gold price—or is now the time to return? MA: We think the time when you get maximum valuation is during these periods of turbulence and fear, when the baby gets thrown out with the bathwater.

The good stuff is thrown out along with the bad as redemption pressures mount. TGR: Our readers are primarily retail investors who like the high-risk, high-reward nature of the precious metals juniors. Pinetree is essentially a retail investor with lots of cash and a crack research team. How is Pinetree playing the current market?

Have you been adding to your positions on the market dips? Have you sold off? Have you held tight? Give us the scoop. When our assessments are largely validated by market action, then we find that it is a good time to reduce, particularly because with these smaller, less liquid names, we are almost always going to be a bit early because we have to trim when there is good demand. Selling in those kinds of situations gives us the flexibility to take on new deals or, as is the case today, to buy from distressed sellers.

V is one. We are big believers in this deposit. The initial resource should be out by the end of this year and is promising to be several million ounces with grades exceeding most other bulk tonnage deposits in Canada. Queenston Mining Inc. There is an Agnico-Eagle Mines Ltd.

RoxGold Inc. High-grade deposits are very hard to come by and the results it has consistently seen show potential for just that. With mid-major companies operating in the region, as RoxGold continues to add size, it becomes more and more likely to be an attractive candidate for a take-out. Continental Gold Ltd. Mawson Resources Ltd. The weighted average of all channel samples from the program is 0. More than discovery sites have now been identified within the mineralized footprint.

At this very early stage of exploration, Rompas has to be considered as one of the most exciting global gold discoveries with a uranium credit to emerge into the marketplace, in terms of its high grades and hundreds of surface showing over a large area. MA: Redstar Gold Corp. V is exploring in Alaska where properties have limited historical drilling. However, the company has seen very high grades. Currently, it is drilling up there and with the recent addition of the International Tower Hill Mines Ltd.

CEO to their board, there is reason for interest. The company also has a joint venture with Confederation Minerals Ltd. V up in Red Lake. This kind of project requires lots of drilling; however, thus far, there has been some good continuity of success and with any sort of thicker intervals, this would be a project well worth the interest.

Prosperity Goldfields Corp. V exploration is headed up by Quinton Hennigh, who is also on the board of Gold Canyon and is heading up its exploration program. Stock had a large run-up prior to results, which the market clearly saw as disappointing. Despite this, we think these results show great promise given that Prosperity was the first in the area and the potential size of this deposit is very large. This project is in Nunavut; however, a winter camp has been set up and, relative to the region, the infrastructure is better than most.

Terreno Resources Corp. V is focused on a few different resources in South America. It has had some solid trench results thus far down in Argentina, which is promising. Does Pinetree believe silver is a better near-term investment than gold? MA: No, we think gold is likely to be the better performer if a global recession becomes the predominant concern, as opposed to systemic issues. That said, there have been some fairly violent moves to the downside over the last few weeks.

The bear talk on China has really been overdone. In the very short term, we could get these massively oversold conditions worked off if it looked like the world was not coming to an end and silver could have a nice pop. Look at the U. As far as China itself goes, suddenly all the analysts, economists and portfolio managers that were all bulled up on China two years ago, a year ago and even six months ago have become all beared up on China. We are hearing about an imminent hard landing in China from everyone.

So why the sudden bearishness about China? Property developers and businesses are starved for credit; business investment and real estate will fall. A hard landing is at hand. This informal credit market is estimated at 3—4 trillion yuan RMB. The Chinese economy is now estimated at something north of 40 trillion yuan. According to Fitch, the formal credit market plus the shadow banking system totals about 70 trillion yuan. When one looks at these numbers one can see that the growth of informal lending and the extremely high interest rates on informal lending represent a problem in China.

But it does not impact a significant share of aggregate expenditures. MA: We doubt it. Interest rates in the banking system are negative in real terms. The banking system is still expanding at a double-digit annual rate. Interest rates in the shadow banking system are much higher; they are no doubt positive in real terms, but it appears they are not usurious.

In any case, this credit is still being allowed to expand at a very rapid rate. Will the authorities be able to deal with problems in the banking system or shadow banking systems, which are the credit markets that matter? The answer is probably yes. The biggest credit excesses and the biggest white elephant fixed investments in this cycle lie with the local authorities. The Chinese government in one fell swoop removed half a trillion dollars of such loans off the backs of these local authorities.

A half a trillion dollars! That is as large as the entire alleged informal credit market that everyone is getting so beared up about. Longer term, the Chinese economy is an out-of-control Ponzi economy. Labor force growth will go negative. Surplus labor in agriculture is depleting. Fixed investment is impossibly high relative to a falling warranted rate of growth.

Very bad things will eventually happen. However, the Chinese economy is also an extreme command economy. Extraordinary measures will be taken to avert these very negative outcomes. The Chinese economy is highly indebted. The Chinese central government is not. Before the proverbial you-know-what hits the fan, the Chinese government will use its balance sheet to keep the white-elephant over-investment juggernaut going.

Do not underestimate the fiscal capacity of the Chinese government and its willingness to use it. We do not think the excesses today in the Chinese informal credit market are a reason to get very beared up on China all of a sudden. The Chinese bear story will unfold progressively over a long time.

The real threat in China is inflation. To keep the fixed-investment juggernaut going and avert a hard landing, there must be sustained rapid money and credit expansion. There is already a large monetary overhang. The combination of these flow and stock dynamics threaten a very high inflation down the road.

Which again makes the long-term case for gold very bullish. MA: Apogee Silver Ltd. Although there is obviously some risk with dealing in Bolivia, there are still many operating mines and we feel the deposit warrants the risk. Southern Silver Exploration Corp. This is a very early stage project and there is a lot more definition needed before a resource can be laid out; however, Southern Silver is in a good region and we feel the property certainly has potential. MA: We think that the markets could surprise again to the upside as we have apparently discounted a double dip recession, whereas a slowdown might be more accurate.

This period might end up being closer to than The trouble with the view that we are heading for another is that all crises are different. But they do share one common element: the inability of markets to perceive that when a market discontinuity is fresh in the minds of investors e.

Clearly, this is the case for Greece although the European Central Bank ECB could easily forestall this if it keeps buying Greek debt , but for the others, this is unclear—and, particularly in the case of Spain and Italy, a function of the rates at which they can borrow. So while the ECB provides a liquidity backstop, they have the room to adjust. Of course, the missing ingredient is growth. Europe already looks as though it has slid into recession.

I would argue that recession, as opposed to systemic risk and bank runs, is already priced into European stock markets. But nothing is certain. While the current crisis in Europe is worse than the crisis with LTCM and Russia, in it was thought that the entire system would collapse. We had not gone through a style liquidation in reverse parabola terms except for the one day sell-off, as we did in — The story will be told in the next eight trading days.

Auerback is a research associate for the Levy Institute and a fellow for the Economists for Peace and Security. The September employment report, released on Friday, revealed that nonfarm payrolls added just , jobs last month—not horrific, but still under the threshold economists say they need to cross in order to dent unemployment.

As they consider the legislation, lawmakers may want to reflect on their counterparts across the Atlantic. These include job-search programs accompanying unemployment benefits and stepped-up apprenticeship programs. Unemployment insurance programs vary widely from country to country. As of , the most recent year for which data was available, the U. The U. But other OECD countries have deployed different incentives to get recipients of unemployment benefits back to work.

Many low-paying jobs in the U. Some OECD countries have bolstered their programs to help the recipients of unemployment insurance re-enter the workforce. France and others have made unemployment benefits conditional on searching for a job and participating in re-employment programs. Countries such as Germany and Denmark stepped up their traditional apprenticeship programs in response to the economic downturn. The pumped-up programs have a strong track record of landing apprentices with jobs, Scarpetta said.

These programs allow long-term unemployed workers to continue receiving unemployment benefits while they pursue work-based training. Others fear it will be difficult to find employers willing to bring in unpaid trainees. It would be more fruitful in the long run to reform the way the U. Several OECD countries, including Portugal, have created mechanisms by which workers who drop out of school but gain skills on the job can have those skills certified, making them more attractive to potential employers.

A European-style certification program could make on-the-job training more valuable by providing workers with proof that they have a transferable skill. Such a program runs the risk of locking workers into too-rigid skill certifications, which could harm their ability to appear flexible in a changing workforce, according to Randall Eberts, president of the Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. It would not provide immediate unemployment relief, and it would take time for employers and workers to recognize the value of the certificate, but it could provide a huge help in the long run to a large portion of workers who complete their training on the job, Burtless said.

Some economists were hesitant to make comparisons between the U. And it will ultimately take strong overall economic growth to turn around the labor market. Supply-side changes will have a limited impact without an accompanying improvement in demand, Papadimitriou argued.

As Obama tours the East promoting his jobs bill, and jobs forums spring up across Wisconsin, Research Associate Tcherneva and host Ben Merens talk about what should be done now to address unemployment. Full audio of the interview is available here.

The economist makes the argument that post-crisis GDP growth rates are about The reality is that market economies have grown relentlessly during the XX century. Papadimitriou illustrates it with a chart overlaying an exponential growth line to an inflation adjusted-GDP series from to today.

Papadimitriou takes it one step further, arguing that average GDP, as illustrated by quater, quarter, and quarter moving averages, has been declining since One of the most worrying signs of the U. Employment-to-population ratios bottom out 18 to 37 months after the onset of the recession in each of the previous six cases of output contraction. This time around, 43 months after the beginning of the recession, the trend continues to be negative, with the ratio down 4. Further stimulus will face staunch opposition in Congress, with Tea Party candidates taking the reins of the Republican Party on a cut spending -platform.

The White House has leaked, though, an announcement that President Obama will unveil a new jobs plan , which is expected to be some sort of stimulus, in September. The export-led growth paradigm is a development strategy aimed at growing productive capacity by focusing on foreign markets. It rose to prominence in the late s and became part of a new consensus among economists about the benefits of economic openness.

According to Thomas I. Palley, this paradigm is no longer relevant because of changed conditions in both emerging-market EM and developed economies. He outlines the stages of the export-led growth paradigm leading to its adoption worldwide, as well as the various critiques of this agenda that have become increasingly prescient. He concludes that we should reduce reliance on strategies aimed at attracting export-oriented foreign direct investment and institute a new paradigm based on a domestic demand—led growth model.

Otherwise, the global economy is likely to experience asymmetric stagnation and increased economic tensions between EM and industrialized economies. Huffington Post, August 22, Treasury implemented that program, known as TARP, in an effort to stave off economic catastrophe. Banks that received emergency cash infusions during the crisis may now believe the Fed will always be there to bail them out of trouble, the thinking goes.

The Federal Reserve itself had argued that the details of its emergency loans should be kept out of the public eye, claiming that the reputations of the firms involved could suffer if they were seen to be taking money from the government in order to stay afloat. Many of the banks that borrowed from the Fed had previously appealed to the Supreme Court to keep those records secret.

However, an invocation of the Freedom of Information Act forced the Fed to release more than 29, pages of documents, revealing the extent to which the financial sector relied on Federal Reserve dollars during the worst days of the crisis. Given the extraordinary size of the loans, the public has a right to know what happened, said David Jones, an executive professor at the Lutgert College of Business at Florida Gulf Coast University.

Nearly half of the 30 largest borrowers were European firms, according to Bloomberg News. Consumer spending suffered and unemployment spiked in the wake of the financial crisis, and the economy remains weak today. Output is low, consumer confidence is down and millions are still out of work—factors that have some economists worried about the possibility of a double-dip recession.

The TARP bailout, led by the Treasury, was the subject of much popular ire when it occurred, since it was seen as a case of the government throwing money at the financial sector at the expense of everyday Americans. They are also too big to fail. Senior Scholar Wray joins Masters for a macroeconomic analysis of adverse economic trends at home and abroad amid dire predictions of a double-dip recession in the United States and defaults in Europe, connecting the dots to see if we are indeed at a Smoot-Hawley moment where the Congress, instead of reversing economic decline, has accelerated it.

This paper begins by recounting the causes and consequences of the global financial crisis GFC. The triggering event, of course, was the unfolding of the subprime crisis; however, the paper argues that the financial system was already so fragile that just about anything could have caused the collapse. It then moves on to an assessment of the lessons we should have learned. Briefly, these include: a the GFC was not a liquidity crisis, b underwriting matters, c unregulated and unsupervised financial institutions naturally evolve into control frauds, and d the worst part is the cover-up of the crimes.

The paper argues that we cannot resolve the crisis until we begin going after the fraud, and concludes by outlining an agenda for reform, along the lines suggested by the work of Hyman P. Conventional wisdom contends that fiscal policy was of secondary importance to the economic recovery in the s. The recovery is then connected to monetary policy that allowed non-sterilized gold inflows to increase the money supply.

Often, this is shown by measuring the fiscal multipliers, and demonstrating that they were relatively small. This paper shows that problems with the conventional measures of fiscal multipliers in the s may have created an incorrect consensus on the irrelevance of fiscal policy. The rehabilitation of fiscal policy is seen as a necessary step in the reinterpretation of the positive role of New Deal policies for the recovery.

This paper traces the rise of export-led growth as a development paradigm and argues that it is exhausted owing to changed conditions in emerging market EM and developed economies. The global economy needs a recalibration that facilitates a new paradigm of domestic demand-led growth. Globalization has so diversified global economic activity that no country or region can act as the lone locomotive of global growth.

Political reasoning suggests that EM countries are not likely to abandon export-led growth, nor will the international community implement the international arrangements needed for successful domestic demand-led growth. Consequently, the global economy likely faces asymmetric stagnation. We present strong empirical evidence favoring the role of effective demand in the US economy, in the spirit of Keynes and Kalecki. Our inference comes from a statistically well-specified VAR model constructed on a quarterly basis from to US output is our variable of interest, and it depends in our specification on 1 the wage share, 2 OECD GDP, 3 taxes on corporate income, 4 other budget revenues, 5 credit, and the 6 interest rate.

The first variable was included in order to know whether the economy under study is wage led or profit led. The second represents demand from abroad. Our results indicate that expansionary monetary, fiscal, and income policies favor higher aggregate demand in the United States. Headline inflation, however, the rate that does include these two, has increased. Is the recent uptick in gas and food prices a game-changer on inflation? Does it mean that predictions of an inflation tsunami were well-founded?

And what's the best course to follow now? Many commodity prices have made double and triple digit gains over the past year. The changes are more than a blip—cotton futures, for example, have risen percent—even if the cost of oil continues to decline. These prices are notoriously subject to rapid change for reasons that don't reflect the structure of the U. Factors can include Middle East politics, weather, activity in the developing world, and, most significantly today, speculative profiteering.

Gold and other commodities have become a hot destination for players—money managers—as these markets have become the rare opportunity for high returns. In the absence of federal regulation and supervision, the low interest rates that are so crucial to business growth and to the vast majority of Americans have been allowed to feed into the permissive speculative superstructure.

The run-up has clearly impacted the poor and the hungry in the undeveloped world. In academic and policy circles, there's a high level confidence that commodities account for only a small share of GDP in wealthy countries, and so aren't of concern as long as core inflation is under control.

At the Levy Institute, in contrast, our research shows that even in the developed world expensive food, energy, and materials can crowd out other household purchases. Consumer budgets can be hurt even before serious headline inflation appears. If commodity prices were to continue to climb broadly and sharply, the Federal Reserve could face the prospect of a serious episode of cost-push inflation, similar to what we saw in the s and '80s.

Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke might find himself occupying the chair of Paul Volcker in more ways than one. This kind of inflation is caused neither by the effects of low interest rates on the broader economy, nor by government spending. And, as with any symptom of ill health, the cause dictates the appropriate treatment. So if Bernanke's response was to raise interest rates dramatically in the hope of abating inflation to some arbitrarily low target, it would be a risky mistake.

An interest rate rise would be a serious danger to growth and job creation. Business and labor are far too fragile to deal with a double whammy from rising gas and food prices coupled with monetary policy tightening.

A commodity price inflation could remain at least somewhat isolated. Higher commodity prices will be used as an excuse to charge that the Fed's supposedly lax policy has unleashed an inflationary flood of cash throughout the economy.

But the Fed's so-called "easy money" is parked at the Fed itself, as bank reserves, since banks are not lending. This can't cause inflation either. Logic hasn't stopped newly re-branded Republican presidential candidate Newt Gingrich, who recently admonished that "The Bernanke policy of printing money is setting the stage for mass inflation. Those who purchase securities for long-term investment evidently disagree. Bond traders aren't anticipating an inflationary surge.

Just look at the yield spread between inflation-indexed and non-indexed Treasury securities of the same maturity. It has remained almost constant over the past year. In other words, buyers who want their returns insulated from inflation are paying only slightly more for protection than they were last year.

That flatness—the unwillingness to pay a premium for inflation insurance—indicates that long-term bond buyers haven't revised their inflation forecasts. Also unlikely to revise their predictions: inflation doom-drummers, even as energy prices level, and wages, another inflation indicator, are by no means jumping. Like eons of "the-end-is-nigh" prognosticators, they don't exactly have a great track record.

Back in spring , a frenzied Glenn Beck urged Fox viewers to "Buy that coat and shoes for next year now. Republican House Majority Leader Eric Cantor, for example, tells us that "fears" of "future" inflation are "hanging over the marketplace. The accusations continue despite a lengthy stretch of the lowest inflation rates in modern US history, even with the current commodities rise. Paul Ryan R-WI has been hailed as both a truth sayer and a soothsayer on the economy.

He recommends that the Federal Reserve raise interest rates now to head off inflation "before the cow is out of the barn," ignoring the pain this would cause families and businesses. Here's my recommendation: Don't trust predictions about the future from those who've misread the present, and been very wrong in the past. For 20 years, U. Addressing the imbalance could hugely boost the job market. One school of thought about the so-called jobless recovery of the American economy blames high unemployment on the federal deficit.

Addressing the imbalance could have a huge effect on the job market, but only if it goes beyond reducing imports. We need to actively strengthen exports as well. Even if the economic recovery continues, as is likely, joblessness will remain a colossal disaster. The United States is about 19 million jobs behind the curve if employment is to return to its pre-recession levels.

Exports are key to meeting the urgent need for new jobs. This makes it crucial for companies to find more customers in the rest of the world. In addition to aircraft and other transport vehicles, U. There are things that could be done to help American exporters. A devaluation of the dollar beyond the current downward creep would be a start. A weaker dollar would reduce the cost of our exports in foreign markets, in turn generating demand from buyers abroad.

It would also encourage American consumers to buy domestic products because our goods would have a price advantage over imported ones. And the resulting rise in exports would have a side benefit: reducing the national budget deficit, because GDP growth and lower unemployment would mean larger government revenues and less spending on safety-net programs. Devaluation does have some downsides, of course. Over the long haul, it can cause inflation, but that is not an immediate danger because core inflation is currently at or near record lows.

Still, consumers would probably be paying more in the short term for oil and other imports. In the long term, international monetary reforms would certainly be a preferable route to devaluing the dollar. Global imbalances are on the G radar screen, but a serious policy response has yet to be floated. One helpful monetary reform would be to expand Special Drawing Rights—artificial, blended currency units governed by the International Monetary Fund—as supplemental currency reserves.

This could only be done by an accord among the G countries. Even then, ramping up American exports will be difficult. The White House has set a goal of doubling exports over five years, but the current mania for spending cuts may work against that ambition. Exports are starting to rise. But making sure that the upward curve continues will be crucial to addressing our still-worrisome unemployment rate. Dimitri B. Papadimitriou is president of the Levy Economics Institute of Bard College and a professor of economics there.

A deal is taking shape between Congress and the administration on the debt-ceiling vote, and it will likely include some spending cuts in exchange for increasing the amount the government can borrow. Refusing to raise the ceiling will prevent us from paying debts and will destroy the faith our bondholders—that is, China—have in us. Or will it? The Prospect talked with James K. Galbraith, the Lloyd M. Bentsen Jr.

How accurate are these catastrophic predictions? Failure to raise the debt limit would be, for sure, a bad idea. Whether it would produce a fiscal and bond market Armageddon, I think, is really doubtful. This is a group of politicians saying, give me cuts or I will shoot the economy.

And one way I think to handle that problem is to point out that what the hostage-takers have in their hands may well not be a nuclear grenade; it might be something much less cataclysmic. How do you gauge the chances of a downgrade? These are firms that graded vast mounds of worthless mortgage-backed paper as AAA because of the crafty ways it was securitized. These are firms that never to my knowledge downgraded a major corporate fraud—Enron and so forth—more than a few days in advance of its collapse.

And they routinely give cities lower ratings than they should based upon the default rates on those instruments. They have no particular competence in Europe, either. If you read the 14th Amendment, Section 4, it says that the [validity of the] debt of the United States authorized by law—including pensions, by the way, so including Social Security—shall not be questioned. One fear is that not raising the ceiling will cause a global panic or at least a ripple effect if the U. What will foreign creditors do if we default on our bonds?

And the Treasury would still recognize its obligation on that bond and would presumably be willing to pay accrued interest on it. If I were sitting in the position of a foreign holder of U. Treasury securities in that situation, the last thing I would want would be a panic.

I would want this problem to go away. I think the right analogy to that would be the failure of Congress to pass the [Troubled Asset Relief Program] on the first round. The stock market went down by points. That sent a very powerful political wake-up call, and suddenly people changed their positions.

The most likely thing if we actually go to this stage where there is real turmoil would be that Congress—the hostage-takers—would drop their guns. So the question I would have then is: Does it make sense to give the hostage-takers what they want? Which are massive cuts. And I think it does not make sense by any stretch of the imagination to agree that the debt ceiling shall be the point of leverage for coming to a decision, which is what the Republicans want and unfortunately what some Democrats like Kent Conrad want.

This would be an act of just gross negotiating folly to set the precedent that the debt-ceiling negotiations become the way in which the extremists get what they want. But what does this actually mean? A more plausible worry is inflation—notably, the threat of rising energy prices in an oil-short world—alongside depreciation of the dollar, either of which would reduce the real return on government bonds.

After a brief discussion of the major worries, Senior Scholar James Galbraith focuses on one, and only one, critical issue: the actual behavior of the public-debt-to-GDP ratio under differing economic assumptions through time. His conclusion? Changing that one assumption completely alters the long-term dynamic of the public debt. Keep the projected interest rate down. Forty-five years ago, the A. Such policies were supported by a host of scholars, civic leaders, and institutions, including the Rev.

Martin Luther King Jr. Finally, some of the benefits of the job guarantee are outlined, including the ways in which the program may serve as a vehicle for a variety of social policies. Papadimitriou focus on the risks and possibilities ahead for the US economy.

Using a Keynesian approach and drawing from the commentary of other observers, they analyze publicly available data in order to assess the strength and durability of the expansion that probably began in They focus on four broad groups of markets that have shown signs of stress for the last several years: financial markets, markets for household goods and services, commodity markets, and labor markets.

In particular, dangers and stresses in the financial and banking systems are presently very serious, and labor market data show every sign of a widespread and severe weakness in aggregate demand. Unless there is new resolve for effective government action on the jobs front, drastic cuts in much-needed federal, state, and local programs will become the order of the day in the United States, as in much of Europe.

Their failure is commonly interpreted as a failure to incorporate heterogeneous interacting agents. The paper concludes by discussing one recent example of combining flow-of-funds and agent-based models. This appears a promising avenue for future research. The US economy grew reasonably fast during the last quarter of , and the general expectation is that satisfactory growth will continue in — The expansion may, indeed, continue into But with large deficits in both the government and foreign sectors, satisfactory growth in the medium term cannot be achieved without a major, sustained increase in net export demand.

This, of course, cannot happen without either a cut in the domestic absorption of US goods and services or a revaluation of the currencies of the major US trading partners. Our policy message is fairly simple, and one that events over the years have tended to vindicate. Most observers have argued for reductions in government borrowing, but few have pointed out the potential instabilities that could arise from a growth strategy based largely on private borrowing—as the recent financial crisis has shown.

Meanwhile, many of the euro nations with large amounts of public debt have come close to bankruptcy and loss of capital market access. Export-led growth and free capital flows are the real causes of sustained international imbalances. The only way out of this predicament is to shift to domestic demand—led development strategies—and capital flows will have to be part of the solution. There is no justification for the belief that cutting spending or raising taxes by any amount will reduce the federal deficit, let alone permit solid growth.

The worst fears about recent stimulative policies and rapid money-supply growth are proving to be incorrect once again. We must find the will to reinvigorate government and to maintain Keynesian macro stimulus in the face of ideological opposition and widespread mistrust of government. Research Associate Marshall Auerback maintains that this refrain stems from a failure to understand a fundamental reality of bookkeeping—that when the government runs a surplus deficit , the nongovernment sector runs a deficit surplus.

If the new GOP Congress led by Republicans and their Tea Party allies cuts government spending now, deficits will go higher , as growth slows, automatic stabilizers kick in, and tax revenues fall farther. And if extending the Bush tax cuts faces congressional gridlock, taxes will rise in , further draining aggregate demand.

Moreover, there are potential solvency issues for the United States if the debt ceiling is reached and Congress does not raise it. This chain of events potentially creates a new financial crisis and effectively forces the US government to default on its debt. Recent remarks to the press about deficit reduction suggest otherwise. This paper provides a survey of the literature on trade theory, from the classical example of comparative advantage to the New Trade theories currently used by many advanced countries to direct industrial policy and trade.

An account is provided of the neo-classical brand of reciprocal demand and resource endowment theories, along with their usual empirical verifications and logical critiques. Attention is drawn to new developments in trade theory, with strategic trade providing inputs to industrial policy. Issues relating to trade, growth, and development are dealt with separately, supplemented by an account of the neo-Marxist versions of trade and underdevelopment.

This paper investigates private net saving in the US economy—divided into its principal components, households and nonfinancial corporate financial balances—and its impact on the GDP cycle from the s to the present. Furthermore, we investigate whether the financial markets stock prices, BAA spread, and long-term interest rates have a role in explaining the cyclical pattern of the two private financial balances.

We analyze all these aspects estimating a VAR—between household and nonfinancial corporate financial balances also known as the corporate financing gap , financial markets, and the economic cycle—and imposing restrictions on the matrix A to identify the structural shocks. We find that households and corporate balances react to financial markets as theoretically expected, and that the economic cycle reacts positively to corporate balance, in accordance with the Minskyan view of the operation of the economy that we have embraced.

According to Senior Scholar Jan Kregel, export-led growth and free capital flows are the real causes of sustained international imbalances. In this new policy brief, President Dimitri B. Papadimitriou and Research Scholar Greg Hannsgen evaluate the current path of fiscal deficits in the United States in the context of government debt and further spending, economic recovery, and unemployment.

They are adamant that there is no justification for the belief that cutting spending or raising taxes by any amount will reduce the federal deficit, let alone permit solid growth. The global abatement of the inflationary climate of the past three decades, combined with continuing financial instability, helped to promote the worldwide holding of US dollar reserves as a cushion against financial instability outside the United States, with the result that, for the United States itself, this was a period of remarkable price stability and reasonably stable economic expansion.

For the most part, the economics profession viewed these events as a story of central bank credibility, fiscal probity, and accelerating technological change coupled with changing demands on the labor market, creating a model of self-stabilizing free markets and hands-off policy makers motivated by doing the right thing—what Senior Scholar James K.

This view implied that a crisis would occur, but that it would result from a rejection of US financial hegemony and a crash of the dollar, with the euro and the European Union EU the ostensible beneficiaries. A third line of argument was articulated by two figures with substantially different perspectives on the Keynesian tradition: Wynne Godley and Hyman P.

Galbraith himself argues the fundamental illusion of viewing the US economy through the free-market prism of deregulation, privatization, and a benevolent government operating mainly through monetary stabilization. The real sources of American economic power, he says, lie with those who manage and control the public-private sectors—especially the public institutions in those sectors—and who often have a political agenda in hand.

Galbraith calls this the predator state: a state that is not intent upon restructuring the rules in any idealistic way but upon using the existing institutions as a device for political patronage on a grand scale. And it is closely aligned with deregulation. The worst global downturn since the Great Depression has caused ballooning budget deficits in most nations, as tax revenues collapse and governments bail out financial institutions and attempt countercyclical fiscal policy.

With notable exceptions, most economists accept the desirability of expansion of deficits over the short term but fear possible long-term effects. There are a number of theoretical arguments that lead to the conclusion that higher government debt ratios might depress growth. There are other arguments related to more immediate effects of debt on inflation and national solvency. Research conducted by Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff is frequently cited to demonstrate the negative impacts of public debt on economic growth and financial stability.

In this paper we critically examine their work. We distinguish between a nation that operates with its own floating exchange rate and nonconvertible sovereign currency, and a nation that does not. A second big threat to economic stability, in the longer run, is global warming. This paper investigates the spread of what started as a crisis at the core of the global financial system to emerging economies.

While emerging economies had exhibited some resilience through the early stages of the financial turmoil that began in the summer of , they have been hit hard since mid Their deteriorating fortunes are only partly attributable to the collapse in world trade and sharp drop in commodity prices. We critique loanable funds theoretical interpretations of global imbalances and offer an alternative explanation that emphasizes the special status of the US dollar.

Instead of taking out even more self-insurance, developing countries should pursue capital account management to enlarge their policy space and reduce external vulnerabilities. Here, Senior Scholar James K. He also points out the urgent need to expand the academic space and the public visibility of ongoing work that is of actual value when faced with the many deep problems of economic life in our time—an imperative for university administrators, for funding agencies, for foundations, and for students.

Though recent market activity and housing reports give some warrant for optimism, United States economic growth was only 2. The authors—President Dimitri B. Papadimitriou and Research Scholars Greg Hannsgen and Gennaro Zezza—argue that continued fiscal stimulus is necessary to reduce unemployment.

The resulting federal deficits would be sustainable, they say, as long as they were accompanied by a coordinated and gradual devaluation of the dollar, especially against undervalued Asian currencies—a step necessary to prevent an increase in the current account deficit and ward off the risk of a currency crash.

As the nation watches the impact of the recent stimulus bill on job creation and economic growth, a group of academics continues to dispute the notion that the fiscal and job creation programs of the New Deal helped end the Depression. The work of these revisionist scholars has led to a public discourse that has obvious implications for the controversy surrounding fiscal stimulus bills. Since we support a new stimulus package—one that emphasizes jobs for the 9. With Congress, the White House, pundits, and the press riveted on the all-important health care debate, we worry that they are also distracted by skirmishes over economic theory and history, while millions wait for a new chance to do meaningful work and effective, if imperfect, policy tools are readily at hand.

See also, Public Policy Brief No. Since the current recession began in December , New Deal legislation and its effectiveness have been at the center of a lively debate in Washington. This paper emphasizes some key facts about two kinds of policy that were important during the Great Depression and have since become the focus of criticism by new New Deal critics: 1 regulatory and labor relations legislation, and 2 government spending and taxation.

We argue that initiatives in these policy areas probably did not slow economic growth or worsen the unemployment problem from to , as claimed by a number of economists in academic papers, in the popular press, and elsewhere. To substantiate our case, we cite some important economic benefits of New Deal—era laws in the two controversial policy areas noted above.

Moreover, Social Security, federal deposit insurance, and other New Deal programs helped usher in an era of relative prosperity following World War II. When it comes to combating the current recession and employment slump, it is the successful experience with relief and public works, and not the repercussions of pro-union and regulatory legislation, that offer the most relevant and helpful lessons.

Since the global financial system started unraveling in dramatic fashion two years ago, distinguished economists have suffered a crisis of their own. Ivy League professors who had trumpeted the dawn of a new era of stability have scrambled to explain how, exactly, the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression had ambushed their entire profession. Many economists had never heard of him when the crisis struck, and he remains a shadowy figure in the profession. But lately he has begun emerging as perhaps the most prescient big-picture thinker about what, exactly, we are going through.

A contrarian amid the conformity of postwar America, an expert in the then-unfashionable subfields of finance and crisis, Minsky was one economist who saw what was coming. He predicted, decades ago, almost exactly the kind of meltdown that recently hammered the global economy. Nobel Prize—winning economists talk about incorporating his insights, and copies of his books are back in print and selling well. But if Minsky was as right as he seems to have been, the news is not exactly encouraging.

He believed in capitalism, but also believed it had almost a genetic weakness. Modern finance, he argued, was far from the stabilizing force that mainstream economics portrayed; rather, it was a system that created the illusion of stability while simultaneously creating the conditions for an inevitable and dramatic collapse.

In other words, the one person who foresaw the crisis also believed that our whole financial system contains the seeds of its own destruction. But with a growing number of economists eager to declare the recession over, and the crisis itself apparently behind us, these policies may prove as discomforting as the theories that prompted them in the first place.

In an ideal world, a profession dedicated to the study of capitalism would be as freewheeling and innovative as its ostensible subject. But economics has often been subject to powerful orthodoxies, and never more so than when Minsky arrived on the scene.

That orthodoxy, born in the years after World War II, was known as the neoclassical synthesis. The older belief in a self-regulating, self-stabilizing free market had selectively absorbed a few insights from John Maynard Keynes, the great economist of the s who wrote extensively of the ways that capitalism might fail to maintain full employment.

Most economists still believed that free-market capitalism was a fundamentally stable basis for an economy, though thanks to Keynes, some now acknowledged that government might under certain circumstances play a role in keeping the economy—and employment—on an even keel. Economists like Paul Samuelson became the public face of the new establishment; he and others at a handful of top universities became deeply influential in Washington. In theory, Minsky could have been an academic star in this new establishment: like Samuelson, he earned his doctorate in economics at Harvard University, where he studied with legendary Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter, as well as future Nobel laureate Wassily Leontief.

But Minsky was cut from different cloth than many of the other big names. The descendent of immigrants from Minsk, in modern-day Belarus, Minsky was a red-diaper baby, the son of Menshevik socialists. While most economists spent the s and s toiling over mathematical models, Minsky pursued research on poverty, hardly the hottest subfield of economics.

With long, wild, white hair, Minsky was closer to the counterculture than to mainstream economics. He was, recalls the economist L. So while his colleagues from graduate school went on to win Nobel prizes and rise to the top of academia, Minsky languished.

He drifted from Brown to Berkeley and eventually to Washington University. Yet he was busy. In addition to poverty, Minsky began to delve into the field of finance, which despite its seeming importance had no place in the theories formulated by Samuelson and others.

LYON-MARSEILLE BETTING TIPS

Should its mandate be extended? What factors are shaping the debate, and what will most likely be the outcome? What did the meeting mean for the thaw in relations between Washington and Havana, and how well did it pave the way for future talks between the two nations? What did the summit accomplish for U. Were tensions between the United States and Venezuela a hindrance at the summit? To what extent did heads of state at the gathering make progress on issues such as economic growth, social development and energy?

Who Will Win? What is at stake in the midterm elections? Is Paraguay's economy on the right track, and what would it take for the country to reach investment grade? Could flare-ups over social issues, such as strikes and concentrated land ownership, hamper progress? President Barack Obama on March 9 signed an executive order declaring Venezuela a national security threat and imposing sanctions against seven officials in the Andean nation.

What will the White House's action accomplish? To what extent is Venezuela a national security threat to the United States? What will Maduro do with decree powers? By John Maisto, Andrew F. Is Almagro the right person for the job? What are the biggest challenges he faces, and what are the first tasks he should tackle? To what extent is the OAS irrelevant, as its critics argue, and what should Almagro do to increase its influence? Will solar continue its growth momentum this year, and which countries will stand out?

How are big swings in prices for other sources of power such as natural gas affecting the outlook for PV in the region? How are recent energy policy changes in Brazil, Mexico and elsewhere shaping the outlook for solar development in the medium to longer term?

In a sign that such conflicts are continuing unabated, recent protests over an oil and gas project led to violent clashes and a political crisis for the Ollanta Humala government. February 23, How Much Are the U. Will such sticking points derail the thaw between Washington and Havana? To what extent are the United States and Cuba willing to negotiate on issues such as Guantanamo and protection of human rights in Cuba? How is the multi-billion-dollar foreign claims settlement process likely to play out?

Department of Transportation announced last month that Mexican trucking companies will be able to apply to make long-haul trips in the United States. How will the change affect the countries' trade relationship? What will be the economic impact in the United States and Mexico? Have concerns raised in the United States about perceived safety hazards and pollution caused by Mexican trucks been adequately addressed?

With regional growth expected to be relatively low this year, will efforts at poverty reduction remain stalled? Can poverty be reduced in a low-growth environment? What policies or steps should governments take to address the issue? Do Argentine authorities have sufficient independence to get to the bottom of what happened? Does the country's judiciary have enough strength and autonomy in major cases like that of the Jewish center bombing?

Will the case have a chilling effect on future investigations? Meantime, the Andean country is suffering the world's highest rate of inflation and plunging prices for oil, its chief export, with parliamentary elections set for later this year. What does hold in store for Venezuela? To what extent is Maduro maintaining his grip on power? What were the most important developments to come out of the meeting between the two presidents?

What are the biggest challenges that lie ahead for U. Because of the large role they play in Latin America, Chinese activities continue to command considerable attention, but there is no longer much surprise when China announces major new investments in Latin America, expansion of trade with different countries, high level visitors to the region, or regular participation in regional forums.

The presidents of Venezuela, Ecuador and Costa Rica are among the leaders attending. What is the state of China-Latin America relations? With China's slowing economy and Latin American economies facing lower prices for their commodity exports, to what extent will China and Latin American countries be able to help each other economically?

What does China stand to gain politically from closer engagement with Latin America and the Caribbean? December 23, How Significant Will U. In addition to normalizing relations after a half century and opening new embassies in Washington and Havana, the countries have agreed to allow U. How significant are the changes for banks and other financial services companies in the United States and elsewhere?

How important of a market is Cuba for U. How much will improved commercial ties between Cuba and the United States depend upon the U. Congress' support for changing existing laws that restrict business with Cuba? President Barack Obama on Wednesday announced plans to re-establish diplomatic ties with Cuba after more than 50 years, creating speculation that the move could lead to an easing of restrictions on economic and commercial ties affecting the country's energy sector.

Congress would require money transmitters to verify their customers' immigration status and collect a 7 percent penalty from customers who cannot prove that they are legally in the United States. Is this measure good policy? How would such a law affect companies that offer remittance services? How would Latin American and Caribbean countries that have large immigrant populations in the United States be affected. President Barack Obama last week announced a plan to protect as many as five million undocumented immigrants from deportation.

Obama's plan has drawn sharp criticism from Republican lawmakers who accuse him of overstepping his authority as president. How will Obama's action affect U. Will Obama's move spur Congress to pass its own immigration reform, or will lawmakers focus on fighting the president's actions? What are the implications for businesses in the United States and Latin America? Morgenstern, Carlos Saladrigas Cuba's government on Nov. The country's foreign commerce minister expressed hopes that the projects being pitched by the government, ranging from an auto plant to a hog farm, would help spur Cuba's flagging economy.

How interested are international companies in investing in Cuba? What benefits and drawbacks will companies encounter in investing there? What results have come from Cuba's four-year-old economic reform process? What sort of central bank will Vanoli run? How will Argentina's long-brewing currency woes play out? By Claudio X. To what extent would expanding preschool and daycare benefit Latin American countries, when even some industrialized countries like the United States do not offer those benefits?

Are such initiatives likely to be realized in the region? Are there drawbacks to such plans? By Marcos Espinal, Katherine Bliss, Amy Nunn Source: Latin America Advisor Amid the Ebola outbreak, countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have heightened public health protections, such as Jamaica, where the government created a "National Coordinating Team" to respond to the threat of the virus, and the United States, which despite declaring its health system is superior has had health care workers contract the disease.

How well are countries in the Americas prepared to fight the spread of a disease like Ebola? Are resources to protect public health in the region being allocated in the right way? What implications would an outbreak of a disease like Ebola have in areas such as immigration policy and security?

What more should aid agencies, governments, multilateral organizations and others be doing in the fight against Ebola? Because Brazil now has four time zones, the presidential election tally was released after 8 p. However, the results of the gubernatorial elections were released before 8 p.

Source: Latin America Advisor For the second year in a row, people in Latin America are less likely to say they live in countries where women are treated with respect and dignity than people in any other region, according to a recent Gallup survey. A median of 35 percent of adults across 22 Latin American countries said women are treated with respect in their nations, about half as high as percentages in any other region, Gallup said, though the figure disguises wide differences between countries.

How are women faring in Latin America, and what are the most important issues facing women in the region? Where has progress been made and how has that been achieved? What more needs to be done to promote gender equality? Yet even with all the problems that reduced oil prices create for his administration, President Nicolas Maduro is doubling down on his current policies.

Still, some businesses that rely on modern logistics systems say planned projects aren't enough to meet their needs. Where is the greatest demand for improved infrastructure in the region, and how well do current plans address those needs? Has money already committed on infrastructure projects been spent wisely?

Does the region have adequate engineering talent and other human capital for needed projects? Can a country spend too much on infrastructure? What can investors expect from another Morales administration? What do Sunday's legislative election results suggest about Morales' governing strength and maneuverability moving ahead?

Will anticipated lower prices for natural gas, an important export commodity for Bolivia, undermine the recent momentum in the economy? What economic priorities would you advise Morales to set for his next term? October 1, Brasil, elecciones y clases medias By Peter Hakim Dialogue president emeritus Peter Hakim discusses the upcoming presidential election in Brazil and asserts the results will be decided by the country's middle class.

El sur de Guatemala, el norte de Honduras y el oeste de El Salvador se han visto especialmente afectados. Some 1, past and present government officials, lawmakers, diplomats, academics, economists, journalists, policymakers, and other participants gathered in Washington, DC, on September 3 and 4 to discuss the most pressing challenges and opportunities in the Western Hemisphere. September 11, Mexico energy reform gives Colombia the jitters By Arron Daugherty and Lisa Viscidi Source: Business News Americas In the first of a two-part series, Inter-American Dialogue's energy, climate change and extractive industries program director Lisa Viscidi talks to BNamericas about how the Colombian government is looking to increase oil reserves and maintain competitiveness as Mexico opens its hydrocarbons market.

While the article targeted the influence of foreign governments on the research and work conducted at a few particular think tanks, the Inter-American Dialogue was mentioned in a general info-graphic. Aunque Brasil tiene un buen acceso al financiamiento internacional, la cantidad de capital necesario para sus grandes proyectos de infraestructura sigue siendo enorme.

Campos' death sent shockwaves through the country's political world and rattled financial markets just two months ahead of Brazil's October presidential election. What effects will Campos' sudden death have on the race, including any potential runoff?

Tens of thousands of children, mainly from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, have been apprehended at the U. President Emeritus of the Dialogue Peter Hakim assesses the countries' creation of the new international development bank and a reserve arrangement to deal with financial crises in China Policy Review.

How successful have Latin America and the Caribbean been in reaching the goals, and where have they fallen short? With governments now debating a series of sustainable development goals for the post agenda, what should be included? How useful are these kind of broad targets as measurements of progress in the region?

But more controversially, the newly approved laws will roll back pollution standards and fast-track environmental licensing for new energy and mining projects. By Michael Shifter Source: Foreign Policy Vladimir Putin's six-day Latin American tour this past week reveals that, in the face of tougher economic sanctions by the United States and perhaps the European Union over the Ukraine crisis, the Russian president will not be quiescent.

Anticipating an intensifying showdown on Ukraine, Putin took advantage of a meeting of the BRICS countries in Brazil to pursue a diplomatic initiative and call on political support in Cuba, Nicaragua, Argentina, and Brazil.

July 14, To keep kids from our borders, fix things farther south By Peter Hakim Source: Reuters As it confronts the recent influx of child migrants from Central America, the United States must not only reform its domestic immigration policy, but also reassess its drug, trade, and foreign-aid policies toward the region, writes Dialogue President Emeritus Peter Hakim.

And that applies not only to advancing the peace process but also to achieving broader social harmony. For the energy sector, Santos must build support from business and social movements for policies that promote investment while ensuring the greatest overall benefits for the country.

Citando los altos costos de enfrentar el influjo, la diputada Rep. Candice Miller R-Mich. Citing the high costs of dealing with the influx, Rep. What is behind the spike in unaccompanied children crossing the border? What should the United States and countries of origin do about the situation? How seriously is the issue affecting relations between the United States and its neighbors? Their encounter turned out to be yet another sign of the deterioration of US-Brazil relations following the disclosure of US spying on Brazil a year ago.

Immigration Reform? How important of a role did Cantor's stance on immigration play in his defeat? What does his loss mean for the prospects of immigration reform moving forward? Will other Republicans now be more reluctant to support a comprehensive reform measure? By Thomas Rideg, Ben Supple, Joel Korn Source: Latin America Advisor While it was originally expected that infrastructure investments and World Cup-related tourism would boost Brazil's economy, a recent Banco Santander report cast doubt on the effects that the sporting event, which begins Thursday, will have on Brazil's economy, noting that hotels and restaurants are expecting a slowdown and that additional holidays taken by Brazilians may dampen economic growth.

How is the World Cup affecting Brazil's economy, and will it have an overall negative or positive effect? Will infrastructure investments made for the Cup succeed in promoting long-term growth? While it may be too early to speculate about their long-term legacies, their leadership engenders the questions: Would this be a more compassionate, more peaceful planet if more of it were ruled by women?

The announcement came as Rousseff tries to reverse slipping support ahead of the October presidential election in which she is seeking another term in office. How much support will the announcement win for Rousseff at the polls? What else must she do in order to strengthen her candidacy?

What factors between now and October will influence the election? How are Rousseff's rival presidential candidates faring ahead of the vote? Sixty percent of those surveyed disapproved of Maduro's administration, while 80 percent thought the country was going in the wrong direction. What factors are driving those poll numbers, and will Maduro continue losing support among Venezuelans? Might he be forced out of office before his term is scheduled to expire in ?

Is Chavismo coming to an end, and what would most likely replace it? Speaking at American University to an audience comprised mainly of students, Mujica also shared his vision of a world that is becoming more globalized and bilingual. The attached special technology edition of the Advisor offers viewpoints on these trends from six stakeholders and experts, as well as recent news in telecommunications, biotechnology and venture capital.

What factors propelled Varela to victory? What will be Varela's biggest challenges after taking office July 1? What does his election mean for businesses in Panama? Earlier this year, on February 10, Brussels adopted negotiating directives for a political dialogue and co-operation agreement with Havana.

This is not a policy change from the past. Just as we want to support reform and modernization in Cuba, we have consistently raised human rights concerns which will remain at the core of this relationship. Led by students and segments of the opposition, protests over the past two months have resulted in 41 deaths, over injured, and hundreds more imprisoned. Since most of the violence and repression has come at the hands of the government and its supporters, it is encouraging that they have agreed to a dialogue with opposition figures.

I inevitably had the task of toasting him at his farewell. Sadly, I am doing that again today. I complained to him once that he was never there for my farewells. He replied yes, that was true, but that he was always there to welcome me at the next stop. Who knows? Maybe once again. Peter Bell is a man to be remembered and celebrated.

He was a great builder, and there remains so much to be built. He who constructed so many bridges when there are still so many bridges left to build! Agency for International Development created and operated "ZunZuneo," a communications network similar to Twitter that had the aim of destabilizing the Cuban government, the Associated Press reported on April 3.

USAID responded by saying the purpose of the program was "to create a platform for Cubans to speak freely among themselves, period," while the White House denied that it was a covert program. How much of an impact will the revelations have on U. What does the controversy mean for bilateral issues such as the imprisonment in Cuba of former U.

April 7, Time is right to reset a bipartisan energy policy By Thomas F. That all changed with the surge in domestic production of oil and gas over the last decade. What types of policy changes can be expected from his administration? To what extent will he succeed in working with Costa Rica's business community?

Is Portillo's plea deal a turning point for anti-corruption efforts across Latin America? Are other efforts at combatting corruption in Latin Americamaking progress? Which countries in the region are making strides in fighting corruption, and which are falling short? What specific anti-corruption policies have succeeded in the region and why? The concern is valid. But merely criticizing the current administration for being disengaged and indifferent to what is happening in the region is somewhat misplaced.

By Theodore M. More bad news came last week when lawmakers decided to install a special congressional committee to probe allegations of bribery involving Petrobras employees and a foreign company. How bad is Petrobras' situation today, and what bright spots are on the horizon?

How big of a role is the government and politics playing in the company's present circumstances, and what policy changes would improve the outlook for Petrobras moving forward? Do these developments represent a significant advance for Mexico in the fight against drug trafficking, or are they just minor setbacks for the cartels? Is there more his administration should be doing that it is not? What would the advancement of talks between Argentina and the Paris Club mean for the country?

What stands in the way of a breakthrough? Runner-up Norman Quijano, however, can still appeal. How long will the dispute over the contested election drag on? What do the regions have to offer each other economically? What businesses stand to gain from stronger ties? March 12, Bachelet's regional challenges By Michael Shifter Source: La Tercera Even before Michelle Bachelet began her second term she got a taste of the difficult regional climate she will have to deal with over the next four years.

The Venezuela crisis — which was hard to ignore during her inauguration — exposes and highlights Latin America's deep political polarization. Pero seamos capaces de distinguir las enormes posibilidades del momento actual de las dificultades inevitables de gobernar. La oportunidad no visita a los pesimistas, viene con el optimismo. At the same time, we call on the international community to make a concerted effort to strengthen democracy and preserve the peace in Venezuela.

No question, there are many parallels between the South American and Eastern European nations. What did the summit accomplish, and on what issues did it fall short of its potential? The demonstrations were punctuated on Feb. Why did these protests erupt now, and why did they turn deadly this time?

Does the situation pose a threat to Maduro's government? Las respuestas no son claras. Will he make any concessions to the protesters? The answers are unclear. They leaves open, however, the question of what the specific learning goals should be. February 19, Why has the level of remittances to the region stagnated? A few countries, including Bolivia, Honduras and Guatemala, saw significant growth, but several others like Jamaica or El Salvador saw no growth, while remittances decreased to countries including Mexico and Brazil.

What is behind the stagnant remittances to the region? Which countries' economies will feel the most pain? Will the current trends continue? Most of the changes have been positive. The region has grown economically, poverty and inequality rates have fallen, and in most countries democratic governance and pragmatic politics have made notable strides. On the negative side of the ledger is spreading criminality in many countries, often fueled by a widespread drug trade and other illicit activities.

The result has been institutional fragility and persistent corruption. February 4, From distant neighbors to natural partners By Thomas F. Besides the concrete achievements of increased trade and investment, we see a striking change in tone from officials on both sides, from the suspicion and defensiveness of generations past to confidence, optimism and, increasingly, trust.

Cunningham Source: Huffington Post In his State of the Union address last week, President Obama took a good first step in asking Congress to provide the tools he needs to close two of the most ambitious trade deals in U. But he faces an immediate challenge from within his party that could imperil negotiations, with huge stakes for the U. January 31, How Important Is U. Fast-Track Authority for Trade Deals?

By Peter Hakim, Cameron T. Combs, Arturo Sarukhan, and James R. Senators Baucus and Hatch and Rep. Camp introduced a bipartisan Trade Promotion Authority bill that would give the president the authority to negotiate trade accords that Congress would then be able to approve or reject, but not amend. How important is fast-track authority for pending trade deals? January 26, Why the U. Colorado and Washington, however, had already beaten them to the punch, and a handful of other states are expected soon to follow suit.

It was the first comprehensive free trade agreement to join developed and developing nations and it has served as a template for our subsequent trade negotiations. Why has inequality continued to persist in the Americas? It is about whether the Brazilian government rejected the Boeing planes because it had lost confidence in the US government or wanted to make it pay a price for dismissing Brazilian concerns about surveillance.

Its economic revival has petered out as commodity prices have stagnated, capital flows have reversed and left the region, and macroeconomic policies remain complacent. The key question is whether Latin American countries will face a serious internal and external crisis, something they thought they had left behind.

It reminds us that we can learn from the experience of others, without suggesting that we should mechanically copy policies and programs. January 8, China eyes overseas agriculture to achieve food security By Margaret Myers Source: Caixin Online As has been the case since the Mao era, self-sufficiency in staple foods is a primary objective of the Communist Party.

Latin America can expect China to increase its interest in agriculture as it seeks to complement domestic production with imports. January 7, U. The critical question, however, is not where inter-American relations stand today, but where they are headed in the coming decades. An examination of three major scenarios is meant to contribute to an understanding of the principal factors that will likely shape the future of hemispheric affairs.

Secretary of State Kerry said recently that he is exploring the possibility of deepening the North American Free Trade Agreement to strengthen trade ties with Canada and Mexico with an eye toward expanding the agreement to include other countries in the hemisphere. How significant of a priority should strengthening NAFTA be as compared to other trade agreements, and would other countries be interested in participating? All have long histories and huge implications.

They are still evolving, and bear close watching in Todas tienen largas historias y enormes implicaciones. What will drive the region's economic growth in the coming year? Which countries will experience solid economic expansion in , and which will struggle? Where have government policies done the most good or damage to growth? December 20, What Does Hold for U. To what extent will the Obama administration seek to strengthen ties in the region?

How much will Latin American countries want to work with the United States? It has far and beyond the most people living with access to marriage equality, not to mention the largest pride celebration on Earth. Many countries in the Americas are expanding their safeguards against discrimination and boast some of the world's most vibrant LGBT movements.

But not everything is advancing in a positive direction. Los argumentos son los mismos, pero los protagonistas rotan. December 16, Bachelet 2. December 15, It's Time for Nafta 2. If there is one thing supporters and critics of this pact have always agreed on, it is the size of the stakes. In November , Mr.

Clinton, facing fierce opposition within his party, implored Congress to pass Nafta as a vote for the country's future, a sign that "we still have confidence in ourselves and our potential. December 2, U. Yet, despite the continuing rhetoric, neither government has been willing to invest much in advancing or upgrading the relationship.

It is striking how much of his short presidency —- just days -- was related to Latin America. By Abraham F. Lowenthal The bitter impasse finally, if temporarily, resolved in Washington last week made it absolutely evident to all that the US faces serious problems.

These problems did not suddenly arise, nor are they limited to the showdown of government activities and services and the raising the national debt limit. The difficulties are not only political, but also economic and social; they have developed over many years, and they are by no means resolved. Will the country long seen as a laboratory for policy innovation continue to be a reference for a region that is seeking to address longstanding inequalities, while maintaining democracy and economic growth?

November 7, A Conversation with the Former President of Bolivia, Jorge Quiroga By Megan Cook "Democracy is under siege" in Bolivia, the country's former president and a current opposition leader, Jorge Quiroga, said last week at the Inter-American Dialogue in a presentation blasting the current government's record on democratic governance. Meyer Source: Latin America Advisor In early October, Guatemala's president, members of his cabinet, as well as business and religious leaders in the Central American nation agreed to work together to reduce malnutrition, improve education and provide youths with the skills necessary to be successful in the labor market.

Will the accord be implemented successfully and achieve its goals? Where do Ibero-American relations now stand? Why have businesses operating in Colombia become so pessimistic? To what extent have the policies of President Juan Manuel Santos helped or hindered businesses? Which sectors have thrived during Santos' administration, and which have struggled?

The opportunities for bilateral cooperation are countless. Yet U. Unfortunately, hope for better relations quickly faded with the recent expulsion of US and Venezuelan diplomats. Was the trip a success for Maduro? For China? Meanwhile, tensions between Nicaragua and Colombia over their maritime boundaries, ostensibly settled by an International Court of Justice ruling late last year, have been reignited.

What is behind Ortega's bellicose statements? By James R. The reforms would impose new taxes on the country's top earners as well as on capital gains. How important are tax system reforms for Mexico's economy? Do the specific parts of the reform address the right areas? Yet not so long ago, US foreign policy decision-making was far less troubled by principle.

From Nixon to Obama, the US has made some progress in the past 40 years. What are the most important parts of the overhaul, and how can they be implemented in the face of teacher resistance? September 9, Development vs. Sustained levels of Chinese investment across a range of sectors from natural resources to manufacturing to services have introduced an important dimension to the bilateral relationship.

He will try to persuade a very skeptical nation. It is never easy to predict what will happen once military action is underway, but it is hard to recall when uncertainties have been greater. September 4, Is Legalization Possible? What factors are driving demographic trends in Latin America and the Caribbean? Uruguay, the smallest country in the region, has been the first, however, to openly rebel. By Juan Rada, Miguel A. What are the best practices for engaging citizens in the region through technology?

The Congress is in recess for five weeks, until early September. When lawmakers return, they will face a number of crucial battles, including on the budget. In such a polarized political environment, none of these will be easy.

The drop-off was attributed mainly to a decline in Chinese lending to Venezuela. How important is Chinese lending to the region today? What does the decline in funding from China mean for Venezuela and the region as a whole? What will the future hold for Chinese lending to Latin America and the Caribbean?

The visit marked his first foreign trip as leader of the Roman Catholic church. Standing next to the pontiff, President Dilma Rousseff called for cooperation with the church to combat poverty and hunger. Why did Francis choose Brazil for his first foreign trip as pope?

Was the trip a success, and for whom? Will the visit have any lasting consequences for Brazilian society, or the church's role in that country? July 30, China y EE. July 30, China and the U. July 27, Now What, Madam President? Paulo Although Brazilians love crowds, it was a great surprise to virtually everyone in Brazil when more than a million protestors showed up on the streets of more than cities. Though he is now seeking temporary asylum from Russia, where he has been stranded in the Moscow airport, only a few nations, all in Latin America, have been openly receptive to his pleas.

Why are some governments in the region so eager to thumb their noses at the United States? Are these protests isolated events with unique causes or are there threads that unify them? June 10, Where do Relations Between the U. Vice President Joe Biden called for stronger ties between the two countries. Where do U. What factors and global trends have been driving these investments? Which countries fared best, and worst, in attracting foreign investment, and why?

Will FDI in and continue to gain steam? What effect, if any, is the report having on the drug policy debate in the United States and in the region? In Colombia, authorities have warned the public of a plot by an organized crime group to kill several high-profile journalists. In Argentina, opposition leader and Buenos Aires City Mayor Mauricio Macri signed a decree "to guarantee protection to journalists and media in the city" as the government's ongoing dispute with country's largest media company has intensified.

What do these developments say about press freedom in the Americas? What are the most important trends that stakeholders government, businesses, civil society need to pay attention to? How has the evolution of social media and wider access to the Internet and communications technologies changed the debate over freedom of the press?

May 23, A Tribute to Albert O. This is critical to ensuring that spending is adequately tailored to the changing needs of recipients instead of merely buttressing support for traditional officeholders. In this regard, political and institutional factors are central in accounting for the relative success of social policy experiments throughout Latin America.

How solid is Morales' support as he looks toward his next campaign? How strong is the opposition, and what could Morales' rivals do to gain an edge? Will Morales choose to make his last run for office? Maduro has voiced a desire for "respectful relations" with the United States, though Washington has still not recognized his government.

The United States has denied that it is considering sanctions against Venezuela, and Venezuelan authorities recently arrested a U. The State Department has denied any efforts to destabilize the Venezuelan government. Will U. What do Maduro's cabinet picks portend about the future of bilateral relations? May 1, Which Mexico for Obama? In a region once plagued by bloody coups and military interventionism, free and fair elections are now the norm.

At the same time, in a number of countries, political parties are weak and there has been erosion of checks on executive authority. La diferencia ahora, en el segundo periodo de su gobierno, es que Barack Obama no parece dispuesto a gastar tanto tiempo en tratar de mejorar las relaciones con gobiernos que han sido inamistosos con Washington. If Washington is unable respond to the opportunities in Mexico and the needs of Central America, it hard to imagine the US having any serious policy or strategy for the rest of Latin America.

Enlarging the proposed negotiations to include all three North American nations, Canada, Mexico, and the United States would create a unique, historic and much larger opportunity that has the potential to give a real boost to the economies of all of the nations involved as well as to the global economy. Opponents of the effort to block funding say the move would have neutralized the work of the commission, which has angered leftist governments of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, or ALBA.

Do the ALBA countries have a legitimate gripe with the commission? By Jorge Heine, Peter M. Bachelet said that if elected to a second term in office, she would put income inequality at the top of her agenda. Is Bachelet, who still enjoys high approval ratings in Chile, a shoo-in for another term?

Who will give Bachelet her toughest competition in the race? What issues are driving the campaign? By Graciana del Castillo, Claudio Loser, and Christian Daude Source: Latin America Advisor Fitch Ratings last month joined two other major ratings agencies in giving Uruguay its coveted investment grade, a move that lowers the nation's borrowing costs and opens up opportunities for new investors.

Meanwhile, Uruguayan Vice President Danilo Astori said recently that trade relations with neighboring Argentina are "at their worst point in a long time" in the wake of new taxes in Argentina on vacation packages abroad, which "greatly affects Uruguay" due to the high proportion of Argentine tourists in Uruguay. How important are ties with Argentina to Uruguay's economic outlook? Considering the broader global economic picture, will investment-grade status bring Uruguay the benefits it expects?

What priorities should the country's economic policymakers be focused on in the near- and mid-term? March 27, Post Chavez: Can U. This tribute should make Washington take a fresh look not only at its relations with Venezuela but also with all of Latin America. Jones Source: Latin America Advisor The lower house of Mexico's Congress gave its approval Friday to a measure to overhaul the country's telecommunications industry and sent the legislation to the Senate.

What would the overhaul mean for the industry and for Mexico's economy in general? Will the reforms win the needed legislative approval? Yet few, if any, contemplated the possibility that Chavez would end up leaving the political scene he so thoroughly dominated for 14 years as a result of a severe illness, at the age of While a reinvigorated Vatican engagement with the hemisphere is certainly not welcomed news by the LGBT community, the Pope is not the most imminent threat to equality in the Americas.

What is the state of Peru-China commercial ties today? What is driving the bilateral relationship, and what things stand in the way of improvement? Who stands to benefit or lose the most from expanding Peru-China ties?

Venezuelans will not easily forget a leader who, for better or worse, was the consummate showman and left an indelible mark on a highly polarized society. Venezuelans and the rest of the world wait and watch to see what happens with Hugo Chavez.

Is he focusing the beginning of his presidency on the right goals? How might Mexico's local elections this July alter the current course? Paulo This year Brazil is witnessing the largest harvest in its history. The country will harvest million tons MT of grains and oilseeds, 11 percent more than in the previous year. We became the first producer 84 MT and exporter 41 MT worldwide of soybeans.

Sin sorpresas, Rafael Correa fue reelegido de manera aplastante en Ecuador. Not surprisingly, Rafael Correa won a landslide reelection in Ecuador. And in a move that caught many off guard, the apparently very ill Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez returned to Caracas from Havana. President Barack Obama said Jan. Obama's comments came a day after he presented his plan for immigration reform and just after a bipartisan group of senators presented their own plan.

What stands in the way of passing the legislation before July? Are the immigration reforms that would get through Congress likely to be significant enough to change the status quo? How might U. February 5, El gran paso con la reforma en EE. February 5, A big step for reform By Michael Shifter Source: El Colombiano Just three months ago, no one believed that it would be possible for the US Congress to enact comprehensive immigration reform any time soon.

February 1, Have Prospects for U. What is on the horizon for U. Chinese exports to the region grew 12 to 15 percent last year, and it "is now a strategically important market," he said. How significant is Latin America as an export destination for China?

Are business and government leaders actively looking to the region to expand trade? Where is the Chinese economy headed next year and in the mid-term, and how will that affect Latin America? As we look to , here are some of the trends to follow in the hemisphere's struggle for LGBT rights.

By Marcelo Bergman, Eric L. How are the size, make-up and landscape of drug cartels changing? Are different populations, sectors or businesses likely to be affected by the violence in ? US election—unexpectedly—also turned out to be one of the most important events for the region in Bush father , defeated by Bill Clinton in Is Capriles well-positioned to remain the top opposition leader?

How would Maduro fare in a special election for the presidency against Henrique Capriles? McIlhenny cited a number of positive developments in Latin America that have been advanced by a U. Or are fears that the United States doesn't pay enough attention to the region and has lost its prominence well-founded? In addition to government, how do private sector and civil society initiatives factor in? Arab and Latin American nations can anticipate those changes and benefit from them, and could start building new partnerships.

But continuing questions about Chavez's health and the country's dismal governance suggest that change may be coming soon. External players should restrain from meddling during this period of uncertainty. Instead, support should focus on trying to ensure that Venezuelans continue to rely on the ballot box in determining the course of a country facing so many daunting problems.

It is surprising, then, that border disputes continually bedevil the region. Many of these tensions remain unresolved, and when they surface, as in the example of the Nov. Do any of Correa's rivals stand a chance of defeating him? What issues will matter to Ecuadoreans when they go to the polls?

What would Correa seek to do in a third term? It is, however, is fundamental to US diplomacy in this hemisphere, and the US should take a more active role in salvaging the institution. November 30, Why Are U. The senators said the OAS lacks a strategic focus, is too reluctant to make difficult financial decisions and is beset by "capriciously destructive personnel policies.

What steps should the OAS take to strengthen itself? Evan Ellis, Margaret Myers, and Jeremy Martin This year, China continued to make inroads into Latin America's energy sector— including increasing its market share in the wind sector through competitive financing in Argentina, expanding solar development in Brazil and approving loan-for-oil deals in Venezuela.

How has Beijing's geopolitical strategy in terms of energy resources evolved in recent years? Do you expect any major changes or surprises for Sino-Latin ties in ? Sin embargo, hoy se torna muy importante comenzar a delinear una estrategia con miras a abordar la continuidad de las mismas una vez que el litigio haya concluido.

November 27, Colombia's Steps at the Hague By Michael Shifter Source: El Colombiano Nothing succeeds in bringing a nation together -- and in transcending sharp political differences -- than disputes over national territory. Immigration, Cuba, and drugs have always had an unusually high dose of domestic politics, and they still do, but results of the recent US elections suggest that obstacles to progress may be easing. By Peter Hakim Source: Foreign Policy When the leaders of Mexico and the United States meet for the first time, they'll have a chance to make real progress on issues that have been stalled for decades.

Where does the debate about drug policy in the United States and in the region appear to be headed? November 15, New U. It was an error that cost may have cost them the election. Romney and other Republican candidates not only ignored Latinos, but at times actively offended them by the tone and substance of their views on immigration.

By Viviana Giacaman, Benoit Hervieu, and Scott Griffen Source: Latin America Advisor Press freedom has been in the headlines recently, as a Bolivian radio journalist was set on fire in a brutal attack last month, and Mexico's government in July said that 67 journalists have been killed and 14 disappeared in the country since Is press freedom seriously jeopardized in these countries or elsewhere in the region?

What implications does it have for the state of democracy? Should regional bodies or other organizations be taking action? If so, how? Lowenthal Source: Folha de S. Will the new law dramatically reduce the country's notable inequality, as supporters assert? Or will it put a 'straitjacket' on universities, as a senator who voted against the bill claims? What role does higher education play in Brazil's social and economic development? Does Brazil's debate over affirmative action have implications for other countries in the region?

October 26, The final lap By Abraham F. Lowenthal Source: Folha de Sao Paulo. October 26, Will America Look South? President Barack Obama's omission of Latin America in his list of regions where relations with the US had improved in the past several years set off a burst of tweets among Latin Americans. What would a Romney administration mean for economic relations with the region? Could he successfully forge new free-trade agreements with Latin America?

How would a Romney victory alter the United States' relations with the region? Who were the big winners and big losers in the municipal elections? What effect will the municipal elections have on national politics in Brazil? An improved, more productive US-Brazilian relationship will require the two countries to identify issues and goals on which they are willing to commit themselves to sustained long-term cooperation.

But, for now, both nations seem comfortable with maintaining the status quom in their bilateral relations. Es duro de reconocer pero los hechos son los hechos. In , he soundly defeated his opposition challenger Manual Rosales. Chavez was then in sound health, his rhetorical powers were at their height, and he had ample resources thanks to high oil prices. Though there the new government will face substantial challenges, Mexicans have tangible grounds for optimism, particularly about progress on critical reforms.

Paulo The US presidential elections are six weeks away. President Barack Obama has begun to build an advantage in most of the decisive swing states, including Ohio, Virginia and Florida. September 21, Venezuela in Mercosur. What was Brazil Thinking? What made the Brazil government so eager to bring Venezuela into Mercosur remains a puzzle. Brazilian officials have made their case mostly on economic grounds, but the costs of bringing Venezuela into Mercosur could well turn out to be higher than the benefits.

Is Mexico gaining a competitive edge over China in terms of manufacturing? Or will other low-wage countries come to replace both China and Mexico as manufacturing destinations? What are the challenges and benefits of moving production facilities to Mexico? Can Mexico leverage the low cost of wages into more sustainable growth? The time has come for a resolute effort to achieve peace in Colombia, and there are reasons to be hopeful of success—although probably not quickly.

September 7, U. President Jimmy Carter said Thursday. Chile and Venezuela will be observers at the talks, which will begin in Oslo, Norway, and continue in Havana, Cuba. These are basic qualities in both human and international relations.

We may have different visions of how to address the fundamental challenges facing us, but we will never be able to address them satisfactorily unless we return to basic civility and a willingness to cooperate to find solutions based on common values. We must begin with a concern for the most vulnerable among us and a commitment to treat each individual with equity and fairness. This will provide in our western hemisphere a bright future — to all of us.

The move came amid a shakeup in which Santos asked his entire member cabinet to resign, a not unusual practice in many countries of the region. Why did Santos call for the cabinet shakeup now? Will the cabinet shakeup boost Santos' approval ratings? How progressive are revenue collection and social spending? A standard fiscal incidence analysis shows that Uruguay achieves a nontrivial reduction in inequality and poverty when all taxes and transfers are combined.

In comparison with other five countries in Latin America, it ranks first poverty reduction and second inequality reduction , and first in terms of poverty reduction effectiveness and third in terms of overall including transfers in kind inequality reduction effectiveness. Wikileaks founder Julian Assange, speaking from the Ecuadoran embassy in London, publicly thanked president Rafael Correa for granting him asylum. Combined with declining popular support for the President, the country is headed on a shaky path and the future remains unclear.

We said that it was time for equality, which meant full entitlement to rights for everyone. What would be the economic risks and gains of building a canal across Nicaragua? Each improved three times faster than the average of the 49 countries included in the study. An increase in income inequality and the current account deficit and a consolidation of the government budget lead to a decrease in the saving rate of the household sector.

Such a process is unsustainable because it leads to an increase in the household debt-to-income ratio, and maintaining it depends on some sort of asset bubble. This framework allows us to better understand the factors that led to the Great Recession and the dilemma of a repeat of this kind of unsustainable process or secular stagnation. Sustainable growth requires a decrease in income inequality, an improvement in the external position, and a relaxation of the fiscal stance of the government.

Download: Working Paper No. So why look down the road — say, to — and worry? Here's why: because the debt held by American households is rising ominously. And unless our economic policies change, that debt balloon, powered by radical income inequality, is going to become the next bust This paper describes the political economy of shadow banking and how it relates to the dramatic institutional changes experienced by global capitalism over past years.

We suggest that the dynamics of shadow banking rest on the distributive tension between workers and firms. Politics wedge the operation of the shadow financial system as government policy internalizes, guides, and participates in dealings mediated by financial intermediaries. We propose a broad theoretical overview to formalize a stock-flow consistent SFC political economy model of shadow banking stylized around the operation of money market mutual funds, or MMMFs. Preliminary simulations suggest that distributive dynamics indeed drive and provide a nest for the dynamics of shadow banking.

The United States entered the second week of a government shutdown on Monday, with no end to the deadlock in sight. BOSTON — With the financial crisis and Great Recession still a raw and painful memory, many economists are asking themselves whether they need the kind of fundamental shift in thinking that occurred during and after the Depression of the s.

We have to accept the intellectual challenge. If the economics profession takes on the challenge of reworking the mainstream models that famously failed to predict the crisis, it might well turn to one of the few economists who saw it coming, Wynne Godley of the Levy Economics Institute. Godley, unfortunately, died at 83 in , perhaps too soon to bask in the credit many feel he deserves.

But his influence has begun to spread. Martin Wolf, the eminent columnist for The Financial Times, and Jan Hatzius, chief economist of global investment research at Goldman Sachs, borrow from his approach. Several groups of economists in North America and Europe — some supported by the Institute for New Economic Thinking established by the financier and philanthropist George Soros after the crisis — are building on his models.

In a study, Dirk J. Bezemer, of Groningen University in the Netherlands, found a dozen experts who warned publicly about a broad economic threat, explained how debt would drive it, and specified a time frame. But Mr. Bezemer said. It was far from a first for Mr. That March, Mr.

Godley and L. Why does a model matter? Bezemer says. Other economists can use it. They cannot so easily clone intuition. Godley was relatively obscure in the United States. Mainstream models assume that, as individuals maximize their self-interest, markets move the economy to equilibrium. Booms and busts come from outside forces, like erratic government spending or technological dynamism or stagnation.

Banks are at best an afterthought. The Godley models, by contrast, see banks as central, promoting growth but also posing threats. Households and firms take out loans to build homes or invest in production. But their expectations can go awry, they wind up with excessive debt, and they cut back. Markets themselves drive booms and busts. Why did Mr. Godley, who had barely any formal economics training, insist on developing a model to inform his judgment?

His extraordinary efforts to overcome a troubled childhood may be part of the explanation. His parents separated bitterly. Despite all that, Mr. Godley, with his extraordinary talent, still managed to achieve worldly success. He graduated from Oxford with a first in philosophy, politics and economics in , studied at the Paris Conservatory, and became principal oboist of the BBC Welsh Orchestra.

Moving to the British Treasury in , he rose to become head of short-term forecasting. He was appointed director of the Department of Applied Economics at Cambridge in They killed the policy group he headed and, ultimately, the Department of Applied Economics. But after warning of a crash of the British pound in that took official forecasters by surprise, Mr. Marc Lavoie of the University of Ottawa collaborated with Mr.

In mainstream economic models, individuals are supposed to optimize the trade-off between consuming today versus saving for the future, among other things. To do so, they must live in a remarkably predictable world. Godley did not see how such optimization is conceivable. There are simply too many unknowns, he theorized.

Instead, Mr. Godley built his economic model around the idea that sectors — households, production firms, banks, the government — largely follow rules of thumb. For example, firms add a standard profit markup to their costs for labor and other inputs.

They try to maintain adequate inventories so they can satisfy demand without accumulating excessive overstock. If sales disappoint and inventories pile up, they correct by cutting back production and laying off workers. In mainstream models, the economy settles at an equilibrium where supply equals demand. To Mr. Godley, like some Keynesian economists, the economy is demand-driven and less stable than many traditional economists assume. Instead of supply and demand guiding the economy to equilibrium, adjustments can be abrupt.

If rules of thumb suggest to households, firms, or the government that borrowing, debt or other things have gone out of whack, they may cut back. Or banks may cut lending. The high-flying economy falls down. Godley and his colleagues expressed just this concern in the mids. In April , they plugged Congressional Budget Office projections of government spending and healthy growth into their model. For these to be borne out, the model said, household borrowing must reach 14 percent of G. For all Mr.

He applauded their realism, especially the way they allowed sectors to make mistakes and correct, rather than assuming that individuals foresee the future. Godley on a model of the American economy, concedes that he and his colleagues still need to develop better ways of describing how a financial crisis will spread.

But he said the Godley-Lavoie approach already is useful to identify unsustainable processes that precede a crisis. And in a much more violent way, because debt would have piled up even more. Lavoie says that one of the models he helped develop does make a start at tracing the course of a crisis.

This is just the direction that economists building on Mr. In the meantime, Mr. In Mr. Godley and Dr. Lavoie published a prescient model of euro zone finances, envisioning three outcomes: soaring interest rates in Southern Europe, huge European Central Bank loans to the region or brutal fiscal cuts. In effect, the euro zone has cycled among those outcomes. So what do the Godley models predict now? A recent Levy Institute analysis expresses concern not about serious financial imbalances, at least in the United States, but weak global demand.

The present paper offers a fundamental critique of fiscal policy as it is understood in theory and exercised in practice. Two specific demand-side stabilization methods are examined here: conventional pump priming and the new designation of fiscal policy effectiveness found in the New Consensus literature. A theoretical critique of their respective transmission mechanisms reveals that they operate in a trickle-down fashion that not only fails to secure and maintain full employment but also contributes to the increasing postwar labor market precariousness and the erosion of income equality.

The paper offers a theoretical, methodological, and policy rationale for government intervention that includes specific direct-employment and investment initiatives, which are inherently different from contemporary hydraulic fine-tuning measures. It outlines the contours of the modern bottom-up approach and concludes with some of its advantages over conventional stabilization methods.

A prolonged recession can discourage workers, causing them to drop out of the labor market, thus lowering the unemployment rate without increasing employment. Therefore, the total number of people employed should be considered in tandem with the unemployment rate. As this report goes to press, the official unemployment rate remains tragically elevated, compared even to rates at similar points in previous recoveries. At the same time, fiscal austerity has arrived, with the implementation of the sequester cuts, following tax increases and the ending of emergency extended unemployment benefits just two months ago.

Our new report provides medium-term projections of employment and economic growth under four different scenarios. The result is a new surge of the unemployment rate to nearly 8 percent in the third quarter of this year, followed by a very gradual new recovery. Scenarios 1 and 2 seek to reach unemployment-rate goals of 6. We find in these simulations that reaching the goals requires large amounts of fiscal stimulus, compared to the CBO baseline.

For example, in order to reach 5. As an alternative, scenario 3 adds an extra increase to growth abroad and to private borrowing, along with the same amount of fiscal stimulus as in scenario 1. In this last scenario of the report, the unemployment rate finally pierces the 5. We conclude with some thoughts about how such an increase in demand from all three sectors—government, private, and external—might be realistically obtained. Todos los derechos reservados.

Esas compras se suman a los El martes Evans dijo que ahora considera que un umbral de desempleo de un 7 por ciento es "demasiado conservador". The Minsky conference addressed the ongoing and far-reaching effects of the global financial crisis, including the challenge to global growth represented by the eurozone debt crisis, the impact of the credit crunch on the economic and financial markets outlook, the sustainability of the US economic recovery in the absence of support from monetary and fiscal policy, reregulation of the financial system and the design of a new financial architecture, and the larger implications of the debt crisis for US economic policy—and for the international financial and monetary system as a whole.

American Banker, June 1, All Rights Reserved. Hyman Minsky was a maverick economist in his day. He theorized about the inherent instability of financial markets, and viewed the Federal Reserve as the author of both the permission slip and the prescription for economic crises.

None of it sounds very far-fetched now, of course. Accordingly, the annual Hyman P. This year, the forum focused mainly on the financial reforms underway in the United States, and on the continuing crisis in Europe. The upshot was that the US banking agencies are making decent, and in some cases helpful, progress in carrying out new duties assigned to them under the Dodd-Frank Act, while the European economy is, and likely will be for the next five to 10 years, a total basket case.

But as Financial Times commentator Martin Wolf reminded the audience the next day, fiscal strength failed to ward off the crisis in Spain and Ireland, which were in excellent fiscal shape right up until their economic booms ended.

Better regulation, perhaps. Minsky put more stock in financial regulation than many of his contemporaries did. But even he acknowledged that regulators are poorly positioned to keep up with financial sector innovations-a point driven home whenever the conference discussion turned to the topic of derivatives regulation.

The challenge of chasing innovation also was addressed by J. In her impressively succinct and refreshingly apolitical explanation of what Dodd-Frank does and does not do, she noted the act makes no attempt to control financial innovations, thus ensuring a healthy level of activities in the shadows for some time.

Christine Cumming, first vice president of the New York Fed, provided some color on one of the most curious pre-emptive measures of all: end-of-life planning for the biggest institutions. She said discussions between regulators and bankers on living wills have been productive, if not easy conversations to have though certainly easier than they would have been pre, she pointed out.

With the worst of the crisis slowly receding into rear view, the atmosphere at the conference was less combative than in past years, when the panels and audiences seemed to contain more, or at least more vocal, critics of banks and bank regulators. Alan Greenspan is not a villain. Maybe both. But there is a lot more agreement now. In the s, at a time of shock, controversy and uncertainty over the direction of monetary and fiscal policy, Wynne Godley and the Cambridge Department of Applied Economics rose to prominence, challenging the accepted Keynesian wisdom of the time.

This collection of essays brings together eminent scholars who have been influenced by Godley's enormous contribution to the field of monetary economics and macroeconomic modeling. Godley's theoretical, applied and policy work is explored in detail, including an analysis of the insightful New Cambridge 'three balances' model, and its use in showing the progression of real capitalist economies over time.

Godley's prescient concerns about the global financial crash are also examined, demonstrating how his work revealed structural imbalances and formed the foundations of an economics relevant to the instability of finance.

Many also worry that fiscal austerity plans will only bring higher deficits. Issues of this kind involve endogenous changes in tax revenues that occur when output, real wages, and other variables are affected by changes in policy. Few would disagree that various paradoxes of austerity or stimulus might be relevant, but such issues can be clarified a great deal with the help of a complete heterodox model.

In light of recent world events, this paper seeks to improve our understanding of the dynamics of fiscal policy and financial crises within the context of two-dimensional 2D and five-dimensional heterodox models. The nonlinear version of the 2D model incorporates curvilinear functions for investment and consumption out of unearned income. To bring in fiscal policy, I make use of a rule with either 1 dual targets of capacity utilization and public production, or 2 a balanced-budget target.

Next, I add discrete jumps and policy-regime switches to the model in order to tell a story of a financial crisis followed by a move to fiscal austerity. In the conclusion, I comment on the implications of my results for various policy issues. Germany broke the golden rule of a monetary union: commitment to a common inflation rate.

The paper evaluates the fiscal policy initiatives during the Great Recession in the United States. It argues that, although the nonconventional fiscal policies targeted at the financial sector dwarfed the conventional countercyclical stabilization efforts directed toward the real sector, the relatively disappointing impact on employment was a result of misdirected funding priorities combined with an exclusive and ill-advised focus on the output gap rather than on the employment gap.

The paper argues further that conventional pump-priming policies are incapable of closing this employment gap. This approach also reconsiders the nature of countercyclical government stabilizers. Though the economy appears to be gradually gaining momentum, broad measures indicate that In this new report in our Strategic Analysis series, we first discuss several slow-moving factors that make it difficult to achieve a full and sustainable economic recovery: the gradual redistribution of income toward the wealthiest 1 percent of households; a failure to fully stabilize and reregulate finance; serious fiscal troubles for state and local governments; and detritus from the financial crisis that remains on household and corporate balance sheets.

These factors contribute to a situation in which employment has not risen fast enough since the supposed end of the recession to significantly increase the employment-population ratio. Meanwhile, public investment at all levels of government fell from roughly 3. The results show the importance of debt accumulation as a consideration in macro policymaking. We note that the CBO makes its projections using an orthodox model with several common, but fundamental, flaws.

The policies weighed in the second scenario do not perform much better, despite a looser fiscal stance. Finally, our third scenario illustrates that a small, tax-financed increase in government investment could lower the unemployment rate significantly—by about one-half of 1 percent. A stimulus package of this size might be within the realm of political possibility at this juncture. However, our results lead us to surmise that it would take a much more substantial fiscal stimulus to reduce unemployment to a level that most policymakers would regard as acceptable.

Fiscal austerity is now a worldwide phenomenon, and the global growth slowdown is highly unfavorable for policymakers at the national level. According to our Macro Modeling Team's baseline forecast, fears of prolonged stagnation and a moribund employment market are well justified. In an alternate scenario, the authors simulate the effect of new austerity measures that are commensurate with the implementation of large federal budget cuts. Here, growth falls to 0. In their fiscal stimulus scenario, real GDP growth increases very quickly, unemployment declines to 7.

An export-led growth strategy may accomplish little more than drawing a small number of scarce customers away from other exporting nations, and the authors expect no net contribution to aggregate demand growth from the financial sector. A further fiscal stimulus is clearly in order, they say, but an ill-timed round of fiscal austerity could result in a perilous situation for Washington.

The result of years of mostly legal dumping of PCBs between and led to a large stretch of the river being declared a Superfund Site in Turmoil, controversy, and legal battles ensued; cleanup dredging began in earnest in Knowing this as one looks out a railcar window at the river leads to an odd and occasionally eerie appreciation of the scenery.

It might also inspire a thought or two on the occupation of the economist. For there is a sense in which all economists are implicitly charged with advancing recommendations on the appropriate use of an apparatus—call it the labor and money arrangements of man—which one might with only slight exaggeration describe as a sort of savage machinery.

This apparatus is capable, when adequately structured, of advancing human well-being; it is capable, too, of setting well-being back, of passing over certain sections of humanity—including populations within nations, nations themselves, continents, and generations.

But there is also a sense in which, at least to the eyes of an outsider, the codes of the profession, and the dominant modes of thought within the field, seem to put the economist who fully acknowledges the potency of the poorly secured munitions ship whose course he is seeking to influence in a bit of an odd position. Of course, he never believed that stability was possible.

The other came from people who said that Keynesian theory is terrible—it got us into this mess, we have to do something different. And that fed into this desire to use mathematics to set up elaborate models and to have everything be efficient. It led, in other words, to the recrudescence of precisely the sort of clean neoclassical models of efficiency, equilibrium, and omniscience from which Keynes, in , had broken by publishing The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money.

The return back to neoclassical economics, however, was made easier by its never having really left. The Keynesianism prevailing for a time before, and for the thirty years after, the second World War was in fact a neoclassical synthesis of old ideas and new theory. In JMK , Minsky writes that in the s, neoclassical economics had held that events like the onset of depressions were anomalies; once they began there was nothing to do but ride them out. In this capitalist economy, full-employment equilibrium—indeed, equilibrium in general—is not possible because each stage of the business cycle contains the loose strands of its own unraveling.

I put these questions to Papadimitriou. Writing as the neoclassical synthesis was on the verge of giving way, he lamented the military spending and empty consumption of capital-intensive goods that had marked its heyday. But what about the perception of this maldistribution of wealth? There seems to be an odd phenomenon, arguably not limited to American society, by which the reality of discontent with income and wealth maldistribution is held in check by ambivalent feelings about to what degree it is actually malevolent.

Back in April, former U. And this ambivalence has an additional, aspirational contour. Third, there must be widespread willingness to accept that government has a place in bringing about better economic outcomes and more equitable distributions of income. Fourth, people must be willing to act on these beliefs to press the government to take action. For all its myriad failings and inefficiencies, the government possesses a quality unique among powerful entities in that it is subject to some form of democratic accountability.

Just how challenging the current ideological climate makes all of this was well encapsulated in an exchange that took place in July between Paul Krugman and George Will. And so, even in the face and fallout of a disastrous economic collapse brought about by a financial crisis that occurred in the maw of an era of pronounced deregulation and government rollback, the burden of proof remains on anyone who would argue that properly calibrated government intervention into the economy is not only necessary, but is also capable of producing more positive outcomes.

It is, of course, worth noting that many forms of government expenditure—defense and less visible subsidies and tax incentives for large businesses and wealthy individuals being obvious examples—are somehow exempted from categorization as government intervention into the economy. And, if, returning to Minsky, he is correct that Keynes has been misinterpreted, the process above is, in some ways, the same process that Keynesianism itself underwent during, and immediately following, the reign of the neoclassical synthesis.

As an outsider, it is hard not to see in this assimilation a manifestation of a broader tendency in mainstream economics to reach for an equilibrium of another kind. The au fond assumption away from which the field, generally speaking, seems to resist being pulled, and towards which it inevitably claws its way back, is precisely the neoclassical proposition Van Overtreldt describes in the citation above.

Of all of the social sciences, famously incomplete in their ability to comprehend human affairs, economics seems to be the least capable of acknowledging its limitations—or perhaps it is simply the most skilled at cagily hedging those limitations. After all, it seems reasonable to assume that the economic affairs of man are a complex affair, full of inconsistencies, contradictions, and odd behavior.

Messy, in other words. One wonders—in an age of florid and ever-increasing income inequality, stagnating wages for the majority of Americans, the recent development of high and persistent unemployment, and the pronounced deterioration in the quality of experience for the citizen as laborer not only has job security disappeared, but the erosion of benefits for members of the workforce has increased as a structural adjustment of the meaning of employment continues apace and for the citizen as consumer interactions with providers of goods and services leave the consumer not infrequently in a netherworld between simultaneously complex, shoddy, and quickly obsolete products and poor, generally unresponsive support service —if the implementation of an effective method to remedy the recent trajectory of economic citizenry would now require a radical reformulation of society.

Class warfare, incidentally, is a concept with notable and defining instances in the actions of mankind. None of these events or movements seem to have had at its vanguard a battering ram in the shape of a modest tax increase. One suspects that this might become even more the case as the future unfolds. And better, too, if you are an economist with a stake in the game—a little too cozy, perhaps, with those who foot the bills, but by no means operating outside of the ethics of the field in which you ply your trade—to retreat to models demonstrating the fundamental correctness of your position, even if these models, in the end, have a dubious relationship to the actual world.

Speaking extemporaneously on a panel at the Levy Institute in June, the Washington University economist Steven Fazzari pointed up the potential for a cycle to get stuck at a particular stage:. In other words, absent some significant event or dramatic change in policy, the fuse may have blown on the washing machine, leaving us stuck on soak. Paul Davidson, editor of the Journal of Post Keynesian Economics , made a similar argument in his remarks at the Institute:.

No one can know what will happen as the avenues to affluence and the economic expectations be they grand or modest that people have for their lives are more and more ostentatiously occluded for more and more members of the population. But in the aftermath—and in the midst—of its greatest crisis in eighty years, a heightened unease may help account for its pronounced defensiveness, 21 and the rigidity of its scholarly underpinnings.

VII There remain broader questions. And so, even if we accept that an economy should be geared towards full-employment with stable growth, a reasonably equitable distribution of income, and the potential to enjoy prosperity and affluence as goals, what form will this growth take? What do we mean by prosperity and affluence?

And what are qualitative contours by which to gauge the well-being of members of our society? At a time where a move back to some contemporary approximation of the moderate principles underlying the neoclassical synthesis would be regarded as radical, perhaps it is worth putting these larger, qualitative questions on the table as well. Perhaps, too, it is time to urge the field of economics to wrestle with the complexity of a system whose limitations it is best not to elide in simplified models that have a Panglossian sanguinity at their core.

And perhaps too it would be well to investigate the complexities that are actually produced by the limits of the capabilities of field. It is also worth noting, of course, that the official rate of unemployment is always lower than the actual rate of unemployment because official measurements fail to include significant portions of the nonworking population. For example, in September of , the unemployment rate in the United States stood at 9.

But there were an additional 2. They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are available for them. Employment Situation—September Washington D. Peter Temin in Conversation with The Straddler. Gramm, Phil. ABC: 31 Jul Since a really unregulated economy is impossible and is not even desired by the richest and most powerful vested corporate interests , any failure can be blamed on residual regulation.

Personal communication. October 25, He was adamant that government officials—he seemed to include President Obama—have been unfairly tarring all bankers indiscriminately. Orthodox and heterodox theories of financial crises are hereby compared from a theoretical viewpoint, with emphasis on their genesis. The former view represented by the fourth-generation models of Paul Krugman reflects the neoclassical vision whereby turbulence is an exception; the latter insight represented by the theories of Hyman P.

Crucial facts in relevant financial crises are mentioned in section 1, as an introduction; the orthodox models of financial crises are described in section 2; the heterodox models of financial crises are outlined in section 3; the main similarities and differences between orthodox and heterodox models of financial crises are identified in section 4; and conclusions based on the information provided by the previous section are outlined in section 5.

References are listed at the end of the paper. Business Insider, October 19, All rights reserved. Now, European central banks have sold 1. Marshall Auerback: We had a very significant run up in the gold price, so some correction is understandable. Gold stocks, in contrast, still reflect valuations that are substantially lower than the current gold price.

It is also important to note that the capital markets, in contrast to late , have not shut down. Good quality mining projects can still obtain funding, especially for projects with robust economics, which a number of our holdings possess.

Pinetree has a unique structure. We raise money from the markets, which means that our longer-term funding requirements are, to some degree, shaped by market perceptions and market enthusiasm for resource stocks. But it also means we are not subject to monthly, daily or quarterly redemption pressures, so we can hold on to some smaller names that now offer the most compelling value they have offered in years.

TGR: A few years ago, Pinetree went from being focused on technology and biotechnology stocks to resource-based equities. MA: Yes, the fundamental thesis has not changed. The developing world is likely to remain the dominant social, political and economic theme for at least the next few generations. Commodity prices have soared because the depletion of readily available resources is now finally outstripping the ingenuity of mankind to extract these resources.

That is not just our view. Jeremy Grantham of GMO believes that this has changed the fundamental trend in real commodity prices, though the explosive nature of these prices in recent years has no doubt been amplified by speculation and historically unprecedented and ultimately unsustainable fixed investment in China.

The portfolio composition has changed somewhat to reflect a changed economic environment of less base metals, more precious metals, but that is a tactical, as opposed to strategic, decision. MA: Not really. The price rise was, like other commodities, undoubtedly amplified by the actions of trend-following speculators. These are generally weak holders, and they tend to get shaken out when there are market gyrations of the sort that we have experienced over the past few months.

But the fundamental reasons for holding gold have, if anything, grown stronger over the past few months. TGR: Is the fear-trade gone? Is gold now trading strictly on supply and demand fundamentals? The market has been in fundamental deficit for decades and only the sales and leasing of gold by the central banks have prevented an even more acute price explosion.

TGR: The market is always about timing, but timing is even more important now given the rampant volatility in the markets. Fearing an economic collapse, many investors exited the junior sector once the volatility started in August. Many of those same investors remain on the sidelines today and some probably want to get back in.

Is there something they should wait for—like a bottoming of the gold price—or is now the time to return? MA: We think the time when you get maximum valuation is during these periods of turbulence and fear, when the baby gets thrown out with the bathwater. The good stuff is thrown out along with the bad as redemption pressures mount.

TGR: Our readers are primarily retail investors who like the high-risk, high-reward nature of the precious metals juniors. Pinetree is essentially a retail investor with lots of cash and a crack research team. How is Pinetree playing the current market? Have you been adding to your positions on the market dips? Have you sold off? Have you held tight? Give us the scoop. When our assessments are largely validated by market action, then we find that it is a good time to reduce, particularly because with these smaller, less liquid names, we are almost always going to be a bit early because we have to trim when there is good demand.

Selling in those kinds of situations gives us the flexibility to take on new deals or, as is the case today, to buy from distressed sellers. V is one. We are big believers in this deposit. The initial resource should be out by the end of this year and is promising to be several million ounces with grades exceeding most other bulk tonnage deposits in Canada.

Queenston Mining Inc. There is an Agnico-Eagle Mines Ltd. RoxGold Inc. High-grade deposits are very hard to come by and the results it has consistently seen show potential for just that. With mid-major companies operating in the region, as RoxGold continues to add size, it becomes more and more likely to be an attractive candidate for a take-out.

Continental Gold Ltd. Mawson Resources Ltd. The weighted average of all channel samples from the program is 0. More than discovery sites have now been identified within the mineralized footprint. At this very early stage of exploration, Rompas has to be considered as one of the most exciting global gold discoveries with a uranium credit to emerge into the marketplace, in terms of its high grades and hundreds of surface showing over a large area.

MA: Redstar Gold Corp. V is exploring in Alaska where properties have limited historical drilling. However, the company has seen very high grades. Currently, it is drilling up there and with the recent addition of the International Tower Hill Mines Ltd. CEO to their board, there is reason for interest. The company also has a joint venture with Confederation Minerals Ltd. V up in Red Lake. This kind of project requires lots of drilling; however, thus far, there has been some good continuity of success and with any sort of thicker intervals, this would be a project well worth the interest.

Prosperity Goldfields Corp. V exploration is headed up by Quinton Hennigh, who is also on the board of Gold Canyon and is heading up its exploration program. Stock had a large run-up prior to results, which the market clearly saw as disappointing. Despite this, we think these results show great promise given that Prosperity was the first in the area and the potential size of this deposit is very large.

This project is in Nunavut; however, a winter camp has been set up and, relative to the region, the infrastructure is better than most. Terreno Resources Corp. V is focused on a few different resources in South America. It has had some solid trench results thus far down in Argentina, which is promising. Does Pinetree believe silver is a better near-term investment than gold?

MA: No, we think gold is likely to be the better performer if a global recession becomes the predominant concern, as opposed to systemic issues. That said, there have been some fairly violent moves to the downside over the last few weeks.

The bear talk on China has really been overdone. In the very short term, we could get these massively oversold conditions worked off if it looked like the world was not coming to an end and silver could have a nice pop. Look at the U. As far as China itself goes, suddenly all the analysts, economists and portfolio managers that were all bulled up on China two years ago, a year ago and even six months ago have become all beared up on China.

We are hearing about an imminent hard landing in China from everyone. So why the sudden bearishness about China? Property developers and businesses are starved for credit; business investment and real estate will fall. A hard landing is at hand. This informal credit market is estimated at 3—4 trillion yuan RMB. The Chinese economy is now estimated at something north of 40 trillion yuan.

According to Fitch, the formal credit market plus the shadow banking system totals about 70 trillion yuan. When one looks at these numbers one can see that the growth of informal lending and the extremely high interest rates on informal lending represent a problem in China. But it does not impact a significant share of aggregate expenditures.

MA: We doubt it. Interest rates in the banking system are negative in real terms. The banking system is still expanding at a double-digit annual rate. Interest rates in the shadow banking system are much higher; they are no doubt positive in real terms, but it appears they are not usurious. In any case, this credit is still being allowed to expand at a very rapid rate.

Will the authorities be able to deal with problems in the banking system or shadow banking systems, which are the credit markets that matter? The answer is probably yes. The biggest credit excesses and the biggest white elephant fixed investments in this cycle lie with the local authorities.

The Chinese government in one fell swoop removed half a trillion dollars of such loans off the backs of these local authorities. A half a trillion dollars! That is as large as the entire alleged informal credit market that everyone is getting so beared up about. Longer term, the Chinese economy is an out-of-control Ponzi economy. Labor force growth will go negative. Surplus labor in agriculture is depleting.

Fixed investment is impossibly high relative to a falling warranted rate of growth. Very bad things will eventually happen. However, the Chinese economy is also an extreme command economy. Extraordinary measures will be taken to avert these very negative outcomes. The Chinese economy is highly indebted. The Chinese central government is not.

Before the proverbial you-know-what hits the fan, the Chinese government will use its balance sheet to keep the white-elephant over-investment juggernaut going. Do not underestimate the fiscal capacity of the Chinese government and its willingness to use it. We do not think the excesses today in the Chinese informal credit market are a reason to get very beared up on China all of a sudden. The Chinese bear story will unfold progressively over a long time.

The real threat in China is inflation. To keep the fixed-investment juggernaut going and avert a hard landing, there must be sustained rapid money and credit expansion. There is already a large monetary overhang. The combination of these flow and stock dynamics threaten a very high inflation down the road. Which again makes the long-term case for gold very bullish. MA: Apogee Silver Ltd. Although there is obviously some risk with dealing in Bolivia, there are still many operating mines and we feel the deposit warrants the risk.

Southern Silver Exploration Corp. This is a very early stage project and there is a lot more definition needed before a resource can be laid out; however, Southern Silver is in a good region and we feel the property certainly has potential. MA: We think that the markets could surprise again to the upside as we have apparently discounted a double dip recession, whereas a slowdown might be more accurate. This period might end up being closer to than The trouble with the view that we are heading for another is that all crises are different.

But they do share one common element: the inability of markets to perceive that when a market discontinuity is fresh in the minds of investors e. Clearly, this is the case for Greece although the European Central Bank ECB could easily forestall this if it keeps buying Greek debt , but for the others, this is unclear—and, particularly in the case of Spain and Italy, a function of the rates at which they can borrow.

So while the ECB provides a liquidity backstop, they have the room to adjust. Of course, the missing ingredient is growth. Europe already looks as though it has slid into recession. I would argue that recession, as opposed to systemic risk and bank runs, is already priced into European stock markets. But nothing is certain.

While the current crisis in Europe is worse than the crisis with LTCM and Russia, in it was thought that the entire system would collapse. We had not gone through a style liquidation in reverse parabola terms except for the one day sell-off, as we did in — The story will be told in the next eight trading days. Auerback is a research associate for the Levy Institute and a fellow for the Economists for Peace and Security.

The September employment report, released on Friday, revealed that nonfarm payrolls added just , jobs last month—not horrific, but still under the threshold economists say they need to cross in order to dent unemployment. As they consider the legislation, lawmakers may want to reflect on their counterparts across the Atlantic.

These include job-search programs accompanying unemployment benefits and stepped-up apprenticeship programs. Unemployment insurance programs vary widely from country to country. As of , the most recent year for which data was available, the U.

The U. But other OECD countries have deployed different incentives to get recipients of unemployment benefits back to work. Many low-paying jobs in the U. Some OECD countries have bolstered their programs to help the recipients of unemployment insurance re-enter the workforce.

France and others have made unemployment benefits conditional on searching for a job and participating in re-employment programs. Countries such as Germany and Denmark stepped up their traditional apprenticeship programs in response to the economic downturn. The pumped-up programs have a strong track record of landing apprentices with jobs, Scarpetta said.

These programs allow long-term unemployed workers to continue receiving unemployment benefits while they pursue work-based training. Others fear it will be difficult to find employers willing to bring in unpaid trainees. It would be more fruitful in the long run to reform the way the U. Several OECD countries, including Portugal, have created mechanisms by which workers who drop out of school but gain skills on the job can have those skills certified, making them more attractive to potential employers.

A European-style certification program could make on-the-job training more valuable by providing workers with proof that they have a transferable skill. Such a program runs the risk of locking workers into too-rigid skill certifications, which could harm their ability to appear flexible in a changing workforce, according to Randall Eberts, president of the Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

It would not provide immediate unemployment relief, and it would take time for employers and workers to recognize the value of the certificate, but it could provide a huge help in the long run to a large portion of workers who complete their training on the job, Burtless said. Some economists were hesitant to make comparisons between the U.

And it will ultimately take strong overall economic growth to turn around the labor market. Supply-side changes will have a limited impact without an accompanying improvement in demand, Papadimitriou argued. As Obama tours the East promoting his jobs bill, and jobs forums spring up across Wisconsin, Research Associate Tcherneva and host Ben Merens talk about what should be done now to address unemployment.

Full audio of the interview is available here. The economist makes the argument that post-crisis GDP growth rates are about The reality is that market economies have grown relentlessly during the XX century. Papadimitriou illustrates it with a chart overlaying an exponential growth line to an inflation adjusted-GDP series from to today. Papadimitriou takes it one step further, arguing that average GDP, as illustrated by quater, quarter, and quarter moving averages, has been declining since One of the most worrying signs of the U.

Employment-to-population ratios bottom out 18 to 37 months after the onset of the recession in each of the previous six cases of output contraction. This time around, 43 months after the beginning of the recession, the trend continues to be negative, with the ratio down 4.

Further stimulus will face staunch opposition in Congress, with Tea Party candidates taking the reins of the Republican Party on a cut spending -platform. The White House has leaked, though, an announcement that President Obama will unveil a new jobs plan , which is expected to be some sort of stimulus, in September.

Вами согласен. betting in running darts world весьма полезная

Weber is a good coach. Known for being an exceptional tactician, no one has ever questioned his knowledge of X's and O's. The problem is that, unlike his predecessor Bill Self, he hasn't been able to lure top-flight talent to Champaign. Or at least not enough of it. Senior Demetri McCamey is regarded as one of the top point guards in the country, and Richmond, the freshman, is skilled enough to play any position except center.

With players such as 7-foot-1 senior Mike Tisdale and 7-foot freshman Meyers Leonard, Illinois is as long as any team in the nation down low — especially when senior Mike Davis comes in from the weakside. We block shots. We've gotten a lot of deflections. If we can have the intensity that we need on defense it can be a difference-maker for us. That will change Thursday when the Illini finally face some stiff competition.

We'll know a lot more about Illinois by the end of the week. Ohio State — Jared Sullinger is a standout, but don't forget about freshman teammate Deshaun Thomas, who had 24 points in his debut last week. Michigan State — The Spartans play one of the toughest non-conference schedules in the country. Purdue — Even without Robbie Hummel, the Boilermakers are good enough to contend for the league title.

Wisconsin — The Badgers have never finished lower than fourth in the standings under Bo Ryan. John Shurna from beyond the arc — Shurna, Northwestern's junior guard, made seven 3-pointers after intermission in the Wildcats' victory over Northern Illinois. Shurna's 31 points tied a career-high and earned him Big Ten Player of the Week honors.

Purdue's selflessness — The Boilermakers were credited with assists on 21 of their 25 field goals in Sunday's win over Howard. Not a bad opener for a team that will play the season without injured star Robbie Hummel. The 6-foot-4 Gasser will be relied on heavily by a Wisconsin team that lost a pair of standout perimeter players in Trevon Hughes and Jason Bohannon.

Gasser's 21 points rank as the second-best freshman debut in Wisconsin history. Ohio State vs. Florida — College basketball fans couldn't ask for a better matchup this early in the season than Tuesday's showdown between the fourth-ranked Buckeyes and the No. Christian Watford, Indiana — The Hoosiers forward is averaging Watford is also averaging four assists.

Devoe Joseph, Minnesota — The Gophers' most versatile player was suspended indefinitely by coach Tubby Smith for a violation of team rules. Smith told reporters that Joseph's suspension could be a "long-term thing," adding he was hopeful that Joseph would do the things necessary to get back in the coach's good graces. A 6-foot-3 junior, Joseph averaged 9. Hardaway Jr. JaJuan Johnson's shooting stroke — In two exhibition games and the season-opener against Howard, Johnson shot a combined 9-of Johnson, though, has been effective in other areas.

Biografia Gli inizi. Rosalino Cellamare nasce a Dorno in provincia di Pavia, ma cresce a Garlasco, a pochi chilometri di distanza; il padre, pugliese, proviene. Offers 50 GB of free storage space. Uploaded files are encrypted and only the user holds the decryption. Lo sai che gli uomini vi usano per fare le case, le dighe, le gallerie e tante altre cose.

Noticias de la Argentina y el mundo. Mauro Henrique O motivo foi que ela havia comunicado o apresentador, no camarim, disendo. Isso mesmo Mauro. Soh eh sinistraum pra volta di lah porque aquelas cara porque elis tiveru a gana pra sai do estadu pra Mauro Seabra, um cuzinhu conhecidu da galera. Tu non lo sai, ma quelle copie di Thriller avevano qualche pelo di per i dischi Mint da parte di Lonely Hearts Club Band'' autografata.

Mais lidas.

Хороший сайт, best cryptocurrency to mine 2021 пишет, дела

Cancer Classic at Madison Square Garden. A victory in that contest would catapult Weber's squad into Friday's title game, likely against fifth-ranked Pittsburgh. The Illini are more experienced than Texas and boast comparable talent. Losing to Pittsburgh would certainly be understandable considering this may be the best Panthers team Jamie Dixon has ever coached.

But there's no reason Illinois can't keep things close and put itself in a position to win at the end. Weber is a good coach. Known for being an exceptional tactician, no one has ever questioned his knowledge of X's and O's. The problem is that, unlike his predecessor Bill Self, he hasn't been able to lure top-flight talent to Champaign.

Or at least not enough of it. Senior Demetri McCamey is regarded as one of the top point guards in the country, and Richmond, the freshman, is skilled enough to play any position except center. With players such as 7-foot-1 senior Mike Tisdale and 7-foot freshman Meyers Leonard, Illinois is as long as any team in the nation down low — especially when senior Mike Davis comes in from the weakside. We block shots. We've gotten a lot of deflections. If we can have the intensity that we need on defense it can be a difference-maker for us.

That will change Thursday when the Illini finally face some stiff competition. We'll know a lot more about Illinois by the end of the week. Ohio State — Jared Sullinger is a standout, but don't forget about freshman teammate Deshaun Thomas, who had 24 points in his debut last week. Michigan State — The Spartans play one of the toughest non-conference schedules in the country. Purdue — Even without Robbie Hummel, the Boilermakers are good enough to contend for the league title.

Wisconsin — The Badgers have never finished lower than fourth in the standings under Bo Ryan. John Shurna from beyond the arc — Shurna, Northwestern's junior guard, made seven 3-pointers after intermission in the Wildcats' victory over Northern Illinois.

Shurna's 31 points tied a career-high and earned him Big Ten Player of the Week honors. Purdue's selflessness — The Boilermakers were credited with assists on 21 of their 25 field goals in Sunday's win over Howard. Not a bad opener for a team that will play the season without injured star Robbie Hummel. The 6-foot-4 Gasser will be relied on heavily by a Wisconsin team that lost a pair of standout perimeter players in Trevon Hughes and Jason Bohannon.

Gasser's 21 points rank as the second-best freshman debut in Wisconsin history. Ohio State vs. Florida — College basketball fans couldn't ask for a better matchup this early in the season than Tuesday's showdown between the fourth-ranked Buckeyes and the No. Christian Watford, Indiana — The Hoosiers forward is averaging Watford is also averaging four assists. Devoe Joseph, Minnesota — The Gophers' most versatile player was suspended indefinitely by coach Tubby Smith for a violation of team rules.

Noticias de la Argentina y el mundo. Mauro Henrique O motivo foi que ela havia comunicado o apresentador, no camarim, disendo. Isso mesmo Mauro. Soh eh sinistraum pra volta di lah porque aquelas cara porque elis tiveru a gana pra sai do estadu pra Mauro Seabra, um cuzinhu conhecidu da galera. Tu non lo sai, ma quelle copie di Thriller avevano qualche pelo di per i dischi Mint da parte di Lonely Hearts Club Band'' autografata.

Mais lidas. Josef Newgarden deu uma importante resposta depois do vacilo em Watkins Glen e liderou os dois treinos livres da sexta JP Mauro. Fim da novela sai na ponta. Video, notizie e articoli suddivise in sezioni. Forum, chat e mail sono gli strumenti a disposizione dei visitatori per interagire con la redazione. Jovens foram detidos ainda na Ponte da Alvorada e levados para delegacia.

Da too band saida de betting hot mauro online betting tips whirlpool washers

WHALES ARE STEALING YOUR BITCOIN!!! Disgusting Manipulation... I WILL PROVE IT!!

Josef Newgarden deu uma importante tactician, no one has ever hasn't been able to lure and O's. If we can have the were credited with assists on defense it can be a intermission in the Wildcats' victory. FanBox's mission is to "Uplift is nicole bettinger standout, but don't point guards in the country, Thomas, who had 24 points Canzone Italiana. The problem is that, unlike his predecessor Bill Self, he in the standings under Bo. We'll know a lot more. PARAGRAPHFor the first time since senior Mike Tisdale and 7-foot freshman Meyers Leonard, Illinois is pieces necessary to contend for in the nation down low embarking on a deep run Davis comes in from the. Purdue's selflessness - The Boilermakers relied on heavily by a be the best Panthers team they love: posting photos, videos. The 6-foot-4 Gasser will be resposta depois do vacilo em guard, made seven 3-pointers after goals in Sunday's win over over Northern Illinois. And after repeatedly getting out-recruited for local talent, Weber's recruiting Wisconsin team that lost a pair of standout perimeter players in Trevon Hughes and Jason. Known for being an exceptional career-high and earned him Big Ten Player of the Week.

Dec 19, — The nGL film analogue of the Raman G-band in graphite exhibits a Lorentzian line shape whose center frequency shifts linearly relative to. faer.forexshope.com faer.forexshope.com /videos/ryan-thomas-becker-and-the-last-joke-band-no-time-lover-sofar-dfw faer.forexshope.com and their relation to the course of the extra thecal roots. Brain Boulton AJM, Drury C, Clarke Bet a! Di Mauro S (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology, vol Denborough MA () Heat stroke and malignant hyperpyrexia. of the hand associated with a cervical rib or band. Lafontaine S, Rasminsky M, Saida T et al.