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Also picked up on warrant for fail to appear out of the Shroy, 35, of Montgomery, PA was arrested for being a fugitive from justice. She was taken to the Washington County Jail.

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Sports betting strategies uk map

Greyhound racing is also legal in South Dakota , but the state has no operating racetracks. Greyhound racing is most prevalent in Florida. Florida has sixteen greyhound racetracks, by far the most of any state. Greyhound races are the most attended pari-mutuel event in the state, attracting 1. See Figure 8. This occurred even as horse racing in Florida increased its handle.

According to the Florida Department of Business and Professional Regulation, Division of Pari-Mutuel Wagering, almost all of the state's greyhound tracks actively sponsor greyhound adoption programs, and many have on-site adoption booths. In May the Tampa Tribune reported that forty-four racing greyhounds.

In total, the newspaper found that greyhounds had tested positive for cocaine since Owners of greyhounds testing positive were forced to forfeit their winnings. However, there was no recourse for bettors who had wagered on greyhounds that might have won if the positive-testing dogs had been disqualified. Drug test results are not obtained until several weeks after a race has run. Rapid-screening tests that could provide results at the race track are considered too expensive by the greyhound racing industry.

The newspaper article questioned why state officials did not investigate how the drugs got into the dogs' systems. The president of the National Greyhound Association suggested that the cause could be trace amounts of cocaine on the hands of trainers or other people touching the dogs.

State officials denied that trainers were purposely drugging greyhounds to influence race outcomes. The National Coalition against Legalized Gambling claims that there were more than seventy-five well-documented cases of cruelty and abuse in the greyhound industry during the s involving thousands of dogs that were shot, starved, abandoned, or sold to research laboratories.

The HSUS reports that up to 20, adult greyhounds are destroyed each year because they are too slow. The organization claims that the racing industry severely overbreeds greyhounds in the hopes of producing winners, leading to the destruction of thousands of unwanted puppies each year.

The HSUS also says that a racing greyhound's career is typically over at the age of four years, well below its average lifespan of twelve years, meaning that thousands of adult dogs are also destroyed each year when they are no longer useful. The Greyhound Protection League www. Note that these are not exact figures—many are compiled by estimate. The league claims that more than half a million greyhound puppies and adult dogs were killed by the industry from to During the same time period about , greyhounds were adopted.

In May a sixty-eight-year-old Alabama man named Robert Leroy Rhodes was arrested and charged with felony animal cruelty after the remains of two- to three were found on his property in Baldwin County, Alabama. He admitted to performing the service for forty years at the request of race dog owners. Authorities report that autopsies indicate some of the dogs were not killed instantly and therefore suffered before they died.

It is a felony in Alabama to torture an animal. Racetrack officials denied involvement in the case and fired Rhodes along with several other security guards and a kennel operator. Alabama authorities eventually charged four greyhound owners and trainers under the state's animal cruelty law based on statements from Rhodes and Clarence Ray Patterson, a kennel owner at the Pensacola Greyhound Track.

At an April hearing the Baldwin County sheriff testified that Rhodes, who died in , had admitted killing two- to three thousand greyhounds that were too sick or old to race. Florida investigators testified that Florida kennel owners and trainers paid Rhodes to shoot unwanted greyhounds, because it was cheaper than having the animals humanely euthanized by a veterinarian.

The defendants' lawyers asked for the case to be dropped because the key witnesses could not be cross-examined. Rhodes had died, and Patterson could not be located by authorities. The judge had not yet ruled on that motion when Patterson was found.

Prosecutors in the animal cruelty case said that locating Patterson should help their case against the other defendants. Jai alai is a court game similar to handball in which players bounce a ball against the wall and catch it using a long curved basket called a cesta, which is strapped to the wrist.

The term jai alai pronounced hi-uh-lie comes from the Spanish Basque phrase for "merry festival. The game's scoring system has been adjusted over the years to make it more attractive to gamblers. Typical games include eight players with only two players competing for a point at one time.

The game continues until one player obtains seven points. Win, place, and show positions are winning bets, just as in horse racing. In pari-mutuel gambling on jai alai was conducted in only two states: Florida at five frontons and Rhode Island at one fronton. Although formerly also conducted in Connecticut, the last jai alai fronton in that state closed in Pari-mutuel gambling is decreasing in popularity as it faces more and more competition from other gambling options, particularly casinos.

Even though the handle increased over this time period, the increase is not statistically significant. It has become increasingly difficult for racetracks to attract a large enough betting pool to afford to run races. Pari-mutuel attendance steadily decreased from fourteen million in —91 to 2. Gambling industry analysts say that there is a relatively small hard-core group of horse-racing attendees, most of whom are older people. The horse-racing industry is trying to attract a larger and younger fan base twenty-five to forty-five years old with more disposable income.

Some racetracks have tried to become entertainment venues by offering food courts, malls, and music concerts. Although these gimmicks attract visitors, those visitors do not necessarily gamble. Devoted race fans complain that such promotions are too distracting and draw attention away from the racing.

Increasingly, pari-mutuel facilities are offering other gambling choices to patrons. The addition of video gaming devices has saved some racetracks. The number of slot machines at racetracks is expected to triple during the first decade of the twenty-first century. Most of Florida's racetracks and jai alai frontons have card rooms in which gamblers wager on card games, mainly poker. Besides the sports involved in pari-mutuel gambling, legal sports gambling is extremely limited in the United States.

Only one state, Nevada, allows high-stakes gambling on sporting events like football, basketball, and baseball games. This act banned sports betting in all states except those that already allowed it in some form Nevada, Oregon, Delaware, Montana, Washington, and New Mexico. As of August Oregon operates two sports betting games as part of its lottery.

The Sports Action game began in The betting is conducted only during the football season on selected professional football games. Lottery officials avoid legal restrictions that professional football leagues have on the use of trademark names by referring to teams by location only for example, Denver vs. A second lottery game is called Scorecard. In this game bettors win money if they correctly pick a number that matches the last digit of the scores from selected professional football games.

The NFL sued for trademark violations but eventually lost the case. The sports lottery, which was called Scorecard, proved to be unpopular with bettors and unprofitable for the state. It was abandoned after only one football season. A task force was formed during the summer of to investigate the feasibility of reinstating a sports lottery game in Delaware.

The group's final report was issued to the Delaware General Assembly in However, Governor Ruth Ann Minner is opposed to expanding gambling in Delaware, making it unlikely that a sports lottery will be initiated while she remains in office. The State of Montana allows five types of sports gambling: sports pools, Calcutta pools, fantasy sports leagues, sports tab games, and fishing derbies.

Calcutta pools are operated similarly to pari-mutuel wagering in that all money wagered on a sporting event is pooled together. In a Calcutta pool, an auction is held before a sporting event, and bettors bid for the opportunity to bet on a particular player. For example, before a golf tournament, the pool participants bid against each other for the right to bet on a particular golfer. The highest bidder for each player wins that right.

Calcutta pools are sometimes called auction pools for this reason. The money collected during the auction becomes the wagering pool. It is divided among the "owners" of the best finishing players and the pool sponsor. Calcutta pools are most often associated with rodeos and golf tournaments. Fantasy sports leagues are games in which the participants create fictitious teams assumed to be composed of actual professional athletes.

Each team wins points based on its performance against other teams in the league over a designated time period. Team performance is measured based on the actual performance of the selected athletes during real sporting events. The points collected by each participant in the league can be exchanged for cash or merchandise paid for by membership fees collected from each participant. A sports tab game is one in which players purchase a numbered tab ticket from a game card containing one hundred tabs with different number combinations.

Bettors win money or prizes if their numbers match those associated with a sporting event—for example, digits in the winning team's final score. Sports tab sellers must obtain a license from the state and pay licensing fees and gaming taxes. Office pools on sporting events are legal in a few states as long as the operator does not take a commission. Despite these examples of sports betting in other parts of the United States, though, the big money in legal sports gambling in America is in Nevada.

Sports books are establishments that accept and pay off bets on sporting events. They are legal only in Nevada and are mostly located in casinos, where they are often combined with the casino race books. Sports betting in Nevada is permitted only for people over age twenty-one who are physically present in the state.

More than half of them are in Las Vegas. Most books are operated in casinos. The typical casino book is a large room with many television monitors showing races and games from around the world. Race book betting is mostly of the pari-mutuel type. Sports book betting is by bookmaking. Bookmaking is the common term for the act of determining odds and receiving and paying off bets.

The person performing the service is called the bookmaker or bookie, for short. Bookmaking has its own lingo, which can be confusing to those who are not familiar with it. In order to place a bet with a bookmaker, the bettor lays down pays a particular amount of money to win a particular payoff. Bookmakers make money by charging a commission called "juice" or "vigorish. Most gambling literature describes vigorish as a 4. A differing interpretation of vigorish comes from J.

Martin, a sports handicapper or person who studies and analyzes betting odds and gives advice to bettors and writer who publishes a Web site on professional sports gambling. According to Martin, statistically, only bettors who win exactly half of their bets pay exactly 4. Other bettors pay different percentages. However, this bettor would wind up paying a vigorish of at least 4.

Examples include under and over bets, where a bettor wagers that a particular game's final score will be under or over a specific number of points. Most sports bets are based on the "line" set by the bookmaker. For example, the line for an NFL football game between the Miami Dolphins and the Tennessee Titans might say that the Dolphins are picked by seven and one-half points.

A bettor picking the Dolphins to win the game wins money only if the Dolphins win the game by more than seven and one-half points. The line is a concept designed to even up betting. It does not reflect by how much a sports expert actually believes a team will win.

It is designed so that the bookmaker will get bets on both sides. This reduces the bookie's financial risk. Bookmakers will change lines if one side receives more betting action than the other. The skill aspect of sports gambling comes in recognizing the accuracy of the line. Experienced bettors choose games in which they believe the posted lines do not accurately reflect the expected outcomes.

This gives them an edge. Formerly owned by SportsLine. Nevada legalized gambling during the Great Depression of the s as a means to raise revenue. The s also saw the development of the handicapping system, in which bookmakers establish the betting line. Charles McNeil, a Chicago securities analyst, is credited with this development. Prior to that time, there was little incentive for gamblers to bet on the underdog in a contest.

During the s the Nevada legislature legalized OTB on horses. The sports and race books were popular in the state's casinos until the early s. A series of Senate hearings, led by Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee, was held in and to investigate the role of organized crime in the gambling industry.

The hearings were televised and focused the nation's attention on gangsters, corrupt politicians, and legal and illegal gambling. They were forced to shut down. Frank "Lefty" Rosenthal, a renowned handicapper, is credited with popularizing the sports book in Las Vegas during the s.

The s were boom years for the sports and race books. In the FET was reduced to only 0. Jimmy "the Greek" Snyder brought some legitimacy to sports gambling through his numerous television appearances on network sports shows. The amount of money. Betting volume continued to increase until the mids, when it began to level off. In this revenue represented 6. Other sports and parlay bets were far less popular.

A parlay bet is a combination bet in which the bettor selects the winners of two or more events. Every selection must be correct for the bettor to win the wager. However, the largest single wagering event for the Nevada sports books is believed to be the men's Division I college basketball tournament known as "March Madness. Industry experts estimate that one-third of the bets placed in the Nevada sports books are on college sporting events. Wagering is not allowed on high school sporting events and Olympic events.

Bets were prohibited on amateur sporting events either held in Nevada or involving Nevada teams prior to Nevada law restricts the sports books to wagering on events that are athletic contests. Betting is not allowed on related events, such as who will win most valuable player awards. Although it was brought up again in , , and , the act had not been passed by Congress as of mid During testimony before the U. Senate in April , an ACE spokesperson gave the following reasons in support of the act:.

The AGA advocates better enforcement of the existing laws against illegal sports gambling and stiffer penalties for those who engage in it. Further, the FBI credits this practice with bringing to light a gambling scandal at Arizona State University during the mids. The basketball team's coach was notified about a possible problem after Nevada sports books alerted the Pac conference and the FBI about betting irregularities.

The NCAA hopes that a ban on all college sports wagering will pressure newspapers to stop publishing the line on college games. The NCAA has repeatedly asked major media outlets not to post lines on college sports because it encourages gambling. However, the NCAA has been accused in the media of hypocrisy for its stance on legal gambling on college sports.

Following the advent of Internet gambling in the late s, the Nevada sports books began to feel some serious competition. Internet gambling is technically illegal in the United States because it violates the federal Wire Act of However, online gambling is increasingly popular among Americans, particularly sports gamblers, who can place their bets from home or the office.

The Internet provides gamblers with an easier way to monitor the many games of the tournament and to keep up with changing betting lines. In response to this potential new gambling market, Nevada politicians began a drive to make Internet gambling legal in the state. In August the U. Department of Justice DOJ sent a letter to the Nevada Gaming Commission warning that any state legislation seeking to make Internet gambling legal would be in violation of federal law.

The commission, on the other hand, has indicated that the state will continue to pursue legalization of online gambling for its residents, despite significant technical and legal obstacles. A major problem in regulating any Internet gambling, including sports gambling, is the determination of jurisdiction.

The Internet knows no state boundaries. Nevada officials hope that technology can be developed that will allow gambling Web sites to determine in what state a potential gambler lives. In this way, Internet gambling could potentially be allowed for the residents of Nevada only. Although several major casinos were working to take their games and sports books online, the political climate for legalized Internet gambling in the United States as of mid was not promising.

This makes it difficult to assess exactly how much money is involved. Illegal sports gambling encompasses a wide variety of activities. Most illegal bets on sporting events are placed with bookies. Internet gambling and office pools are also popular methods. In addition, there are some "sporting" events, illegal in themselves, that are popularly associated with gambling—for example, cockfighting and dog fighting.

Illegal sports gambling has long been associated with organized crime in the United States. During the s and early s, illegal sports gambling became big business for mobsters as they set up organized bookmaking systems around the country. Betting on horses, in particular, was popular during this time period. In Nevada legalized casino gambling again, and organized crime soon controlled most of the casino business.

During the s Nevada legislation was expanded to include OTB on horses. At that time two illegal and nationwide wire services were operated by known mobsters: Continental Wire Service and Trans America Wire. The latter was under the direction of notorious gangster Al Capone. The mobsters set up the services because the legitimate wire service, Western Union, was prohibited by law from transmitting race results until races were officially declared over.

Sometimes this declaration did not take place for several minutes after the race finish. To prevent bettors from taking advantage of these delays by posting winning bets before the official results were wired, the mobsters set up their own wire services.

Trans America became widely used in Nevada thanks in large part to the efforts of famous Las Vegas gangster and casino owner Ben "Bugsy" Siegel. During the s the federal government cracked down on organized crime and eventually drove mobsters out of the Nevada casino industry.

As the casinos were taken over by corporations, organized crime strengthened its hold on the illegal business of bookmaking. Although law enforcement officials acknowledge that there are now many "independent" bookies operating throughout the country, the big money in sports gambling is still controlled by organized crime figures. Most illegal books use the odds posted by the Nevada sports books because these are well publicized.

They also provide illegal bookies with a means for spreading the risk on bets. Illegal bookies who get a lot of action on one side of a bet often bet the other side with the Nevada sports books to even out the betting. Transmitting gambling information across state lines for the purpose of placing or taking bets is illegal. News items about point spreads the predicted scoring difference between two opponents can be reported for informational and entertainment purposes only, but betting lines are still published by many U.

The association claims that readers want to see the lines to learn which teams are favored to win, not necessarily for betting purposes. The NCAA hopes that a ban on all college sports wagering will pressure newspapers to stop publishing point spreads. The AGA counters that betting lines would still be accessible through independent sports analysts, offshore Internet gambling sites, and other outlets. The AGA asked the student newspapers at all sixty-five colleges that qualified for the tournament whether or not they would accept advertising for Internet gambling sites, despite the fact that Internet gambling is illegal in the United States.

All of the newspapers indicated that they would do so. The practice of gambling on animal fights has a long history in the United States, despite its unsavory reputation. Most staged animal fights involve cocks male chickens or dogs specially bred and trained.

Although such fighting is usually associated with rural areas of the country, urban police reports about cockfighting and dog fighting have increased in recent years, as the "sport" has become popular among street gangs. Animal fights are of particular concern to law enforcement authorities because typically large amounts of cash and weapons are present. Although no national statistics are available on animal fighting, some animal welfare groups collect data on its prevalence.

The Web site is operated by a nonprofit organization based in California. As of December the Web site database included documented cases of animal fighting. Cockfighting is performed by cocks, which are male chickens also known as roosters. In the wild, cocks fight and peck one another to establish a hierarchy within their social order. However, these altercations rarely lead to serious injury. Fighting cocks are specially bred and trained by humans to be as aggressive as possible.

They are given stimulants, steroids, and other drugs to heighten their fighting nature. Sharp spikes called gaffs are attached to their legs. The cocks are thrown into a pit together where they cannot escape. They slash and peck at one another, often until death. Spectators wager on the outcome of these fights. Cockfighting was banned by most states during the s. It is now illegal in forty-eight states. It was a felony in seventeen states and a misdemeanor offense in thirty-one others.

States differ in their treatment of cockfight spectators and those caught in possession of birds for fighting. The federal Animal Welfare Act prohibits the interstate transport of birds for cockfighting into states with laws against cockfighting. Because cockfighting is still legal in some parts of the United States, in Mexico and the Caribbean, and in many Asian countries, there is a commercial breeding industry in America.

The industry is represented by an organization called the United Gamefowl Breeders Association and similar groups operating at the state level. Although these groups claim to be agricultural organizations, the HSUS accuses them of promoting cockfighting. Sharpe allegedly told the officers that the facility was a legal operation. In November the facility was shut down by authorities, and more than a hundred people were arrested for cockfighting. It is also alleged that he used his position as agriculture commissioner to influence regulations that were beneficial to the SCGMA.

Sharpe has proclaimed his innocence in the case. The database maintained by Pet-Abuse. One of the largest cases occurred in July in Sacramento County, California. A law enforcement raid busted a cockfighting ring involving approximately five hundred birds. Officials said it was common for dozens of birds to die during each fight. Two people were charged in the incident.

In June police in Wayne County, West Virginia, raided an ongoing cock fight and arrested people on drug and animal fighting charges. Dog fighting is conducted between two dogs placed in a pit or small boarded arena.

Spectators place bets on the outcome of the fights. Fights can go on for hours, sometimes to the death. Dogs that show any cowardice or unwillingness to fight are killed on the spot by their owners. American pit bull terriers are the most commonly bred and trained for this purpose because of their powerful jaws. Fighting dogs are bred, trained, and drugged to enhance their aggressiveness. Authorities report that the dogs are often draped in heavy chains to build muscle mass and systematically deprived of food and water.

Stolen and stray pet dogs and cats are commonly used as bait to train the fighters. The smaller animals are stabbed or sliced open and thrown to the fighting dogs to enhance their blood lust. Dog fighting is illegal in all fifty states.

According to the HSUS as of April dog fighting is a felony in forty-eight states and a misdemeanor in only two states, Idaho and Wyoming. In January Georgia authorities busted the largest dog fighting ring ever reported in the state.

Sheriff's deputies in Jones County arrested people after raiding a vacant house in which a dog fight was taking place. Officers found one dog that had already died from its wounds and two that were mortally wounded. Ten surviving dogs were turned over to animal control agencies.

The people arrested were charged with a variety of offenses, including animal cruelty, gambling, and weapons and drug charges. A number of guns and thousands of dollars in cash were seized along with dog fighting paraphernalia, including trophies and plaques that were to be awarded to the owners of winning dogs. Researchers conducted interviews with thirty-one men involved in dog fighting in Louisiana and Mississippi.

They found that dog fighting was closely associated with the men's need to assert their masculinity. An aggressive, brave dog reflected well on its owner, even if it lost. The perceived "macho qualities" of the dog brought the owner status and prestige within the group. A dog showing cowardice or a willingness to quit reflected poorly on its owner's masculinity. Such dogs are called curs and are killed by their owners. Research showed that favor among their peers was more important to the men than even gambling winnings.

Dog fighting is not limited to southern states and rural areas. In February a reporter for the Buffalo News reported on the growing problem of dog fighting in urban neighborhoods of Buffalo, New York T. Pignataro, "Betting on Cruelty," February 8, The article describes drug and weapons raids by police that accidentally uncovered well-organized dogfighting operations around the city. One detective is quoted as saying "There is big money involved in this, and there are substantial bets.

Gruesome scenes are described in which owners chop off the heads of dogs that disgrace them by losing or backing down during a fight. Trash bags full of mangled pit bulls have been found by city authorities in vacant fields or along city streets. Because the vast majority of sports gambling that occurs in this country is illegal, it is difficult to determine its economic effects. However, the only people certainly benefiting from illegal sports gambling are the bookmakers. Large bookmaking operations overseen by organized crime groups take in billions of dollars each year.

The betting stakes are high and the consequences for nonpayment can be violent. Small independent bookies typically operate as entrepreneurs, taking bets only from local people they know well. Illegal bookmaking cases reported in the media range from multi-million dollar enterprises to small operations run by one person. In five people were arrested for running a massive bookmaking operation in Chicago.

Prosecutors allege that Joseph "The Pooch" Pascucci and his accomplices took bets on football, basketball, and baseball games. They were also charged with income tax evasion. In June Pascucci pleaded guilty in federal court and could be sentenced to up to fifty-one years in prison. In late police in the small town of West Newport, California, arrested a bartender at a popular restaurant for operating a small illegal bookmaking operation.

The man was allegedly taking bets on sporting events. Undercover agents reported making bets at the bar and receiving payouts of several thousand dollars. Authorities believe the bookie was acting alone without the knowledge of restaurant managers. The extreme popularity of sports gambling has to do in large part with the perception that it is a skills-based risk-taking activity.

This type of activity appeals to men in general and young men in particular. Because of the high concentration of young men on college campuses, sports gambling is believed to be very prevalent among college students. In April Sports Illustrated magazine published a three-part report on sports gambling on college campuses. The first installment, titled "Bettor Education," reported that collegiate gambling was rampant and estimated that nearly one-fourth of college students gamble at least once a week.

Reporters visited campuses around the country and found sophisticated bookmaking operations with large numbers of students, mostly men, as clients. These young men shared some common traits: an obsession with sports, a social network in which gambling was acceptable and supported by peer pressure such as a fraternity house , access to money, intelligence, and naive illusions about what they were actually doing.

The report found instances of athletes jeopardizing their athletic futures by betting on games, as well as students betting above their means and getting into serious debt. Some students ultimately went to the police or their parents when they got in too deep. However, parents tended to treat the problem lightly—much less seriously than other concerns, such as drug use.

Several academic studies examining illegal sports gambling by college students were published during the late s and early s. The studies noted that thriving sports books operated by college students had been discovered by authorities in Arkansas, Florida, Iowa, Maine, Michigan, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Texas.

Sports tampering is officially defined by the U. Criminal Code as follows: "To unlawfully alter, meddle in, or otherwise interfere with a sporting contest or event for the purpose of gaining a gambling advantage. Point shaving occurs when a player deliberately limits the number of points scored by his or her team in exchange for payment of some sort—for example, if a basketball player purposely misses a free throw shot in exchange for a fee. There have been some famous sports scandals involving gambling, mostly in college basketball games.

However, any link between an athlete and gambling gives rise to suspicions about the integrity of the games in which that athlete participates. The professional baseball player Pete Rose is an excellent example. On September 11, , at Riverfront. Before the end of the decade, however, Rose was under investigation by the commissioner of Major League Baseball and by federal prosecutors for betting on sporting events and associating with known bookies.

He agreed to leave baseball, and the case was dropped. At the time Rose denied ever betting on baseball games. However, in January he admitted that he had bet on baseball games while he managed the Cincinnati Reds team during the late s. His misdeeds mean that he can not be eligible for induction into the National Baseball Hall of Fame. That is, individuals are affected by relative changes from reference price. Additionally, consumers are likely to make impulse purchases based on price or special promotional offers Park et al.

Therefore, these promotions may be initiating online impulse gambling behavior. The uptake of wagering inducements has been previously found to predict impulse betting among problem gamblers and frequent sports viewers Hing et al. The present exploratory study found these promotions appeared to change betting behavior, but further research is required to examine how such promotions change betting behavior.

The popularity of social media combined with the nature of personalized targeted advertising meant that it was often difficult for participants to avoid them. It has also been argued that the promotion of gambling has become a social norm Parke et al.

Consequently, gambling is portrayed as a normal, enjoyable form of entertainment that is fun and exciting. While there is nothing inherently wrong with these associations, such marketing practices appear to lead to the expectation that the opportunity to gamble should naturally accompany all sporting activities. It is possible that this perception of betting being a normal and arguably inextricable part of sport may influence the uptake of betting Djohari et al.

When comparing the study findings across all PGSI groups, all sports bettors were in agreement that there was an over-saturation of sports betting advertising, and this exposure was heavily intertwined with their sports watching. Therefore, regulation is required to restrict the marketing of these particularly persuasive types of promotions.

Sports bettors in the present study were critical of gambling-related risk information that was presented alongside sports betting adverts. It has previously been suggested that responsible gambling messages are likely to be ignored when shown alongside mostly positive portrayals of gambling elsewhere in the advert Parke et al. Therefore, Parke et al. Newall et al. However, further empirical research is required in order to examine the impact of responsible gambling campaigns on different media sources, for example, television advertisements.

The present study has a number of limitations. In , the UK gambling industry volunteered to remove advertisements during live sports broadcasts, excluding horse racing. Therefore, the participants may have had a greater level of exposure to advertising and marketing than if the study was replicated now. Consequently, their views, particularly towards the frequency of television advertising, may not be applicable to those who view sports betting now. The use of convenience and snowball sampling techniques in this study resulted in a high proportion of young male sports bettors.

For this reason, participants may have had varied levels of engagement with sports betting and although they were assumed to qualify and meet the aims of the study, they were not representative of all online sports bettors or the wider betting population. Previous research has found gambling advertising to have more of an impact on gambling involvement for problem gamblers when compared with non-problem gamblers e.

The sample of adult sports bettors used in this study consisted of only one problem gambler. It has previously been suggested that it is important to differentiate and understand the impact of numerous forms of advertising on different population subgroups so that educators, researchers, regulators, and legislators can respond accordingly Binde Future research could address this by exploring how responses to gambling advertisements vary between problem gamblers and non-problem gamblers.

The present study examined the perceived impact of sports betting marketing among a sample of UK sports bettors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to qualitatively examine the perceived impact of gambling marketing among UK sports bettors.

The results demonstrated evidence of two distinct types of wagering inducements that were particularly influential on sports betting behavior i. These inducements were found to have distinct attributes that were attractive to the sports bettor including increased feelings of control and reduced feelings of risk that may encourage in-play sports betting. These advertised products were found to be unavoidable, being frequently offered through the websites of online operators, television advertisements, and social media sites.

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Victoria: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation. Thomas, S, L. Harm Reduction Journal, 15 , Wang, A. Advertising engagement: A driver of message involvement on message effects. Journal of Advertising Research, 46 , — Download references. Correspondence to Elizabeth A. The first author declares that she has no conflict of interest. The second author's university currently receives research funding from Norsk Tipping the gambling operator owned by the Norwegian Government.

The second author has received funding for a number of research projects in the area of gambling education for young people, social responsibility in gambling and gambling treatment from Gamble Aware formerly the Responsibility in Gambling Trust , a charitable body which funds its research program based on donations from the gambling industry. The second author also undertakes consultancy for various gaming companies in the area of social responsibility in gambling.

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NBA BETTING ODDS VEGAS INSIDER

More specifically, instant accessibility and the transformation of online sports betting towards a more continuous gambling format have been identified as factors that are likely to increase disordered gambling behaviour Hing et al. Recent research has observed that online sports bettors who have a higher severity of gambling problems tend to place a higher proportion of their bets using mobile phone technology Lopez-Gonzalez et al.

Existing literature indicated that sports betting conducted online could increasingly be categorised as being impulsive in nature compared to in-venue betting Hing et al. This is in sharp contrast with recommendations for responsible gambling, which is principally making informed betting choices and keeping betting within predetermined, affordable time and spending limits Hing et al.

Recent research from Australia has indicated that between one third and one half of all bets placed online were considered by participants to be impulse bets rather than carefully evaluated betting selections Hing et al. It has been hypothesised that it is the structural transformation of online sports betting in recent years, alongside the changing situational factors in online gambling, is facilitating the high proportion of impulsive bets observed online Hing et al.

For example, Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths proposed that it is the use of electronic currency, instant and pervasive accessibility and the substantial increase in gambling marketing that is facilitating impulsive online sports betting. Perhaps the most prominent transformation of sports betting in relation to modern information technology is the provision of instant access to live betting markets and the capacity in live betting markets to cash out before the cessation of the sporting event Lopez-Gonzalez et al.

Early research has clearly demonstrated that more severe problem gamblers regularly make a higher proportion of live bets in contrast to ante-post betting LaBrie et al. It is argued that problem gamblers will be more attracted to live betting than recreational gamblers because of the quicker betting cycle , i. In terms of situational factors, there has also been a substantial increase in the proliferation of marketing and advertising for online sports betting which is also likely to contribute to the higher proportion of impulsive sports bets made online Hing et al.

The information conveyed in such promotional material emphasises the ease of access and value for money of online sports betting Hing et al. Promotional sports betting material and inducements delivered via direct marketing such as email and SMS are believed to precipitate impulsive sports betting online Hing et al. In terms of indirect marketing, Lamont et al. In addition, problem gambling has repeatedly been demonstrated to be strongly associated with activities with high event frequency, and with modern online sports betting features, gamblers now have the opportunity to place a larger number of bets on a single event Auer and Griffiths ; Hing et al.

The increased capacity to bet rapidly and continuously in modern online sports betting has been proposed as a potential risk factor for disordered gambling. The lack of environmental distractions in online betting in comparison to in-venue betting may lead to an increased level of immersion experienced in the activity, which in turn is likely to increase dissociation levels, culminating in less cognitive control when gambling Hing et al.

Furthermore, in relation to the asocial and private nature of online sports betting, there is an increased risk of players not recognising the development or problematic patterns of online sports betting and persisting until a crisis point is reached, in comparison to in-venue gambling Estevez et al.

The normalisation and embedding of online sports betting into an everyday activity through promotional marketing, and the structural changes of the activity that appear to facilitate risky patterns of gambling behaviour, emphasises the need to understand the mechanisms of online sports betting behaviour in detail Hing et al.

More specifically, Hing and colleagues Hing et al. It is evident that there is a need to begin development of interventions to assist with moderating and mediating the negative consequences that can arise from excessive and pathological engagement with this form of gambling Estevez et al. Although there are several research articles identifying a relationship between developments in the structural and situational characteristics of online sports betting, the research is largely dependent on self-report survey and qualitative data.

A review of the aforementioned literature base indicates that there is insufficient theoretical understanding of the causal and maintenance factors in problem online sports betting Hing et al. In fact, because of inconsistencies in the assessment of online sports betting behaviour, in terms of how the behaviour is classified across different studies in the international prevalence literature, it is not possible to outline even simplistic trends in online sports betting behavioural patterns Lopez-Gonzalez et al.

Therefore, it is prudent to stimulate the generation of substantive theory related to the problem online sports betting and identify key variables and indeed theoretical relationships in order to inform attempts to address gambling-related harm in this realm. In particular, although multiple articles make strong arguments about the elevated risk for problem gambling in modern online sports betting, these arguments have yet to be substantiated through ecologically valid behavioural studies.

The current study aims to identify processes and patterns of gambling behaviour related to multiple forms of harm in a cohort of online sports betting problem gamblers, by analysing objectively recorded behavioural data over a continuous 3-month period.

A systematic grounded theory methodology, using principles developed by Corbin and Strauss , would provide a systematic approach to developing theoretical propositions about problematic patterns of online sports betting, by iterative engagement with and grounding in the data. The new theory is produced via systematically breaking down the data and identifying and subsequently explaining the observed underlying behavioural processes Willig Data are analysed without a pre-existing framework and this provides flexibility for the researchers to explore concepts that are both unanticipated and determined to be relevant Strauss and Corbin Fundamentally, the grounded theory approach will provide a set of well-developed concepts and their relationships that constitute and explain the phenomenon under investigation Strauss and Corbin Disordered patterns of online sports betting behaviour are likely to be complex and multifaceted; therefore, a grounded theoretical approach will be effective in generating inductive theory.

Grounded theory approaches have previously been successfully utilised to explore problem gambling behaviour when the online gambling industry was in an early stage of development McCormack and Griffiths ; Parke and Griffiths Given the vast structural and situational developments in modern online sports betting, it is prudent to conduct further grounded theoretical analysis in order to inform future research designs in this domain to be reflective of current patterns.

In turn, the theoretical propositions generated through systematic analysis will be made available for falsification in future empirical studies. In simple terms, this research aims to identify and explain key behavioural processes related to patterns of problematic online sports betting and will provide recommendations for mitigating and moderating gambling-related harm associated with this gambling format. The initial stage of any grounded theory is to identify a problem in general terms and select a site where it can be studied Dey Therefore, the research site selected was Unibet plc, a leading online gambling operator that had a large British customer base who participated in online sports betting.

An online survey, which identified demographics, gambling preferences and problem gambling status, was distributed to all British-based customers with an active account with this provider. Out of the 33, online surveys distributed, customers responded to the survey, and of these were recorded as being problem gamblers, and participants agreed to participate in the study.

For the current study, only the participants who were primarily involved in online sports betting, rather than online casino games, poker or bingo, were observed in order to isolate theoretical relationship specific to the domain of online sports betting. In total, behavioural data was collected for 19 problem online sports bettors, and of those participants, five agreed to provide qualitative data from a semi-structured interview see Table 1.

The behavioural data of the identified problem online sports bettors were requested from the online gambling operator who agreed to be industry partners with the research team. Each of the participants who provided consent for their behavioural data was invited to participate in the qualitative component of the study, and five individuals were interviewed in depth.

The emergent theoretical propositions from the quantitative data were presented to the interviewees who were asked to evaluate their validity and discuss the cognitive processes involved and assist the research team with understanding the motivation for the patterns of persistent online sports betting. Given the multiple epistemological and practical advantages of conducting the interviews online in contrast to face to face interviews Opdenakker ; Shapka et al.

The use of online interviews has been successfully employed in previous research investigating the development of gambling disorder in a sample of current problem gamblers, with the authors noting the advantage of online interviews in allowing interviewees adequate time to consider their responses before responding Wood and Griffiths Initially, a very open approach to the data was undertaken to enable the detection of as many codes as possible Glaser , and focus was placed on identifying categories that captured uniformity in the data, i.

In practical terms, open coding involved the researchers analysing the behavioural data line by line for each participant, enabling the researcher to follow the sequential pattern of online sports betting as it occurred. The amount of behaviour observed within each participant was variable and inconsistent, with some gambling several times per day and others gambling in infrequent but concentrated binges. Axial coding was conducted during the second phase of analysis, which illuminated categories of behaviour and their lower order relationships Cruickshank et al.

Axial coding required constant comparison , an analytical technique where the researcher directly and recursively compares similar behavioural processes in different contextual conditions. In simple terms, the research team began to propose behavioural relationships by observing and comparing how different units of behaviour related to each other and how the relationship varied across different contextual settings.

The emergent behavioural processes were developed and refined by integrating the phenomenological data from the online interviews. Effectively, by enabling participants during the interview stage to evaluate the reasonableness of the theoretical propositions and, where appropriate, add context and elaborate further, it is possible to confirm theoretical saturation Marks et al.

Emergent from the grounded theory analysis was the core category Online Sports Betting Loop that emphasised the role of technological features that appear to support and motivate the continuation of sports betting sessions in online settings see Fig. The problem gamblers observed and interviewed consistently identified the role of multiple online structural characteristics in their persistent online sports betting, particularly when they were chasing losses incurred earlier in the gambling session.

Participants proposed that it was the structural features of the online sports betting environment that enabled such intensive and extensive sports betting behaviour and therefore indicated that online sports betting carries more inherent risks of gambling-related harm than in-venue sports betting. A consistent behavioural process emergent in the data was for online sports betting sessions to continue until all account funds had been exhausted, and even then, participants were often observed to repeatedly deposit further funds into their account to chase their initial losses.

Because of technological advances in online payment systems, participants could deposit further gambling funds into their account within a few seconds and therefore limit any potential break in play. As indicated in Fig. Even in the handful of occasions where a participant would leave some funds in their gambling account and log out, they would often return and continue betting further within a relatively short period of time i.

In addition to making repeated, rapid deposits into their account when funds were spent, participants were also struggling to resist cues in the general environment that motivated them to re-engage in online sports betting. The vastly expanded sports betting markets that are available in modern online sports betting was consistently identified by the problem gamblers as an important factor in extending the length of gambling sessions.

This specific structural feature was considered to be particularly relevant when participants were motivated to continue sessions started earlier in the evening and chase mounting losses further into the night. The significance of the vast array of sporting markets available online relates to the restrictive nature of betting solely on British-based or mainland Europe-based sporting events, in terms of their availability and timing.

Online gambling has always been devoid of the restrictive opening hours in most forms of commercial gambling in Britain. However, previously, with respect to online sports betting in Britain, the lack of a closing time had less significance on gambling behaviour because often, there would be minimal sports betting opportunities available during unsociable hours. Aside from high-profile international sports such as North American professional leagues such as the NFL and NBA, traditionally, there has been limited opportunity to continue sports betting during late-night gambling sessions for British online sports gamblers.

International sporting markets available also include amateur and semi-professional events, such as under soccer games, and the inclusion of these lower profile events substantially increases the available opportunities to gamble. For example, a British-based customer, participant 11 at 11 pm placed a bet on who would win the first point in a Brazilian volleyball game, followed by betting on the total first half goals market in an under Australian soccer game.

The online operator often compensated for the lack of familiarity of international and low-profile sporting events by providing customers with statistical information to help inform betting selections and frequently provide live streaming of the event to retain the customer sports betting experience that one finds regularly available with higher profile sporting events.

Whereas previously, British-based sports bettors were restricted to the British and European sporting calendar or international ante-post markets, modern online sports betting operators offer the customer a wide variety of sports betting opportunities late at night and in the early morning.

The data has clearly demonstrated that when problem gamblers were motivated to chase recent gambling losses, they would frequently continue sports betting on unfamiliar and low-profile sporting events, indicating that this was not a predetermined strategy. As indicated by participant 1, in modern online sports betting, there is motivation to persist gambling during a losing session because there are constant opportunities to quickly make further sports bets and chase losses.

For example,. Participant 1, Male, Fundamentally, the cyclical online sports betting loop consistently observed in the grounded theory is facilitated by the vast offering of sporting markets available to customers who are motivated to persist gambling and extend the duration of their session after having accumulated significant losses. The introduction of live betting options further increased the opportunity for problem gamblers, motivated to chase losses, to persist and extend online sports betting sessions Table 2.

Live betting, often referred to as in-play or in-running betting , is the act of placing a bet after a sporting event has commenced. Effectively, this means that online sports bettors are no longer limited and restricted to betting on events that will commence in the future, and customers can now rapidly re-engage by placing a bet in an ongoing sporting event. The problem gamblers within this study would frequently place multiple live bets simultaneously, and when a bet provided winning returns, funds were rapidly re-staked on further live bets.

This increase in ability to quickly re-stake winnings or continue betting in response to gambling losses by the perennial availability of live betting options meant that there is less requirement for breaks in play during modern online sports betting sessions.

Previously, before live betting, a customer may have been forced to pause during a gambling session as they wait for a new event to commence. Breaks in play can provide an important opportunity for problem gamblers to evaluate gambling behaviour in combination with a reduction in the arousal and emotional responses stimulated by the preceding sports betting outcomes. Micro-event betting relates to the deconstruction of sporting events into smaller, stand-alone units that customers can bet on rather than on the full event.

For example, rather than betting on the outcome of a basketball match, it is also possible to bet on the winner of a specific quarter of the basketball match. Micro-event betting increases the betting opportunities and therefore the flexibility available to online gambling customers, because similar to live betting, the customer is no longer restricted to betting on events before they commence.

Furthermore, the deconstruction of sporting events into several individual units often has the impact of reducing the duration of bet. Put simply, if a customer wants to bet on tennis, they can receive feedback on whether they win or lose much more rapidly if they bet on who will win the next point, game or set, in contrast to betting on the outcome of the full match.

The data revealed that the implication of betting on micro-events for problem gamblers is that it facilitated higher event frequency and shorter event duration in sports betting and that the rapidity of feedback on gambling outcomes enabled participants to either immediately re-stake winnings or commence loss-chasing. The availability of micro-event betting may have benefits in terms of customer experience, as it provides more flexibility; however, it is evident from the data that it can be used to increase the speed and event frequency of sports betting and ultimately facilitate extensive and intensive online sports betting sessions for problem gamblers.

Table 3 is a truncated extract of micro-event betting from a larger min online sports betting session and provides a brief illustration of the intensity possible in online sports betting sessions in terms of speed of play and outcome feedback and the amount of transactions that can occur within a relatively short time period.

The opportunity to bet on micro-events has facilitated problem gamblers in this sample to engage in rapid, intensive online sports betting sessions, which is in contrast to traditional forms of retail sports betting such as on- and off-course betting. Cashing out effectively terminates the original bet and the customer is returned to their account, a mutually agreed monetary sum that reflects the probability of the original bet winning based upon the current status of the sporting event.

The amount cashed out during the event may be more or less than the original amount staked and therefore could be interpreted to be a win or a loss on this basis. With respect to the online sports betting loop that consistently emerged within the data, cash out becomes relevant as a mechanism for extending an online sports betting session. If a customer has placed a bet and used all their available funds from their online account and wishes to continue to gamble and place further bets, in many instances, they will have the potential to cash out and therefore make funds available within their account that can be re-staked on different bets.

With respect to the duration of a sports betting session and facilitating the continuation of the sports betting loop process, cashing out becomes particularly important when the original bet appears to be unlikely to win. In Table 4 , participant 5 is observed repeatedly using the cash out function to cancel bets that appear likely to lose and retrieve a proportion of the money that was originally staked.

In this example, participant 5, on each occasion, was losing a large percentage of original stake when cashing out. Furthermore, as observed consistently across the cohort data, money retrieved via the cash out function was re-staked rapidly.

The process of the Online Sports Betting Loop that emerged from the data, reflecting the continuous and persistent approach to sports betting observed, was also readily facilitated by the speed of which customers could replenish their depleted accounts through instantaneous depositing mechanisms online. The speed at which customers can deposit further funds to continue sports betting online when their account was empty meant that there are minimal enforced breaks in play and that decisions to deposit further funds and to persist gambling were made with alacrity.

Participant 18 proposed that the rapidity in which a customer can make gambling decisions can impede the quality of their evaluations, particularly when they are making decisions in a state of arousal and negative valence in response to recent negative gambling outcomes.

Participant 18, male, As illustrated by participant 90 below, there is scope for customers to make emotionally driven monetary decisions that they have not fully evaluated. I would remove the cancel withdrawal features as they are basically tempting people to lose their winnings and continue gambling… The longer the withdrawal time was the more tempting it was to use the money again as it seemed less real. Furthermore, Table 5 provides a representative example of typical use of the reverse withdrawal function by this cohort of problem gamblers during an online sports betting session.

It was repeatedly observed that the participants would be making a large number of transactions within a relatively short space of time in terms of bet placement, cash out, withdrawals, further deposits and reversing previous withdrawals. This high level of sports gambling intensity online from problem gamblers would be much harder to replicate, in terms of speed of transaction and flexibility, in retail sports betting environments.

In addition to the structural features of online gambling appearing to facilitate a continuous loop of sports betting until the participant is either fatigued or has depleted their available resources, there are also situational features related to online gambling in the general environment that motivate re-engagement.

It was very common for the problem gamblers observed in this study to engage in multiple, significant online sports betting sessions per day, even when there had been a significant interval between sessions i. One of the most prominent environmental factors that appeared to trigger a return to gambling is the awareness of the constant availability of online gambling via information technology.

Participant 10, male, From the data, it is evident that the constant temptation of being able to instantly re-engage in online sports betting is particularly difficult to manage after experiencing significant losses, with the participant therefore motivated to chase those losses.

This challenge of maintaining self-control from re-engaging in online gambling has been identified by the participants as being particularly difficult when they are exposed to online gambling marketing. Participants pointed to the salience of online gambling advertising in various media as cues which stimulated an urge to initiate another gambling session Table 6. Put [subscription sports channel] on and watch it for a few hours and you will see a betting operator advertising a new type of offer every 7 minutes.

They are ruthless, advertising betting online or in shop has to be banned full stop. Participant 17, male, The increase in online sports betting consumption, and the increase of online sports betting being identified as a causal factor in problem gambling treatment facilities, appears more comprehensible after analysing the behavioural patterns in this cohort of the problem online sports gamblers. Previous research has suggested that the ease of access of online sports betting and the proliferation of online sports gambling marketing were likely to increase the risk of gambling-related harm in this format Hing et al.

Furthermore, several researchers also proposed that the increase in potential event frequency available within modern online gambling was also likely to be a risk factor for increased gambling-related harm, as it created the potential for online sports betting to become a continuous gambling format Hing et al. Not only did the current study support these propositions through behavioural and qualitative data, but it also provided a mechanistic framework that demonstrates how the aforementioned contextual and structural factors interact and produced combined behavioural effects.

Essentially, the new contextual and structural risk factors for harm appeared to combine to facilitate continuous gambling in online sports betting formats until funds were exhausted, leading to sessions with high expenditure and a long duration.

The ease of access via mobile technology, the ability to reverse withdrawals and ubiquitous online sports betting marketing in the everyday environment meant that participants were experiencing increased environmental cues to either initiate, or re-engage with, online sports betting.

This increased exposure to online sports betting cues was reported in interview data and observed in behavioural data to be difficult to resist, especially when motivated to chase recent losses. The scope for mentally disassociating and maintaining cognitive and behavioural control in online sports betting also appeared to be significantly reduced because of the elimination of many natural forms of breaks in play that exist in retail sports betting.

Previously, the rate of play in sports betting was restricted by the periodic commencement and cessations of full. Because of the provision of live betting, vast international and amateur markets and micro-event betting in modern online sports betting, gamblers can essentially participate continuously as there is a constant stream of sports betting opportunities readily available.

The patterns of disordered gambling that emerged in the current study are strongly supportive of the existing literature, which proposed a relationship between disordered gambling and the use of live betting. Evidence from self-report and correlational data observed that gambling problems increased with the amount of live betting conducted in proportion to total bets made Hing et al.

Previous research emphasised the transformation of sports betting in online domains into a largely impulsive activity, in contrast to sports betting being approached as a skilful activity that involves considered assessment of selections and that this transformation is driven by the new structural characteristics of modern online sports betting sites Hing et al.

The current study not only supports these conclusions but has produced a theoretical mechanism that attempts to explain the behavioural process of rapid, continuous impulsive online sports betting, and it is evident from the current study that the features of live betting and cash out appear to be central in impulsive disordered gambling patterns in online sports betting, supporting previous conclusions Lopez-Gonzalez et al. Auer and Griffiths proposed that live betting was particularly reinforcing to problem gamblers who were drawn to the rapid betting cycles.

In live betting, outcomes are determined in a much shorter time-frame, which in turn facilitates higher frequency and more impulsive betting behaviour Auer and Griffiths The current study supports this conclusion by demonstrating quite clearly, in this cohort of online problem sports bettors at least, that the use of live betting and the associated cash out feature are being used to enable high-frequency sports betting.

The high-frequency online sports betting across sessions of both short and long duration could only be categorised as being impulsive when observing the amount of time elapsed between bets and how quickly money returned to the account through wins or cash outs is re-staked on further bets. With respect to the rapid, impulsive sports betting observed, another natural break in play that has been eliminated in modern online sports betting is the removal of the need to leave the immediate betting environment to access further funds.

The use of debit and credit cards in gambling environments, including online, has been established for many years. However, it is important to acknowledge to what extent the process of depositing further funds has been truncated in modern online sports betting. Behavioural data has demonstrated that problem gamblers could replenish funds and engage in further gambling in a handful of seconds of losing their last account funds, with the use of instant deposit features, in contrast to having to transfer from the gambling section to the account section of the website to make further deposits.

Ultimately, research indicates that even an extra few seconds of respite between betting behaviours can be a sufficient opportunity to evaluate behaviour and reduce risk-taking and overall gambling expenditure Corr and Thompson It is argued that the nature of continuous gambling activities, with minimal natural or enforced breaks in play, creates intense emotional and dissociative states, leading to impaired gambling decision-making and maladaptive responding Coates and Blaszczynski ; Loba et al.

Fundamentally, a break in play is required to facilitate suppression of arousal and negative valence and to respond adaptively to negative outcomes Newman and Lorenz ; Verbruggen et al. Arguably, it is the rapid and continuous nature of electronic gambling machines that make that gambling format most associated with gambling-related harm Belisle and Dixon From the current study, it is evident that online sports betting has the capacity to be used as a rapid and continuous gambling format, and therefore, one can expect the associated risk for gambling-related harm to increase as a result.

There are multiple limitations when using behavioural data from online problem gamblers, including the acknowledgement that the data only represents online gambling behaviour, and the recording of offline behavioural data is dependent on self-report.

Furthermore, it is important to recognise that despite the previously outlined advantages to conducting online interviews with remote samples, there are limitations to this methodological approach. For example, the asynchronous nature of the online interaction can limit the scope for rapport to develop between the interviewer and interviewee and could lead to more abrupt and less conversational data Jowett et al.

Moreover, the online gambling behavioural data were taken from one operator, and it is acknowledged that often, online gamblers use more than one operator simultaneously Blaszczynski et al. In addition, grounded theory analysis requires the researcher to be selective about the direction in which to direct data collection, based on pragmatic evaluations of relevance to the research aims Strauss and Corbin ; Willig , and this may create interpreter bias.

The behavioural patterns outlined within the current study do not represent an exhaustive account of all behavioural processes observed from this cohort of problem online sports gamblers. However, the objective of the current study was to generate a substantive understanding of how the contextual and structural features of modern online sports betting combine and support problematic gambling patterns, rather than accounting for all gambling behaviour observed.

The grounded theory produced does not represent an empirically validated model, but instead provides a mechanistic overview of the most salient behavioural patterns of gambling-related harm in online sports betting. Pragmatically, this has enabled the proposition of multiple directions for future research, and most importantly, it provides a grounded foundation for initiation for trialling problem gambling prevention and intervention strategies.

There is a clear consensus in the literature regarding the urgent need to improve understanding of problem online sports betting behaviour and to develop effective online sports betting prevention and intervention strategies Hing et al. From the current study, it is evident that a priority for harm reduction in online sports betting is to implement scope for more breaks in play and implement a reduction in the continuous betting loop that was observed across all participants.

The problem gamblers within the study were observed to consistently re-deposit further funds and continue gambling immediately after losing all of the funds in their online betting account. Given the strong association between the emotionally driven, irrational chasing of losses and gambling-related harm Corless and Dickerson ; Goudriaan et al. It is reasonable to assume that the original amount of money deposited into the online betting account represents how much the player was prepared to spend during that session, and therefore, any further deposits will be made on an ad hoc basis.

Currently, there is insufficient evidence in the literature base to propose the most effective time-delay parameters regarding repeated account deposits in order to increase informed decision-making. Therefore, it is recommended that experimentation and trialling commence to build the knowledge base regarding the effectiveness of various parameters of breaks in play. In addition to the capacity to instantly replenish online sports betting funds and persist in gambling, another structural mechanism used to reduce breaks in play during a period of sustained losses is the capacity to reverse pending withdrawals.

However, at minimum, it appears prudent to implement a time-delay on reversing pending withdrawals. Even a relatively brief pause of a few minutes before being able to reverse pending withdrawals may provide enough time for highly aroused and negatively charged emotional states stemming from incurring repeated losses to dissipate somewhat and increase the scope for more rational and informed decision-making.

Given the observed capacity for online sports gamblers to chase losses, in a pattern similar to electronic gaming machine EGM or online casino games, it would be prudent to encourage the use of, and increase the provision of, limit-setting opportunities in this gambling format. Although sports betting has been traditionally considered to be less risky than formats such as EGMs Lopez-Gonzalez et al.

Therefore, the provision to set limits on session duration or the application of pop-up messages to break up continuous play, which initially may not seem directly applicable to online sports betting, now appears necessary for some online sports gamblers. There is a large body of literature demonstrating the effectiveness of limit-setting in online gambling environments for problem gamblers Auer and Griffiths , , and although these studies are not specific to online sports betting, it is reasonable to assume that a similar effect would be observed.

One of the arguments against the setting of self-imposed time or spending limits is the expectation that the customer would simply continue gambling on a different site once the limit had been reached; however, recent research has demonstrated that the vast majority of online gamblers do not migrate to other gambling sites once their limit has been reached Auer and Griffiths The interview data indicated that even when customers were able to recoup losses during unplanned loss-chasing sessions, they would often still regret the process given the implications for social functioning the following day in terms of sleep deprivation.

Finally, it is evident that the problem gamblers in the current study were particularly susceptible to disordered patterns of gambling when engaging in live betting and micro-event betting, in contrast to placing bets on full events and ante-post markets. Adler, C. Journal of Obstetric, Gyneologic and Neonatal Nursing, 31 4 , — Auer, M. An empirical investigation of theoretical loss and gambling intensity. Journal of Gambling Studies, 30 , — Personalized behavioral feedback for online gamblers: a real world empirical study.

Frontiers in Psychology, 7 , 1— One participant described how advertisements presented characters in a positive manner, suggesting that there could be success with gambling and minimizing potential risks. Therefore, the advertisements may influence people to bet by creating a perception that there is a higher chance of winning:.

The third sub-theme of promotion characteristics concerned normalization of betting. Many sports bettors commented on how prevalent and acceptable sports betting had become, especially in the context of football betting and that advertising has contributed to the normalization of gambling. For example, the wide availability of gambling advertisements, including the frequency and type of advertisements, particularly during live football matches, was seen to encourage the idea that sports betting is an activity that was typical for sports fans to take part in and it was heavily connected with the sporting activity.

One participant commented on how they were more likely to pay attention to a gambling advertisement when it was on during a football match. The alignment of the advertisement with the sports being viewed resulted in the advert receiving attention from the participant:. Some participants also discussed how gambling had become ingrained within the sport, for example:. The content of some advertisements allowed a few participants to feel more comfortable placing a bet, in part due to the relaxed nature of some adverts.

Others commented on how there were also positive qualities in the advertisement that were emphasized. Again, this could imply a feeling that there is less involvement of risk:. The videos are quite relaxed and light-hearted Participant 2. The three sub-themes for regulating gambling advertising were i responsible gambling messages, ii protecting children, and iii industry comparisons. The first sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned brand awareness.

What was evident from the interviews was the belief that online gambling companies were not concerned with protecting consumers from gambling-related harm, especially vulnerable individuals. Opinions centered on the responsible gambling warning messages in gambling advertisements. Despite many television advertisements including a warning message, participants seemed to be somewhat cynical about the usefulness of these.

Many participants raised doubts regarding the efficacy of the warnings and found them mistimed within the advert and not sufficiently long enough in duration. Participants expressed that they did not perceive the responsible gambling warning messages that appears at the end of advertisements to be an effective method of preventing problematic gambling behavior.

And that's it Participant A few participants suggested that they did not pay attention to the information provided at the end of the advertisements and also reported little change in their behavior as a result of the messages.

One participant praised a particular gambling advertisement that displayed a responsible gambling message at the beginning of the advert, rather than at the end:. All adverts should start with the disclaimer at the start rather than at the end Participant 4. The second sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned protecting children.

Some participants raised concerns about the impact gambling advertising has on young people, particularly those who are not legally allowed to gamble. I think a lot of young impressionable people might be watching football with their parents Participant 9. Additionally, some participants discussed the intrusiveness of gambling advertising on social networking sites, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, and that these advertisements may appeal to children.

Underage people can have access to social media. Some perceived that gambling operators had a responsibility to ensure that young children were not exposed to gambling advertisements, for example:. I think only if you're an experienced gambler, you know what your limits are. You know how much you should gamble and you should know, you know you should gamble responsibly.

The third sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned industry comparisons. Many of the participants had negative opinions about sports betting advertising appearing during sporting events. Participants perceived that advertising can encourage some individuals to gamble excessively, particularly problem gamblers.

Some participants did not believe that the current gambling regulations were enough to protect individuals from gambling-related harm. Some participants said that they believed that gambling advertising should be banned completely, similar to that of the tobacco industry, while others made comparisons between restrictions for other products such as alcohol and fast food.

I think it comes down to individual impulsivity with gambling. Like, I think fast food advertising and stuff like that is way worse than gambling advertising myself Participant When asked for opinions on any changes that they thought should be made to gambling advertising regulations, some participants believed that advertising should be removed completely. Others discussed how it was down to each individual to ensure that they gamble responsibly, and not that of the gambling company.

Participant Other participants had the opinion that it was not just the gambling companies that needed to be doing more and it was down to the individual to take control of their gambling behavior:. Based on the thematic analysis, three broad themes emerged temptation to gamble, promotion characteristics of gambling, and regulating gambling advertising comprising of eight sub-themes in total Table 2.

One prevalent form of marketing was the advertising of betting odds, particularly in-play odds and boosted odds. Advertisements promoted these incentives to capture the attention of sports bettors and influence sports betting behavior. Furthermore, previous research has suggested that in-play sports betting has the potential to be more harmful that other forms of betting and may encourage impulse bets, especially among those experiencing gambling problems Killick and Griffiths In the present study, sports betting promotions minimized perceptions of risk and encouraged feelings of control, and participants acknowledged that these promotions influenced their overall gambling intentions.

Previous research has reported that promotions may reduce feelings of perceived risk that is usually associated with gambling Thomas et al. Because a request is initiated by the individual, it has been argued that this may result in the internalization of the locus of control Lopez-Gonzalez et al. Boosted and enhanced odds were another popular form of inducement that attracted low-risk gamblers, moderate-risk gamblers, and problem gamblers to place a bet.

Previous research has reported that on Twitter, enhanced odds were among the most frequently tweeted forms of promotion Killick and Griffiths Advertisers generate audience engagement by using technologies to reach customers with highly relevant advertisements based on what they do, while placing advertisements adjacent to contents expected to be visited by target consumers Wang These findings also support the recent evidence that has reported that bonuses, including price-related gambling promotions, have been found to be particularly persuasive for encouraging gambling behavior for those experiencing gambling-related problems Lopez-Gonzalez et al.

That is, individuals are affected by relative changes from reference price. Additionally, consumers are likely to make impulse purchases based on price or special promotional offers Park et al. Therefore, these promotions may be initiating online impulse gambling behavior. The uptake of wagering inducements has been previously found to predict impulse betting among problem gamblers and frequent sports viewers Hing et al.

The present exploratory study found these promotions appeared to change betting behavior, but further research is required to examine how such promotions change betting behavior. The popularity of social media combined with the nature of personalized targeted advertising meant that it was often difficult for participants to avoid them.

It has also been argued that the promotion of gambling has become a social norm Parke et al. Consequently, gambling is portrayed as a normal, enjoyable form of entertainment that is fun and exciting. While there is nothing inherently wrong with these associations, such marketing practices appear to lead to the expectation that the opportunity to gamble should naturally accompany all sporting activities.

It is possible that this perception of betting being a normal and arguably inextricable part of sport may influence the uptake of betting Djohari et al. When comparing the study findings across all PGSI groups, all sports bettors were in agreement that there was an over-saturation of sports betting advertising, and this exposure was heavily intertwined with their sports watching.

Therefore, regulation is required to restrict the marketing of these particularly persuasive types of promotions. Sports bettors in the present study were critical of gambling-related risk information that was presented alongside sports betting adverts.

It has previously been suggested that responsible gambling messages are likely to be ignored when shown alongside mostly positive portrayals of gambling elsewhere in the advert Parke et al. Therefore, Parke et al. Newall et al. However, further empirical research is required in order to examine the impact of responsible gambling campaigns on different media sources, for example, television advertisements.

The present study has a number of limitations. In , the UK gambling industry volunteered to remove advertisements during live sports broadcasts, excluding horse racing. Therefore, the participants may have had a greater level of exposure to advertising and marketing than if the study was replicated now. Consequently, their views, particularly towards the frequency of television advertising, may not be applicable to those who view sports betting now. The use of convenience and snowball sampling techniques in this study resulted in a high proportion of young male sports bettors.

For this reason, participants may have had varied levels of engagement with sports betting and although they were assumed to qualify and meet the aims of the study, they were not representative of all online sports bettors or the wider betting population. Previous research has found gambling advertising to have more of an impact on gambling involvement for problem gamblers when compared with non-problem gamblers e.

The sample of adult sports bettors used in this study consisted of only one problem gambler. It has previously been suggested that it is important to differentiate and understand the impact of numerous forms of advertising on different population subgroups so that educators, researchers, regulators, and legislators can respond accordingly Binde Future research could address this by exploring how responses to gambling advertisements vary between problem gamblers and non-problem gamblers.

The present study examined the perceived impact of sports betting marketing among a sample of UK sports bettors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to qualitatively examine the perceived impact of gambling marketing among UK sports bettors. The results demonstrated evidence of two distinct types of wagering inducements that were particularly influential on sports betting behavior i.

These inducements were found to have distinct attributes that were attractive to the sports bettor including increased feelings of control and reduced feelings of risk that may encourage in-play sports betting. These advertised products were found to be unavoidable, being frequently offered through the websites of online operators, television advertisements, and social media sites.

Binde, P. Exploring the impact of gambling advertising: An interview study of problem gamblers. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7 4 , — Braun, V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 2 , 77— Brinson, N. Reactance to personalization: Understanding the drivers behind the growth.

Journal of Interactive Advertising, 18 2 , — Columb, D. Gambling advertising during live televised male sporting events in Ireland: A descriptive study. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine. Advance online publication. Deans, E. The influence of marketing on the sports betting attitudes and consumption behaviours of young men: Implications for harm reduction and prevention strategies.

Harm Reduction Journal, 14 , 5. Djohari, N. Recall and awareness of gambling advertising and sponsorship in sport in the UK: A study of young people and adults. Harm Reduction Journal, 16, Duncan, P. Ferris, J. The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Gainsbury, S. Gaming-gambling convergence: research, regulation, and reactions.

Gaming Law Review, 23 2 , 80— Exposure to and engagement with gambling marketing in social media: Reported impacts on moderate-risk and problem gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30 2 , — Griffiths, M. Does advertising of gambling increase gambling addiction? International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 3 2 , 15— Google Scholar. Hanss, D. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers.

Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29 2 , — Hing, N. Gambling sponsorship of sport: An exploratory study of links with gambling attitudes and intentions. International Gambling Studies, 13 3 , — Do advertising and promotions for online gambling increase gambling consumption? An exploratory study. International Gambling Studies, 14 3 , — Adolescent exposure to gambling promotions during televised sport: An exploratory study of links with gambling intentions.

Sports-embedded gambling promotions: A study of exposure, sports betting intention and problem gambling amongst adults. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 13 1 , — Understanding persuasive attributes of sports betting advertisements: A conjoint analysis of selected elements. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6 4 , — Does the uptake of wagering inducements predict impulse betting on sport?

Journal of Behavioural Addictions, 33 2 , — Wagering advertisements and inducements: Exposure and perceived influence on betting behaviour. Journal of Gambling Studies, 35 3 , — Holtgraves, T. Evaluating the problem gambling severity index.

Journal of Gambling Studies, 25 1 , — Ipsos MORI. Interim synthesis report: The effect of gambling marketing and advertising on children, young people and vulnerable adults. Ipsos MORI Final Synthesis Report: The impact of gambling marketing advertising on children, young people and vulnerable adults. James, R. Understanding the psychology of mobile gambling: A behavioural synthesis. British Journal of Psychology, 3 , — Killick, E.

In-play sports betting: A scoping study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 17 , — Journal of Gambling Studies, 36 1 , — Lamont, M. Affective response to gambling promotions during televised sport: a qualitative analysis. Sport Management Review, 19 3 , — Lawn, S. A literature review and gap analysis of emerging technologies and new trends in gambling.

Lole, L. Are sports bettors looking at responsible gambling messages? An eye-tracking study on wagering advertisements. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 8 3 , — Lopez-Gonzalez, H. Marketing and advertising online sports betting: A problem gambling perspective. Customization and personalization of sports betting products: Implications for responsible gambling. Gaming Law Review, 23 8 , — The perceived influence of sports betting marketing techniques on disordered gamblers in treatment.

European Sport Management Quarterly, 20 4 , — Milner, L. Embedded gambling promotion in Australian football broadcasts: An exploratory study. Newall, P. PsyArXiv Preprints. Who uses custom sports betting products?

Мне super bowl 48 betting line

Mathematician John Kelly Jr. Bet your entire balance on each bet. The advantage is that if you win, you win big. The Martingale system has you double your bet after every loss, so that the first win would recover all previous losses plus a profit equal to the original bet.

Since a gambler with unlimited bankroll will, almost surely, eventually win, the Martingale betting strategy is seen as a sure thing by some. Of course, no one has an unlimited bankroll, and the exponential growth of the bets in order to cover losses will eventually bankrupt gamblers who use this system. This system requires you bet a fixed amount for each bet. It also means any chance of winning will also be slow and steady.

With this strategy, you bet a fraction of your balance in proportion to your edge. In this case, we used the Kelly equation for proportional betting. Here your bet would be your edge divided by the odds. You can bet on the home team to win, the away team to win or a draw. Bet builders are a relatively new addition to football betting but their popularity has skyrocketed in recent years.

Sometimes referred to as same game multis, these bets are effectively an accumulator of outcomes from a single match rather than a number of matches. These bets are obviously less likely to come in because of the number of outcomes that need to happen. However, they are perfect if you are knowledgeable about both teams and want to place small-stake bets at the bigger odds that can be realised by combining numerous outcomes, such as the number of yellow cards, corners and goalscorers, rather than betting on each individual market.

You can also include player props, which we explain below, in bet builders. Player props are also becoming a popular form of betting on their own. Player props bets demonstrate how far the betting markets have evolved from the simple goalscoring or cards markets. You can now bet on players to have shots, shots on target, to be the first, last or any-time goalscorer or to be booked or sent off. These bets are used by many bookmakers for boosted odds to give more value to players, but you should be cautious about how much you stake on these bets as football can be very unpredictable.

The bookmakers give each team a plus or minus figure to denote their handicap. If you bet on Liverpool, you win if they win by a two-goal margin or more. You lose if they draw or lose. And you get your stake back if If they win by a one-goal margin, which is cancelled out by the -1, making the handicap result a draw. If you bet on Arsenal, you win if they win, if they draw or if they lose by only a one-goal margin. You lose if they lose by a three-goal margin or more.

If you bet on Liverpool and they win by a two-goal margin or more, you win. A win by one goal, a draw or a defeat and you lose. If you bet on Arsenal and they lose by one goal, draw or win, you win. If they lose by a two-goal margin or more, you lose.

A European handicap is similar to an Asian handicap but with two main differences: one is that the draw remains an option and the other is that the handicaps are only ever whole numbers. You can bet on the home team, away team or draw for one or both halves. This bet is for the more advanced football fan who has prior knowledge to indicate the teams who start or finish matches strongly or weakly.

Knowing the starting line-ups and whether key players are missing through injury or being rested can also be an advantage with this type of bet. You can bet on two of the three outcomes of the match to increase your chance of winning. The combinations are:. If either of your combinations wins you will be paid out. The odds are lower than betting on just a single match outcome as there is more chance of winning, but this bet is good for bettors who want to reduce the element of risk.

Accumulators combine multiple selections into one bet and are among the most popular forms of betting on football. This is because they offer the potential reward of big returns for small stakes because the winnings from each selection are placed on the next one. The obvious risk is that all the bets have to win for the bettor to receive a payout. For example, you might identify four teams that you think are going to win matches, all of which are priced at even money.

Check out our comprehensive list of the best accumulator betting sites. You can bet on various outcomes, such as your selection to be the first or last goalscorer in the match or to score at any time during it. The odds on them scoring at any time will be shorter because there is obviously a greater chance of that happening.

These bets can be good for if a particular player is in good form or if one team is much better than the other and it becomes likely a player will score. A correct score bet is one in which you predict the final score of a match. The prices for correct score bets are often attractive but, of course, predicting the exact score is far from easy.

A Scorecast is a bet that combines selecting a goalscorer and the correct score. For example, you can bet on Mo Salah to score and Liverpool to win Again, the odds on such bets are higher because you are betting on the likelihood of two outcomes. Some bookmakers will also let you choose the goalscorer in a Scorecast to be the first, last or at any time.

A Wincast is similar to a Scorecast, but involves selecting a goalscorer and the outcome of the match rather than the correct score. The odds will not be as high as a Scorecast because it is easier to predict the outcome rather than the scoreline. This is a bet on the total number of times an event for example, goals, corners, yellow cards will happen during a match.

Wagering on sporting events is one of the oldest and most popular forms of gambling in the world.

Dido meaning mining bitcoins Odds for different outcomes in single bet are presented either in European format decimal oddsUK format fractional oddsor American format moneyline odds. Thoroughbred breeding was prominent in Maryland and Virginia up until the Civil War —65when many operations were moved to Kentucky. Retrieved June 5, However options are growing massively. Internet-based structural characteristics of sports betting and problem gambling severity: is there a relationship?
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The scope for mentally disassociating and maintaining cognitive and behavioural control in online sports betting also appeared to be significantly reduced because of the elimination of many natural forms of breaks in play that exist in retail sports betting. Previously, the rate of play in sports betting was restricted by the periodic commencement and cessations of full.

Because of the provision of live betting, vast international and amateur markets and micro-event betting in modern online sports betting, gamblers can essentially participate continuously as there is a constant stream of sports betting opportunities readily available. The patterns of disordered gambling that emerged in the current study are strongly supportive of the existing literature, which proposed a relationship between disordered gambling and the use of live betting.

Evidence from self-report and correlational data observed that gambling problems increased with the amount of live betting conducted in proportion to total bets made Hing et al. Previous research emphasised the transformation of sports betting in online domains into a largely impulsive activity, in contrast to sports betting being approached as a skilful activity that involves considered assessment of selections and that this transformation is driven by the new structural characteristics of modern online sports betting sites Hing et al.

The current study not only supports these conclusions but has produced a theoretical mechanism that attempts to explain the behavioural process of rapid, continuous impulsive online sports betting, and it is evident from the current study that the features of live betting and cash out appear to be central in impulsive disordered gambling patterns in online sports betting, supporting previous conclusions Lopez-Gonzalez et al. Auer and Griffiths proposed that live betting was particularly reinforcing to problem gamblers who were drawn to the rapid betting cycles.

In live betting, outcomes are determined in a much shorter time-frame, which in turn facilitates higher frequency and more impulsive betting behaviour Auer and Griffiths The current study supports this conclusion by demonstrating quite clearly, in this cohort of online problem sports bettors at least, that the use of live betting and the associated cash out feature are being used to enable high-frequency sports betting. The high-frequency online sports betting across sessions of both short and long duration could only be categorised as being impulsive when observing the amount of time elapsed between bets and how quickly money returned to the account through wins or cash outs is re-staked on further bets.

With respect to the rapid, impulsive sports betting observed, another natural break in play that has been eliminated in modern online sports betting is the removal of the need to leave the immediate betting environment to access further funds.

The use of debit and credit cards in gambling environments, including online, has been established for many years. However, it is important to acknowledge to what extent the process of depositing further funds has been truncated in modern online sports betting. Behavioural data has demonstrated that problem gamblers could replenish funds and engage in further gambling in a handful of seconds of losing their last account funds, with the use of instant deposit features, in contrast to having to transfer from the gambling section to the account section of the website to make further deposits.

Ultimately, research indicates that even an extra few seconds of respite between betting behaviours can be a sufficient opportunity to evaluate behaviour and reduce risk-taking and overall gambling expenditure Corr and Thompson It is argued that the nature of continuous gambling activities, with minimal natural or enforced breaks in play, creates intense emotional and dissociative states, leading to impaired gambling decision-making and maladaptive responding Coates and Blaszczynski ; Loba et al.

Fundamentally, a break in play is required to facilitate suppression of arousal and negative valence and to respond adaptively to negative outcomes Newman and Lorenz ; Verbruggen et al. Arguably, it is the rapid and continuous nature of electronic gambling machines that make that gambling format most associated with gambling-related harm Belisle and Dixon From the current study, it is evident that online sports betting has the capacity to be used as a rapid and continuous gambling format, and therefore, one can expect the associated risk for gambling-related harm to increase as a result.

There are multiple limitations when using behavioural data from online problem gamblers, including the acknowledgement that the data only represents online gambling behaviour, and the recording of offline behavioural data is dependent on self-report.

Furthermore, it is important to recognise that despite the previously outlined advantages to conducting online interviews with remote samples, there are limitations to this methodological approach. For example, the asynchronous nature of the online interaction can limit the scope for rapport to develop between the interviewer and interviewee and could lead to more abrupt and less conversational data Jowett et al.

Moreover, the online gambling behavioural data were taken from one operator, and it is acknowledged that often, online gamblers use more than one operator simultaneously Blaszczynski et al. In addition, grounded theory analysis requires the researcher to be selective about the direction in which to direct data collection, based on pragmatic evaluations of relevance to the research aims Strauss and Corbin ; Willig , and this may create interpreter bias.

The behavioural patterns outlined within the current study do not represent an exhaustive account of all behavioural processes observed from this cohort of problem online sports gamblers. However, the objective of the current study was to generate a substantive understanding of how the contextual and structural features of modern online sports betting combine and support problematic gambling patterns, rather than accounting for all gambling behaviour observed.

The grounded theory produced does not represent an empirically validated model, but instead provides a mechanistic overview of the most salient behavioural patterns of gambling-related harm in online sports betting. Pragmatically, this has enabled the proposition of multiple directions for future research, and most importantly, it provides a grounded foundation for initiation for trialling problem gambling prevention and intervention strategies.

There is a clear consensus in the literature regarding the urgent need to improve understanding of problem online sports betting behaviour and to develop effective online sports betting prevention and intervention strategies Hing et al. From the current study, it is evident that a priority for harm reduction in online sports betting is to implement scope for more breaks in play and implement a reduction in the continuous betting loop that was observed across all participants.

The problem gamblers within the study were observed to consistently re-deposit further funds and continue gambling immediately after losing all of the funds in their online betting account. Given the strong association between the emotionally driven, irrational chasing of losses and gambling-related harm Corless and Dickerson ; Goudriaan et al.

It is reasonable to assume that the original amount of money deposited into the online betting account represents how much the player was prepared to spend during that session, and therefore, any further deposits will be made on an ad hoc basis. Currently, there is insufficient evidence in the literature base to propose the most effective time-delay parameters regarding repeated account deposits in order to increase informed decision-making.

Therefore, it is recommended that experimentation and trialling commence to build the knowledge base regarding the effectiveness of various parameters of breaks in play. In addition to the capacity to instantly replenish online sports betting funds and persist in gambling, another structural mechanism used to reduce breaks in play during a period of sustained losses is the capacity to reverse pending withdrawals.

However, at minimum, it appears prudent to implement a time-delay on reversing pending withdrawals. Even a relatively brief pause of a few minutes before being able to reverse pending withdrawals may provide enough time for highly aroused and negatively charged emotional states stemming from incurring repeated losses to dissipate somewhat and increase the scope for more rational and informed decision-making.

Given the observed capacity for online sports gamblers to chase losses, in a pattern similar to electronic gaming machine EGM or online casino games, it would be prudent to encourage the use of, and increase the provision of, limit-setting opportunities in this gambling format.

Although sports betting has been traditionally considered to be less risky than formats such as EGMs Lopez-Gonzalez et al. Therefore, the provision to set limits on session duration or the application of pop-up messages to break up continuous play, which initially may not seem directly applicable to online sports betting, now appears necessary for some online sports gamblers. There is a large body of literature demonstrating the effectiveness of limit-setting in online gambling environments for problem gamblers Auer and Griffiths , , and although these studies are not specific to online sports betting, it is reasonable to assume that a similar effect would be observed.

One of the arguments against the setting of self-imposed time or spending limits is the expectation that the customer would simply continue gambling on a different site once the limit had been reached; however, recent research has demonstrated that the vast majority of online gamblers do not migrate to other gambling sites once their limit has been reached Auer and Griffiths The interview data indicated that even when customers were able to recoup losses during unplanned loss-chasing sessions, they would often still regret the process given the implications for social functioning the following day in terms of sleep deprivation.

Finally, it is evident that the problem gamblers in the current study were particularly susceptible to disordered patterns of gambling when engaging in live betting and micro-event betting, in contrast to placing bets on full events and ante-post markets. Adler, C. Journal of Obstetric, Gyneologic and Neonatal Nursing, 31 4 , — Auer, M. An empirical investigation of theoretical loss and gambling intensity.

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Parke, J. Key issues in product based harm minimisation: examining theory, evidence and policy issues relevant to Great Britain. Report Prepared for GambleAware. Accessed Dec Petry, N. Internet gambling: an emerging concern in family practice medicine? Family Practice, 23 4 , — Economics of sports betting. Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing. Shapka, J. Online versus in-person interviews with adolescents: an exploration of data equivalence.

Computers in Human Behavior, 58 , — Sproston, K. Marketing of sports betting and racing. Strauss, A. Basics of qualitative research: grounded theory procedures and techniques 2nd ed. Verbruggen, F. Proactive motor control reduces monetary risk taking in gambling. Psychological Science, 23 7 , — Willig, C. Interpretive phenomenology. Willig Ed. Philadelphia: Open University Press. Wood, R. Online data collection from gamblers: methodological issues.

International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 5 , — Download references. The authors would like to thank Dr Heather Wardle and Maris Bonello for the assistance with the sampling problem gamblers and data collection. The authors would also like to thank Sally Gainsbury for the insightful feedback on previous drafts. This work was supported by GambleAware under Grant awarded The frequency and unavoidability of advertisements were viewed negatively by some sports bettors. Like, you get bombarded by it.

Many participants described seeing promotions for sports wagering when they were watching football on television. It was noted that the volume of advertising was higher during football matches in comparison with other sporting events. At half-time, before the second half. Football is the main one I watch, so I see that one the most. In addition to being often shown during football matches, one participant described how sports betting television advertisements were often aligned with nationally popular events, such as large football tournaments and the Grand National horse racing:.

What you tend to see is, around main events, like the Grand National, stuff like that. You get a lot more stuff on TV Participant Although most of the interviews centered around television advertisements, another form of advertising which some participants discussed was advertising on social media. Promotions are all over my social media. I do see Facebook have the new adverts that they put in the middle of videos and I often see William Hill.

It's a halfway through, you're watching a video of whatever it is, is the, uh, 10, 15 seconds it pops up and yeah, it's annoying and a bit intrusive. I wish it wasn't there Participant The three sub-themes concerning promotion characteristics of gambling were i attractive odds, ii brand awareness, and iii normalization of betting. The promotion of betting odds prior to commencement and during half-time breaks of live sporting events was discussed.

Monetary incentives provided by sporting betting companies are often promoted through various media sources. Participant perceptions of these promotions varied, but promotions which appeared to particularly appeal to sports bettors were new customer welcome offers, enhanced odds where a bookmaker boosts the usual betting odds of a selection , and customized sports bets. Some participants described how these promotions decreased their feelings of risk in terms of financial loss.

Additionally, promotions created the perceptions that the individual had more control over the outcomes and therefore more likely to win. Because you can completely control everything. You can say whether you think there is going to be like yellow cards and corners Participant 4. Participants described their temptation to gamble, through what appears to be a process of decision-making. This tempting element of promotions from gambling advertisements caused participants a dilemma of whether or not to place a bet.

You may not have been watching the football. You may not have been thinking about betting. Participants also discussed how the availability and visibility of these adverts attracted them to place a bet. So to have that I know it's probably, it's probably incorrect, not incorrect…false…false advertising almost. Do they actually increase the odds? However, a few participants were skeptical of these specific offers and did not seem to be impacted by the prices that were available:.

The second sub-theme of promotion characteristics concerned brand awareness. When discussing gambling advertisements, some sports bettors described a number of characteristics and promotional strategies that were used by sports betting operators to attract them to place bets. Most of them that are on TV are usually adverts about new customer offers.

Another promotional incentive was welcome offers, which a few participants described as an attribute that contributed to participants creating a betting account:. Participants described how brands were associated with specific advertising strategies, and described how these strategies distinguished brands from one another.

Advertisements for sports betting were found to be memorable and resulted in an increased awareness of gambling products. Participants described marketing strategies associated with particular brands. These included memorable features that allowed them to recall details of the advertisements, including description of specific characters, betting markets, and promotions that were being implemented. They certainly worked with in-play betting because the one that sticks in my head is with Ray.

You know, that one sticks in my mind Participant One participant described how they had more trust in a betting product because it used a sports figure that they admired. Some brands created positive feelings and were perceived by bettors as more entertaining than others. They use big named faces…so you can remember who they are and which company they are advertising I guess.

I think they generally can be amusing…Paddy Power in particular. But personally, I think that is quite genius Participant One participant described how advertisements presented characters in a positive manner, suggesting that there could be success with gambling and minimizing potential risks. Therefore, the advertisements may influence people to bet by creating a perception that there is a higher chance of winning:.

The third sub-theme of promotion characteristics concerned normalization of betting. Many sports bettors commented on how prevalent and acceptable sports betting had become, especially in the context of football betting and that advertising has contributed to the normalization of gambling.

For example, the wide availability of gambling advertisements, including the frequency and type of advertisements, particularly during live football matches, was seen to encourage the idea that sports betting is an activity that was typical for sports fans to take part in and it was heavily connected with the sporting activity. One participant commented on how they were more likely to pay attention to a gambling advertisement when it was on during a football match.

The alignment of the advertisement with the sports being viewed resulted in the advert receiving attention from the participant:. Some participants also discussed how gambling had become ingrained within the sport, for example:. The content of some advertisements allowed a few participants to feel more comfortable placing a bet, in part due to the relaxed nature of some adverts.

Others commented on how there were also positive qualities in the advertisement that were emphasized. Again, this could imply a feeling that there is less involvement of risk:. The videos are quite relaxed and light-hearted Participant 2. The three sub-themes for regulating gambling advertising were i responsible gambling messages, ii protecting children, and iii industry comparisons.

The first sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned brand awareness. What was evident from the interviews was the belief that online gambling companies were not concerned with protecting consumers from gambling-related harm, especially vulnerable individuals. Opinions centered on the responsible gambling warning messages in gambling advertisements. Despite many television advertisements including a warning message, participants seemed to be somewhat cynical about the usefulness of these.

Many participants raised doubts regarding the efficacy of the warnings and found them mistimed within the advert and not sufficiently long enough in duration. Participants expressed that they did not perceive the responsible gambling warning messages that appears at the end of advertisements to be an effective method of preventing problematic gambling behavior. And that's it Participant A few participants suggested that they did not pay attention to the information provided at the end of the advertisements and also reported little change in their behavior as a result of the messages.

One participant praised a particular gambling advertisement that displayed a responsible gambling message at the beginning of the advert, rather than at the end:. All adverts should start with the disclaimer at the start rather than at the end Participant 4. The second sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned protecting children. Some participants raised concerns about the impact gambling advertising has on young people, particularly those who are not legally allowed to gamble.

I think a lot of young impressionable people might be watching football with their parents Participant 9. Additionally, some participants discussed the intrusiveness of gambling advertising on social networking sites, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, and that these advertisements may appeal to children.

Underage people can have access to social media. Some perceived that gambling operators had a responsibility to ensure that young children were not exposed to gambling advertisements, for example:. I think only if you're an experienced gambler, you know what your limits are.

You know how much you should gamble and you should know, you know you should gamble responsibly. The third sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned industry comparisons. Many of the participants had negative opinions about sports betting advertising appearing during sporting events. Participants perceived that advertising can encourage some individuals to gamble excessively, particularly problem gamblers.

Some participants did not believe that the current gambling regulations were enough to protect individuals from gambling-related harm. Some participants said that they believed that gambling advertising should be banned completely, similar to that of the tobacco industry, while others made comparisons between restrictions for other products such as alcohol and fast food.

I think it comes down to individual impulsivity with gambling. Like, I think fast food advertising and stuff like that is way worse than gambling advertising myself Participant When asked for opinions on any changes that they thought should be made to gambling advertising regulations, some participants believed that advertising should be removed completely. Others discussed how it was down to each individual to ensure that they gamble responsibly, and not that of the gambling company.

Participant Other participants had the opinion that it was not just the gambling companies that needed to be doing more and it was down to the individual to take control of their gambling behavior:. Based on the thematic analysis, three broad themes emerged temptation to gamble, promotion characteristics of gambling, and regulating gambling advertising comprising of eight sub-themes in total Table 2.

One prevalent form of marketing was the advertising of betting odds, particularly in-play odds and boosted odds. Advertisements promoted these incentives to capture the attention of sports bettors and influence sports betting behavior. Furthermore, previous research has suggested that in-play sports betting has the potential to be more harmful that other forms of betting and may encourage impulse bets, especially among those experiencing gambling problems Killick and Griffiths In the present study, sports betting promotions minimized perceptions of risk and encouraged feelings of control, and participants acknowledged that these promotions influenced their overall gambling intentions.

Previous research has reported that promotions may reduce feelings of perceived risk that is usually associated with gambling Thomas et al. Because a request is initiated by the individual, it has been argued that this may result in the internalization of the locus of control Lopez-Gonzalez et al. Boosted and enhanced odds were another popular form of inducement that attracted low-risk gamblers, moderate-risk gamblers, and problem gamblers to place a bet.

Previous research has reported that on Twitter, enhanced odds were among the most frequently tweeted forms of promotion Killick and Griffiths Advertisers generate audience engagement by using technologies to reach customers with highly relevant advertisements based on what they do, while placing advertisements adjacent to contents expected to be visited by target consumers Wang These findings also support the recent evidence that has reported that bonuses, including price-related gambling promotions, have been found to be particularly persuasive for encouraging gambling behavior for those experiencing gambling-related problems Lopez-Gonzalez et al.

That is, individuals are affected by relative changes from reference price. Additionally, consumers are likely to make impulse purchases based on price or special promotional offers Park et al. Therefore, these promotions may be initiating online impulse gambling behavior. The uptake of wagering inducements has been previously found to predict impulse betting among problem gamblers and frequent sports viewers Hing et al.

The present exploratory study found these promotions appeared to change betting behavior, but further research is required to examine how such promotions change betting behavior. The popularity of social media combined with the nature of personalized targeted advertising meant that it was often difficult for participants to avoid them.

It has also been argued that the promotion of gambling has become a social norm Parke et al. Consequently, gambling is portrayed as a normal, enjoyable form of entertainment that is fun and exciting. While there is nothing inherently wrong with these associations, such marketing practices appear to lead to the expectation that the opportunity to gamble should naturally accompany all sporting activities. It is possible that this perception of betting being a normal and arguably inextricable part of sport may influence the uptake of betting Djohari et al.

When comparing the study findings across all PGSI groups, all sports bettors were in agreement that there was an over-saturation of sports betting advertising, and this exposure was heavily intertwined with their sports watching. Therefore, regulation is required to restrict the marketing of these particularly persuasive types of promotions.

Sports bettors in the present study were critical of gambling-related risk information that was presented alongside sports betting adverts. It has previously been suggested that responsible gambling messages are likely to be ignored when shown alongside mostly positive portrayals of gambling elsewhere in the advert Parke et al.

Therefore, Parke et al. Newall et al. However, further empirical research is required in order to examine the impact of responsible gambling campaigns on different media sources, for example, television advertisements. The present study has a number of limitations. In , the UK gambling industry volunteered to remove advertisements during live sports broadcasts, excluding horse racing.

Therefore, the participants may have had a greater level of exposure to advertising and marketing than if the study was replicated now. Consequently, their views, particularly towards the frequency of television advertising, may not be applicable to those who view sports betting now.

The use of convenience and snowball sampling techniques in this study resulted in a high proportion of young male sports bettors. For this reason, participants may have had varied levels of engagement with sports betting and although they were assumed to qualify and meet the aims of the study, they were not representative of all online sports bettors or the wider betting population.

Previous research has found gambling advertising to have more of an impact on gambling involvement for problem gamblers when compared with non-problem gamblers e. The sample of adult sports bettors used in this study consisted of only one problem gambler. It has previously been suggested that it is important to differentiate and understand the impact of numerous forms of advertising on different population subgroups so that educators, researchers, regulators, and legislators can respond accordingly Binde Future research could address this by exploring how responses to gambling advertisements vary between problem gamblers and non-problem gamblers.

The present study examined the perceived impact of sports betting marketing among a sample of UK sports bettors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to qualitatively examine the perceived impact of gambling marketing among UK sports bettors. The results demonstrated evidence of two distinct types of wagering inducements that were particularly influential on sports betting behavior i. These inducements were found to have distinct attributes that were attractive to the sports bettor including increased feelings of control and reduced feelings of risk that may encourage in-play sports betting.

These advertised products were found to be unavoidable, being frequently offered through the websites of online operators, television advertisements, and social media sites. Binde, P. Exploring the impact of gambling advertising: An interview study of problem gamblers. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7 4 , — Braun, V.

Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 2 , 77— Brinson, N. Reactance to personalization: Understanding the drivers behind the growth. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 18 2 , — Columb, D. Gambling advertising during live televised male sporting events in Ireland: A descriptive study. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine. Advance online publication. Deans, E. The influence of marketing on the sports betting attitudes and consumption behaviours of young men: Implications for harm reduction and prevention strategies.

Harm Reduction Journal, 14 , 5. Djohari, N. Recall and awareness of gambling advertising and sponsorship in sport in the UK: A study of young people and adults. Harm Reduction Journal, 16, Duncan, P. Ferris, J. The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report.

Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Gainsbury, S. Gaming-gambling convergence: research, regulation, and reactions. Gaming Law Review, 23 2 , 80— Exposure to and engagement with gambling marketing in social media: Reported impacts on moderate-risk and problem gamblers.

Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30 2 , — Griffiths, M. Does advertising of gambling increase gambling addiction? International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 3 2 , 15— Google Scholar. Hanss, D. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29 2 , — Hing, N.

Gambling sponsorship of sport: An exploratory study of links with gambling attitudes and intentions. International Gambling Studies, 13 3 , —

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